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Zaben kai tsaye

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Zaben kai tsaye
electoral system (en) Fassara
Bayanai
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Zaɓen kai tsaye ko kuma zaɓe na matsayi,[1] wani zaɓe ne da masu jefa ƙuri’a ba sa zaɓe kai tsaye tsakanin ‘yan takara ko jam’iyyu don yin wani mukami (tsarin jefa ƙuri’a kai tsaye), amma zaɓen mutanen da su ke zabar ‘yan takara ko jam’iyyu. Yana daya daga cikin tsofaffin nau'ikan zabuka kuma kasashe da yawa suna amfani da shi don shugabannin kasashe (kamar shugabannin kasa), majalisar ministoci, shugabannin gwamnati (kamar firaminista), da/ko manyan majalisu. Ana kuma amfani da ita ga wasu majalisun dokoki na kasa da kasa.

Mukamai da aka zaɓe a kaikaice wata hukuma ta dindindin (kamar majalisar dokoki) ko kuma wata hukuma ta musamman da aka taru don haka kawai (kamar kwalejin zaɓe).

A kusan dukkan lokuta ana zabar hukumar da ke kula da bangaren zartarwa (kamar majalisar ministoci) a fakaice. Wannan ya hada da majalisar ministocin mafi yawan tsarin majalisar; jama'a ne ke zabar 'yan majalisa, sannan su zabi majalisar ministoci. Majalisun na sama, musamman a jamhuriyar tarayya, ana zabar su ne a fakaice, ko dai ta majalisar wakilai ko majalisar ministoci. Hakazalika, za a iya zabar majalisun dokoki na kasa da kasa a kaikaice ta hanyar majalisun dokoki na kasashe ko gwamnatocin zartarwa. Kolejin zabe ko shugaban kasa ne ke tafiyar da mulkin dimokuradiyya a kaikaice.

Zaɓuɓɓuka na iya zama a kaikaice, alal misali a cikin yanayin jefa kuri'a guda ɗaya da za a iya canja wurin kai tsaye, inda kawai 'yan takarar da aka kawar suka zaɓi wasu' yan takara don canja wurin rabon kuri'un su.

Shugabannin jihohi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Shugaban kasa shi ne shugaba kuma wakilin kasa a hukumance.[2] Matsayin shugaban kasa na iya bambanta daga shugaban biki mai iyakacin iko zuwa jagora mai iko dangane da tsarin gwamnati da gadon tarihi na kasar.[3] Misali, a wasu lokutan shugabannin kasashe suna gadon mukamin ta hanyar sarauta yayin da wasu kuma a fakaice ake zabar su kamar shugabanni. An haɗa misalai da yawa a ƙasa.[4]

Amurka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana zabar Shugaban Amurka ta hanyar kai tsaye. cikin zaben shugaban kasa na Amurka, 'yan majalisa masu cancanta ga masu jefa kuri'a na Kwalejin Zabe, wadanda a baya suka yi alkawarin a fili don tallafawa wani dan takarar shugaban kasa. Lokacin da Kwalejin Zabe ta zauna, ba da daɗewa ba bayan zaben, ta zaɓi dan takarar da ya lashe mafi yawan mambobin Kwalejin Zele.[5] majalisar tarayya, gami da mataimakin shugaban kasa, a aikace shugaban kasa ne ke zabar su, kuma saboda haka ana zabar su kai tsaye. Kwalejin Zabe lamari mai rikitarwa a siyasar Amurka, musamman bayan zaben shugaban kasa lokacin da aka rarraba kuri'a a cikin ƙasa ta hanyar da kwalejin zaɓe dan takarar da bai lashe mafi rinjaye na kuri'un da aka zaba ba.[6] National Popular Vote Interstate CompactbYarjejeniyar Zabe ta Kasa, idan aka kafa ta, za ta maye gurbin zaben kai tsaye ta hanyar Kwalejin Zabe tare da zaben kai tsaye na asali.[7]

China[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tsarin Mulki na Jamhuriyar Jama'ar Sin ya ƙayyade tsarin dimokuradiyya kai tsaye.[8] Majalisar Jama'a ta Kasa ta zabi shugaban kasa, wanda aka fi sani da shugaban jihar, wanda ke aiki a matsayin shugaban kasa.[9] Ikon shugabancin yafi yawan bikin, yawancin iko ya samo asali ne daga matsayin shugaban a matsayin shugaban Jam'iyyar Kwaminis da shugaban sojoji.[10]

Tarayyar Turai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Majalisar Tarayyar Turai ce ke zabar shugaban Hukumar Tarayyar Tarayyaryar Turai kuma Majalisar Tarayyaa da aka zaba kai tsaye ta tabbatar ko ta musanta shi (duba Zaben Majalisar Tarayyarsa).[11]

Tsarin majalisa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Jamhuriyoyin da ke da tsarin majalisa yawanci suna zabar shugaban su ta hanyar kai tsaye (misali Jamus, Italiya, Estonia, Latvia, Malta, Hungary, Indiya, Isra'ila, Bangladesh).[12] Jamhuriyoyin majalisa yawa, kamar Ireland, Austria, Croatia, Bulgaria da Jamhuriyar Czech, suna aiki ta amfani da tsarin shugaban kasa tare da shugaban da aka zaba kai tsaye wanda ya bambanta da Firayim Minista.[13]

Shugabannin gwamnati[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Shugaban gwamnati yana kula da harkokin yau da kullun na gwamnati da kuma kula da cibiyoyin gwamnati ta tsakiya. A cikin tsarin shugaban kasa shugaban kasa shine shugaban gwamnati da shugaban kasa.[14] cikin tsarin majalisa shugaban gwamnati yawanci shine shugaban jam'iyyar da ke da mafi yawan kujeru a majalisar dokoki. Misalai da yawa na shugabannin gwamnati da aka zaba ta hanyar zaɓen kai tsaye an taƙaita su a ƙasa.

Firayim Minista[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mafi girma a cikin mulkin demokraɗiyya na majalisa shine Firayim Minista.[15]

A karkashin Tsarin Westminster, wanda aka sanya masa suna kuma majalisar dokokin Burtaniya ta nuna shi, Firayim Minista (ko Minista na farko, Firayim Firayim Ministan, ko Babban Minista) shine mutumin da zai iya yin umurni da mafi girman hadin gwiwar magoya baya a majalisa. A kusan dukkanin lokuta, Firayim Minista shine shugaban jam'iyyar siyasa (ko hadin gwiwa) wanda ke da rinjaye a majalisa, ko kuma majalisar dattijai (kamar House of Commons), ko kuma a halin da ake ciki cewa babu wata jam'iyya da ke da rinjayi to babbar jam'iyya ko hadin gwiwar kananan jam'iyyun na iya ƙoƙarin kafa gwamnatin 'yan tsiraru. Ana zabar Firayim Minista hanyar kai tsaye yayin da jam'iyyun siyasa ke zabar shugabansu ta hanyar tsarin dimokuradiyya na ciki, yayin da jama'a ke zaɓar daga cikin 'yan takarar gida na jam'iyyu daban-daban ko masu zaman kansu.[16]

Ana gaba da amfani da samfurin Westminster a kasashe da yawa na Commonwealth ciki har da Australia, Kanada, New Zealand, Singapore da United Kingdom.[17] Bugu ƙari, kasashe da yawa da Daular Burtaniya ta mallaka sun gaji tsarin Westminster bayan 'yancin kansu.[18]

Spain, Majalisa ta Majalisar Dattijai ta al'ada kuri'a a kan amincewa da wanda aka zaba a kan Sarki (yawanci shugaban jam'iyyar da jam'iyyarsa ke kula da Majalisa) da kuma Bayanan siyasa na wanda aka zaba, misali na zaben kai tsaye na Firayim Minista na Spain.[19]

Shugaban Tarayya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Jamus, shugaban tarayya - matsayi mafi iko a matakin tarayya - ana zabarsa ta hanyar kai tsaye ta Bundestag, wanda kuma yawan jama'a ne ke zabarsa.[20] shugaban tarayya, shugaban kasa, yana gabatar da 'yan takara don ofishin shugaban kasa. Kodayake wannan taɓa faruwa ba, Bundestag na iya zaɓar wani mutum a cikin ka'idar, wanda shugaban ya yarda.[21]

Naɗa shi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wasu ƙasashe suna shugabannin gwamnati marasa jam'iyya waɗanda shugaban kasa ya nada, kamar Firayim Minista na Singapore.[22]

Gidaje na sama[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Masu jefa kuri'a na Jamus suna zabar mambobin Landtag waɗanda ke zabar gwamnatin jihar, wanda ke nada mambobi zuwa Bundesrat.

Kwamitin Kula da Yuan na kasar Sin, wanda a baya ya kasance majalisar dokoki, an zabe shi ta hanyar kai tsaye ta hanyar majalisun dokoki a duk faɗin ƙasar: biyar daga kowace lardin, biyu daga kowane karamar hukuma da ke gudanarwa kai tsaye, takwas daga Mongolia (a shekara ta 1948 lardunan Inner Mongolian ne kawai aka wakilta), takwas daga Tibet da takwas daga al'ummomin kasar Sin na kasashen waje. Kamar yadda aka yi la'akari da farko za a zabi Shugaban kasa da Mataimakin Shugaban Yuan daga mambobi kamar kakakin sauran hukumomin majalisa a duk duniya. Control Yuan ya zama ƙungiya ce kawai a Taiwan a 1993 bayan dimokuradiyya.

A Faransa, zaben majalisar dokoki, Sénat, ba kai tsaye ba ne. Masu jefa kuri'a (wanda ake kira "Grands électeurs") wakilai ne da aka zaba a cikin gida.

Rajya Sabha na Indiya (babban gidan majalisa) ana zabarsa ta kai tsaye, galibi ta majalisun jihohi; Manmohan Singh memba ne na Rajya Sabja amma jam'iyyar da ta fi rinjaye a Lok Sabha (ƙananan gidan majalisa), ta zaba shi a matsayin Firayim Minista a shekara ta 2004; saboda haka, Singh a matsayin Firaminista bai taba lashe zaben kai tsaye ko na jama'a ba, kuma an gabatar da shi a matsayin mai fasaha.

Majalisar Dattijai ta Amurka ta kasance ta hanyar kai tsaye ta hanyar majalisun jihohi har sai, bayan da aka yi ƙoƙari da yawa a cikin karni na baya, an tabbatar da Kwaskwarimar 17 ga Kundin Tsarin Mulki na Amurka a 1913.

A wasu lokuta, yawancin jami'ai, gami da yawancin mambobin majalisun dokoki - na kasa da na kasa - ana iya ɗaukar su a matsayin waɗanda aka zaba ta hanyar kai tsaye, saboda jam'iyyun siyasa ne suka riga suka zaba su. Irin wannan tsarin yana nunawa ta Amurka, a duka matakan tarayya da jihohi. Wannan shi ne Zaben fidda gwani kuma / ko caucuses suna da alhakin zabar 'yan takara, wanda taron jam'iyya ya tabbatar da zabar su.

Wasu misalai na zaɓaɓɓun majalisun dokoki na kasa da kasa sun haɗa da: majalisun majalisa na Majalisar Turai, OSCE, WEU da NATO - a duk waɗannan lokuta, masu jefa kuri'a suna zaɓar 'yan majalisa na ƙasa, waɗanda su ma zaɓa wasu membobinsu zuwa majalisa. Haka kuma ya shafi hukumomin da wakilan da gwamnatin kasa ta zaba suka kafa, misali Babban Taron Majalisar Dinkin Duniya - idan aka zaba gwamnatocin da ake magana a kai ta hanyar dimokuradiyya da farko.

Ana amfani da jefa ƙuri'a guda ɗaya na kai tsaye don zaɓar wasu 'yan majalisar dattawa a Pakistan.[23]

Dubi kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bayanan da aka ambata[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. https://arxiv.org/pdf/2110.02298.pdf
  2. https://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/head-of-state
  3. https://doi.org/10.1080/01402380903538856
  4. https://www.jstor.org/stable/27550663
  5. https://academic.oup.com/publius/article-abstract/46/2/147/2494081
  6. https://www.nytimes.com/article/the-electoral-college.html
  7. https://www.brennancenter.org/our-work/research-reports/national-popular-vote-explained
  8. http://www.npc.gov.cn/
  9. https://thediplomat.com/2017/07/a-path-to-true-indirect-democracy-in-china/
  10. https://www.npr.org/2023/03/10/1162128750/chinas-xi-jinping-5-more-years-as-president
  11. https://european-union.europa.eu/institutions-law-budget/leadership/elections-and-appointments_en
  12. https://digitalcommons.wcl.american.edu/auilr/vol8/iss2/19/
  13. https://www.annenbergclassroom.org/glossary_term/parliamentary-system/
  14. https://www.oxfordreference.com/display/10.1093/oi/authority.20111011220319709
  15. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1540-5907.2011.00524.x
  16. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14729342.2004.11421442
  17. https://www.parliament.act.gov.au/visit-and-learn/resources/factsheets/the-westminster-system
  18. https://academic.oup.com/edited-volume/41335/chapter/352410134
  19. https://doi.org/10.1080/01402389108424847
  20. https://european-union.europa.eu/principles-countries-history/country-profiles/germany_en
  21. https://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/englisch_gg/englisch_gg.html#p0295
  22. https://country.eiu.com/article.aspx?articleid=532048636&Country=Singapore&topic=Summary&subtopic=Political+structure
  23. Waqar, M. (2020). Gender Quotas and Political Dynasties: Explaining Women's Substantive Representation in Pakistan's National Assembly (Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University)