Zafin hayaƙi

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Thermal oxidizers iya amfani da regenerative tsari ga sharar gida zafi daga masana'antu tsarin.
Na'urorin sanyaya iska suna fitar da zafi daga cikin gida tare da sanyaya, kuma suna tura shi zuwa wurin zama a matsayin sharar gida. Suna fitar da ƙarin zafi a cikin amfani da wutar lantarki don kunna na'urorin da ke juyar da zafi zuwa kuma daga na'urar sanyaya

Zafin datti shi ne zafi da injin ke samarwa, ko kuma wani tsari da ke amfani da makamashi, a matsayin sakamakon yin aiki . Duk irin waɗannan hanyoyin suna ba da wasu zafi mai ɓatawa a matsayin sakamako na asali na dokokin thermodynamics . Zafin sharar gida yana da ƙarancin amfani (ko a cikin ƙamus na thermodynamics ƙaramin ƙarfin aiki ko mafi girma entropy ) fiye da tushen makamashi na asali. Kuka Abubuwan da ke haifar da zafi sun haɗa da kowane nau'i na ayyukan ɗan adam, tsarin halitta, da dukkan halittu, alal misali, fitilu masu haske suna yin zafi, firji yana dumama ɗakin ɗakin, ginin yana zafi a cikin sa'o'i mafi girma, kuma injin konewa na ciki yana haifar da zafi mai zafi. iskar gas, da kayan lantarki suna samun dumi lokacin da suke aiki.

Maimakon a "ɓata" ta hanyar saki cikin yanayi na yanayi, wani lokacin zazzage zafi (ko sanyi) na iya amfani da wani tsari (kamar yin amfani da injin sanyaya zafi don dumama abin hawa), ko wani yanki na zafi wanda in ba haka ba za a iya yin amfani da shi. Sannan kuma za a sake yin amfani da su a cikin tsari guda idan an ƙara zafi mai zafi a cikin tsarin (kamar yadda yake da iskar dawo da zafi a cikin ginin).

Ajiye makamashi na thermal, wanda ya haɗa da fasaha duka biyu don ɗan gajeren lokaci da kuma dogon lokaci na zafi ko sanyi, na iya haifar da ko inganta amfanin sharar gida (ko sanyi). Misali ɗaya shine ɓata zafi daga injin kwandishan da aka adana a cikin tanki mai ɗaukar nauyi don taimakawa cikin dumama lokacin dare. Wani kuma shine tanadin makamashi na yanayi na yanayi (STES) a wani katafaren gida a Sweden. Ana adana zafin a cikin gadon da ke kewaye da gungun masu musayar zafi sanye da rijiyoyin burtsatse, sannan kuma ana amfani da shi don dumama sararin samaniya a wata masana'anta da ke kusa da ita kamar yadda ake bukata, ko da bayan watanni. [1] Misali na yin amfani da STES don amfani da zafin sharar yanayi shine Drake Landing Solar Community a Alberta, Kanada, wanda, ta hanyar amfani da gungu na rijiyoyin burtsatse a cikin gado don ajiyar zafi na tsaka-tsakin yanayi, yana samun kashi 97 na zafi na tsawon shekara daga masu tara zafin rana a kan. rufin gareji. Wani aikace-aikacen STES yana adana sanyi na hunturu a ƙarƙashin ƙasa, don kwantar da iska na bazara.

A kan sikelin nazarin halittu, duk kwayoyin halitta sun ƙi zafin sharar gida a matsayin wani ɓangare na tafiyar matakai na rayuwa, kuma za su mutu idan yanayin yanayi ya yi yawa don ba da damar wannan.

Wasu suna tunanin zafi da sharar ɗan adam zai ba da gudummawa ga tasirin tsibiri na zafi na birane . Kuma Babban madogaran zafin sharar gida yana samo asali ne daga injina (kamar injinan lantarki ko tsarin masana'antu, kamar samar da ƙarfe ko gilashi) da asarar zafi ta hanyar ambulan gini. Konewar iskar gas na da matukar taimakawa wajen zubar da zafi.

Canza makamashi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Injin da ke juyar da makamashin da ke cikin mai zuwa aikin injina ko makamashin lantarki suna samar da zafi azaman samfuri.

Majiyoyi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A yawancin aikace-aikacen makamashi, ana buƙatar makamashi a cikin nau'i mai yawa. Waɗannan nau'ikan makamashi yawanci sun haɗa da wasu haɗe-haɗe na: dumama, samun iska, da kwandishan, makamashin inji da wutar lantarki . Sau da yawa, Kuma waɗannan ƙarin nau'ikan makamashi suna samar da injin zafi, yana gudana akan tushen zafi mai zafi. Injin zafi ba zai taɓa samun cikakkiyar inganci ba, bisa ga ka'ida ta biyu ta thermodynamics, don haka injin zafi koyaushe zai samar da rarar ƙarancin zafi. Ana kiran wannan daɗaɗɗen zafi ko "zafi na biyu", ko "ƙananan zafi". Wannan zafi yana da amfani ga yawancin aikace-aikacen dumama, duk da haka, wani lokacin ba shi da amfani don jigilar makamashin zafi a kan dogon nesa, sabanin wutar lantarki ko makamashin man fetur. Kuma Mafi girman kaso na jimlar zafin sharar daga tashoshin wuta da injunan abin hawa.[ana buƙatar hujja]Mafi girma tushe guda ɗaya lantarki da masana'antu irin su matatun mai da masana'antar sarrafa karafa .[ana buƙatar hujja]

Ƙarfin wutar lantarki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An ayyana ingancin wutar lantarki na tashoshin wutar lantarki a matsayin rabo tsakanin shigarwa da makamashin fitarwa. Yawanci kashi 33% ne kawai lokacin yin watsi da fa'idar fitowar zafi don gina zafi. Hotunan suna nuna hasumiya mai sanyaya waɗanda ke ba da damar tashoshin wutar lantarki don kula da ƙananan gefen bambancin zafin jiki mai mahimmanci don sauya bambance-bambancen zafi zuwa wasu nau'ikan makamashi. Sannan Kuma Zafin da aka zubar ko "Sharar gida" wanda aka rasa ga muhalli ana iya amfani da shi don cin gajiyar.

Tashar wutar lantarki ta kwal . Wadannan suna canza makamashin sinadarai zuwa 36% -48% wutar lantarki da sauran 52% -64% zuwa lalatar zafi.

Hanyoyin masana'antu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hanyoyin masana'antu, irin su tace mai, yin ƙarfe ko yin gilashi sune manyan tushen zafi na sharar gida.

Kayan lantarki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ko da yake ƙanƙanta ne ta fuskar wutar lantarki, zubar da zafin sharar gida daga microchips da sauran kayan lantarki, na wakiltar ƙalubalen injiniya. Kuma Wannan yana buƙatar amfani da magoya baya, heatsinks, da sauransu don zubar da zafi.

Misali, cibiyoyin bayanai suna amfani da kayan lantarki masu amfani da wutar lantarki don sarrafa kwamfuta, ajiya da kuma hanyar sadarwa. Faransanci CNRS yayi bayanin cibiyar data kasance kamar resistor kuma yawancin makamashin da yake cinyewa yana canzawa zuwa zafi kuma yana buƙatar tsarin sanyaya.

Halittu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dabbobi, ciki har da mutane, suna haifar da zafi a sakamakon metabolism . Kuma A cikin yanayi mai dumi, wannan zafi ya wuce matakin da ake buƙata don homeostasis a cikin dabbobi masu jinni, kuma ana zubar da shi ta hanyoyi daban-daban na thermoregulation kamar gumi da haƙori . Fiala et al. samfurin mutum thermoregulation.

Hasumiya mai sanyaya ruwa a tashar wutar lantarki ta Ratcliffe-on-Soar, United Kingdom .

zubarwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ƙananan zafin jiki yana ƙunshe da ƙananan ƙarfin yin aiki ( Exergy ), don haka zafi ya cancanta a matsayin sharar gida kuma an ƙi shi ga muhalli. Ta fuskar tattalin arziki mafi dacewa shine ƙin irin wannan zafi zuwa ruwa daga teku, tafkin ko kogi . Kuma Idan babu isasshen ruwa mai sanyaya, shuka za a iya sanye shi da hasumiya mai sanyaya ko na'urar sanyaya iska don ƙin sharar da zafi a cikin yanayi. A wasu lokuta yana yiwuwa a yi amfani da zafin sharar gida, misali a tsarin dumama gundumomi .

Amfani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Juyawa zuwa wutar lantarki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

</br>Akwai hanyoyi daban-daban don canja wurin makamashin zafi zuwa wutar lantarki, kuma fasahar yin hakan ta wanzu shekaru da yawa.

Hanyar da aka kafa ita ce ta hanyar amfani da na'urar thermoelectric, inda canjin zafin jiki a kan kayan aikin semiconductor ya haifar da ƙarfin lantarki ta hanyar abin da aka sani da tasirin Seebeck .

Hanyar da ke da alaƙa ita ce amfani da ƙwayoyin thermogalvanic, inda bambancin zafin jiki ya haifar da wutar lantarki a cikin kwayar halitta ta lantarki.

Halin yanayin Rankine na kwayoyin halitta, wanda kamfanoni irin su Ormat ke bayarwa, wata hanya ce da aka sani sosai, inda ake amfani da kwayoyin halitta a matsayin matsakaicin aiki maimakon ruwa. Sannna Kuma Amfanin shine cewa wannan tsari zai iya ƙin zafi a ƙananan zafin jiki don samar da wutar lantarki fiye da yanayin tururi na ruwa na yau da kullum. Misali na amfani da zagayowar Rankine na tururi shine Injin Watsa Labarai na Cyclone .

Haɗuwa da haɗin kai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sharar da zafin samfurin yana raguwa idan an yi amfani da tsarin haɗin gwiwa, wanda kuma aka sani da tsarin Haɗaɗɗen Heat da Wuta (CHP). Ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun amfani da zafi na samfur ya taso da farko daga ƙalubalen tsadar injiniya / ƙalubalen dacewa wajen yin amfani da ƙananan bambance-bambancen zafin jiki yadda ya kamata don samar da wasu nau'ikan makamashi. Kuma Aikace-aikacen da ke amfani da zafin sharar gida sun haɗa da dumama wurin wanka da injina na takarda . A wasu lokuta, ana iya samar da sanyaya ta hanyar amfani da firji masu sha, misali, a wannan yanayin ana kiransa trigeneration ko CCHP (haɗin sanyaya, zafi da ƙarfi).

dumama gunduma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Za a iya amfani da zafi mai sharar gida a dumama gundumomi . Dangane da yanayin zafi na sharar gida da tsarin dumama gundumomi, Kuma dole ne a yi amfani da famfo mai zafi, don isa ga isasshen yanayin zafi. Hanya mai sauƙi da arha don amfani da sharar gida mai zafi a cikin tsarin dumama yankin sanyi, saboda ana sarrafa waɗannan a yanayin yanayin yanayi don haka ko da ƙananan ƙarancin sharar gida za a iya amfani da su ba tare da buƙatar famfo mai zafi ba a gefen mai samarwa.

Pre-dumama[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Za a iya tilasta wa sharar zafi zafi don dumama ruwa mai shigowa da abubuwa kafin a yi zafi sosai. Kuma Misali ruwa mai fita zai iya ba da zafin sharar sa ga ruwan da ke shigowa a cikin na'urar musayar zafi kafin dumama a gidaje ko masana'antar wutar lantarki .

Zafin Anthropogenic[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Zafin Anthropogenic

Zafin Anthropogenic zafi ne da mutane da ayyukan ɗan adam ke samarwa. Kungiyar nazarin yanayi ta Amurka ta bayyana shi a matsayin “Zafin da ke fitowa a sararin samaniya sakamakon ayyukan dan Adam, wanda galibi ya shafi konewar mai. Tushen sun haɗa da tsire-tsire na masana'antu, dumama sararin samaniya da sanyaya, metabolism na ɗan adam, da sharar abin hawa. A cikin birane wannan tushen yawanci yana ba da gudummawar 15-50 W / m 2 zuwa ma'aunin zafi na gida, da ɗaruruwan W / m 2 a tsakiyar manyan biranen cikin yanayin sanyi da wuraren masana'antu."


Tasirin muhalli[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Zafin ɗan adam ƙaramin tasiri ne akan yanayin ƙauye, kuma ya zama mafi mahimmanci a cikin manyan birane . Yana daya mai ba da gudummawa ga tsibiran zafi na birni . Sannan Sauran illolin da ɗan adam ke haifarwa (kamar canje-canje ga albedo, ko hasarar sanyaya mai ƙafewa) waɗanda za su iya ba da gudummawa ga tsibiran zafi na birni ba a ɗauke su a matsayin zafi na ɗan adam ta wannan ma'anar.

Zafin ɗan adam ya kasance ƙarami mai ba da gudummawa ga ɗumamar duniya fiye da iskar gas . A cikin shekarata 2005, yawan zafin daɗaɗɗen sharar ɗabi'a a duniya ya ɗauki kashi 1 cikin ɗari ne kawai na yawan kuzarin da iskar gas ɗin ɗan adam ke haifarwa. Ba a rarraba yanayin zafi daidai gwargwado, tare da wasu yankuna sama da wasu, kuma yana da girma sosai a wasu yankunan birane. Misali, tilastawa duniya daga zafin sharar gida a shekarar 2005 ya kasance 0.028 W/m 2, amma ya kasance +0.39 da +0.68 W/m 2 ga nahiyar Amurka da yammacin Turai, bi da bi.

Ko da yake an nuna zafin sharar gida yana da tasiri a yanayin yanki, ba a ƙididdige yawan tilastawa yanayi daga zafin sharar gida ba a cikin na'urori na zamani na yanayi na duniya. Kuma Gwajin yanayin ma'auni na ma'auni yana nuna ƙwaƙƙwaran ƙididdiga dumamar yanayi (0.4-0.9) °C) wanda aka samar ta hanyar yanayin AHF 2100, amma ba ta halin yanzu ko 2040 kimantawa ba. Ƙididdiga masu sauƙi na duniya tare da nau'o'in girma daban-daban na zafi na ɗan adam waɗanda aka aiwatar kwanan nan suna nuna gudummawar da aka sani ga ɗumamar duniya, a cikin ƙarni masu zuwa. Misali, ƙimar girma na 2% pa na zafin sharar gida ya haifar da haɓaka digiri 3 a matsayin ƙaramin iyaka na shekara ta 2300. A halin yanzu, an tabbatar da wannan ta ƙarin ƙididdige ƙididdiga masu ladabi.

Ɗaya daga cikin bincike ya nuna cewa idan hayaƙi mai zafi na ɗan adam ya ci gaba da karuwa a halin yanzu, za su zama tushen dumamar yanayi kamar yadda GHG ke fitarwa a karni na 21st.

Duba wasu abubuwan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]