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Ahmad ibn Isa al-Shaybani

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Ahmad ibn Isa al-Shaybani
Rayuwa
Haihuwa 9 century
Mutuwa 898 (Gregorian)
Sana'a

Ahmad ibn Isa al-Shaybani ( Larabci: أحمد بن عيسى الشيباني‎ ) (ya mutu a shekara ta 898), ya kasance shugaban larabawa na kabilar Shayban. A cikin shekara ta 882/3 ya gaji mahaifinsa, mai suna Isa ibn al-Shaykh, a matsayin mai mulkin kusancin Diyar Bakr, kuma ba da daɗewa ba ya faɗaɗa ikonsa a wasu yankunan kudancin Armenia shi ma. Ya sami iko a kan Mosul a 891/2, amma fuskantar wani resurgent Abbasiyawa Khalifanci, ya aka hana birnin da kuma tilasta su a cikin wani wuri na vassalage da Halifa al-Mu'tamid. Jim kaɗan da mutuwarsa a shekara ta 898, Halifa ya hana ɗansa da magajinsa, Muhammad, yankuna na ƙarshe da suka rage a ƙarƙashin ikon dangin.

Rayuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ahmad dan Isa bin al-Shaykh al-Shaybani ne. A cikin shekarun 860s, ta hanyar amfani da hargitsin "Anarchy at Samarra", wanda ya gurguntar da Khalifanci na Abbasawa kuma ya karfafa rarrabuwar kai a lardunan, Isa ya dauki kansa a matsayin dan lokaci kadan ya zama shugaban wata kasar a zahiri ta makiyaya a Falasdinu. Daga ƙarshe an tilasta masa barin Falasɗinu ya zama gwamnan Armenia, amma ya kasa aiwatar da ikonsa a kan sarakunan yankin, sai ya bar lardin a shekara ta 878 ya koma garinsa na asali Jazira (Upper Mesopotamia). A can ya kafa kansa a matsayin mai mulkin Diyar Bakr, tare da Amid a matsayin babban birninta. [1] [2] [3]

A mutuwar Isa a shekara ta 882/3, Ahmad ya gaji mahaifinsa. Mutum ne mai son cika buri, ya yi amfani da matsayinsa a matsayin gwamna na Diyar Bakr mai cikakken 'yanci don faɗaɗa tasirinsa a duka sauran Jazira da arewa zuwa Armenia. [4] Duk da cewa sabanin mahaifinsa bai rike wani mukami a madadin Kalifanci a Armenia ba, a shekara ta 887 Khalifa al-Mu'tamid ya aike shi don ya ba da sarautar ga yariman Bagratid Ashot I, ta haka ya kafa daular Armeniya mai zaman kanta.

Taswirar Jazira (Upper Mesopotamia ) tare da lardunan ta a farkon zamanin da

A cikin Jazira, kamar mahaifinsa da ya gabace shi, sarkin Turkiya na Mosul, Ishaq bn Kundajiq, wanda Halifa ya amince da shi a matsayin gwamnan Jazira ya yi adawa da Ahmad. Bayan mutuwar Ibn Kundajiq ne a cikin shekara ta 891/2 sannan Ahmad ya sami damar faɗaɗa ikonsa, ya kame Mardin kuma daga ƙarshe Mosul da kansa, yana fitar da ɗan Ibn Kundajiq Muhammad.[2] [5] Nasarorin nasa ba su dade ba, domin a cikin shekarar 893, sabon kazamin khalifa al-Mu'tadid ya yi kamfen a Jazira kuma ya sanya Mosul karkashin shugabancin halifa kai tsaye, yana iyakance Shaybanids zuwa asalin lardinsu na Diyar Bakr.[4] Ganin farfadowar ikon Abbasiyawa karkashin al-Mu'tadid, Ahmad ya yi kokarin ganin ya sami yardar Halifa don tabbatar da matsayinsa. Don haka, bisa bukatar Halifa, ya aika da dukiyar Ibn Kundajiq zuwa Bagadaza kuma ya haɗa da kyaututtuka da yawa nasa, da kuma ɗan tawayen Khawarij da ya kama. Dan uwan Al-Mu'tadid kuma mai kula da hargitsi, Ibn al-Mu'tazz, ya yi murnar miƙa wuya ga Ahmad kuma ya yi iƙirarin cewa "yana tunanin ƙetarewa zuwa yankin Byzantine kuma ya zama Kirista", amma Marius Canard yana ganin na biyun ba mai shakku ba ne.

A cikin jagorancin Armenia, Ahmed ya fara faɗaɗa a cikin c. 890: ya tsare Abu'l-Maghra bn Musa bn Zurara, sarkin Arzen a kudancin Armenia, wanda yake da dangantaka da Bagratids kuma har ma ya zama Kirista a ɓoye da kansa, kuma ya haɗa yankinsa da nasa. [4] [6] Amfani da damar yaƙin tsakanin magajin Ashot I Smbat I da Sajid Muhammad al-Afshin, Ahmad ya ƙaddamar da mamayar masarautar Taron, inda ya kame Sasun . Bayan rasuwar yarima Dauda, Ahmad ya kirkiro kisan dan dan uwansa kuma magajinsa, Gurgen, kuma ya sami nasarar kwace dukkanin masarautar (shekarar 895 ko farkon shekara ta 896).

Taswirar masarautun Armeniya a ƙarshen ƙarni na 9th / farkon ƙarni na 10

Da yake sarakunan Taron membobin gidan Bagratid ne, wannan aikin ya sa Ahmad cikin rikici kai tsaye tare da Sarki Smbat I, wanda yanzu ya nemi sarkin Shaybanid ya bar Taron, don amintar da zaɓinsa a matsayin wakilin Kalifa a Armenia. [4] [6] Ahmad ya ƙi, kuma Smbat ya tara babbar runduna (wanda aka ba da rahoton 60,000 ko ma maza 100,000 bisa ga tushen zamanin da) don yin maci da shi. Yakin Smbat bai yi nasara ba, saboda yaudarar Gagik Apumrvan Artsruni, mai mulki na Vaspurakan: Sojojin Smbat sun dogara ga Gagik a matsayin jagoran su, kuma ya jagorance su da gangan akan hanyoyi masu wahala kan tsaunuka, don haka lokacin da suka isa Taron, Armeniyan sojoji sun gaji. Tare da Gagik da ke aiki don lalata ruhin, sojojin masarauta sun kusan hallaka a cikin yaƙin na gaba, kuma da ƙyar Sarki Smbat da kansa ya tsere. [7]

Ahmad ya mutu a shekarar 898, kuma dansa, Muhammad, wanda ya gaje shi ya yi mulki a takaice har zuwa, a shekara mai zuwa, al-Mu'tadid ya kawo karshen ikon Shaybanid kuma ya sanya Diyar Bakr karkashin shugabancinsa kai tsaye. [2] [4] A cikin Taron, wani dan uwan yariman da aka kashe Gurgen, Grigor ya karbe mulki . [8]

Legacy[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A matsayinsu na "masu mulki ta hanyar kwace mulki" ( ʿalā sabīl al-taghallub ), Ahmad da mahaifinsa suna yanke hukunci mai tsauri daga masana tarihi na musulmi na wannan zamani, amma a cewar M. Canard, "a cikin rikicewar lokacin da wadannan Larabawan Mesobotamiya suke rayuwa, ba su da kyau a ciki halayensu fiye da sauran sojoji na mulkin Abbasawa". [4] Kamar sauran Shayban, duk da haka, Isa da Ahmad suma an girmama su saboda ingancin waƙoƙin larabcin su. [9] Masanin tarihin al-Mas'udi shi ma ya rubuta cikakken tarihin rayuwar Ahmad a cikin Akhbar al-zaman, yanzu an rasa.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 

  1. Canard (1978), pp. 88–90
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Kennedy (2004), p. 182
  3. Ter-Ghevondyan (1976), pp. 25–26, 29, 56–57
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Canard (1978), p. 90
  5. Canard (1978), pp. 89–90
  6. 6.0 6.1 Ter-Ghevondyan (1976), p. 63
  7. Ter-Ghevondyan (1976), pp. 63–64
  8. Ter-Ghevondyan (1976), p. 66
  9. Bianquis (1997), pp. 391–392