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Aklilu Habte-Wold

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Aklilu Habte-Wold
Minister of Foreign Affairs of Ethiopia (en) Fassara


Prime Minister of Ethiopia (en) Fassara

Rayuwa
Haihuwa Addis Ababa, 12 ga Maris, 1912
ƙasa Habasha
Mutuwa Addis Ababa, 23 Nuwamba, 1974
Yanayin mutuwa kisan kai
Karatu
Makaranta University of Paris (en) Fassara
Sana'a
Sana'a ɗan siyasa
Kyaututtuka
Imani
Addini Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (en) Fassara
Jam'iyar siyasa no value

Tsehafi Taezaz Aklilu Habte-Wold ( Amharic: አክሊሉ ሀብተ ወልድ </link> ; 12 Maris 1912 - 23 Nuwamban shekarar 1974) ɗan siyasan Habasha ne a ƙarƙashin Emperor Haile Selassie . Ya kasance ministan harkokin wajen kasar Habasha daga shekarar 1947 zuwa 1958 da kuma firaministan kasar daga 1961 har zuwa mutuwarsa da kisan gilla a shekarar 1974

Aklilu Habte-Wold ɗa ne ga wani limamin Orthodox na ƙauyen Habasha daga gundumar Bulga ta lardin Shewa . Shi da ’yan uwansa, Makonnen Habte-Wold da Akalework Habte-Wold sun amfana daga hannun Sarkin sarakuna Haile Selassie, wanda ya ba su ilimi. Aklilu Habte-Wold ya halarci lycee na Faransa a Alexandria, sannan ya yi karatu a Faransa. [1]

Bayan ya koma Habasha, Aklilu ya zama mai kula da Tsehafi Taezaz mai iko ("Ministan Alƙalami") Wolde Giyorgis Wolde Yohannes, wani mutum mai tawali'u, wanda ya zama babban jigo a gwamnatin Habasha, kuma mai ba da shawara na kusa ga Sarkin sarakuna., tare da nadinsa a matsayin Tsehafi Taezaz . Wolde Giyorgis ya ba da shawarar ‘ya’yan Habte-Wold ga Sarkin sarakuna, wanda ya ba su matsayi ta yadda manyan biyu, Makonnen da Aklilu, suka zama masu tasiri musamman ga sarki. Asalinsu na ƙasƙanci, da kuma kasancewar iliminsu da ci gabansu kawai ga Sarkin sarakuna, ya Kuma ba wa Sarkin sarakuna Haile Selassie damar amincewa da su a fakaice kuma ya fifita su da sauran talakawa masu ƙasƙantar da kai a cikin nadin gwamnati da manyan mukamai a kashe manyan sarakuna. wanda amincinsa ga mutum, maimakon ga ma'aikata na Sarkin sarakuna ya yi zargin. Ƙaunar da sarki ya yi wa maza irin su Aklilu Habte-Wold akan manyan mutane ya haifar da ɓacin rai a tsakanin manyan sarakuna, waɗanda suka yi imanin cewa waɗannan sababbin "masu fasaha" na yammacin yamma suna korar su.

Lokacin da aka ci Habasha a Yaƙin Italo-Abyssiniya na Biyu, Aklilu Habte-Wold yana Faransa tare da ɗan uwansa Makonnen; Bayan sauya sheka daga shugaban kungiyar Habasha zuwa Faransa, Blatengeta Wolde Mariam Ayele, Aklilu ya zama mai kula da al'amuran . [2] Aklilu ya zauna a birnin Paris kuma ya auri wata ‘yar Faransa mai suna Colllette Valade. Da faduwar Paris a watan Yuni 1940, Aklilu ya yi nasarar tserewa a kan fasfo na jabu, kuma tare da taimakon Ministan Harkokin Waje na Portugal ya sami damar isa Alkahira . [3] Bayan maidowa a 1941, Aklilu ya zama wakilin taron zaman lafiya bayan ƙarshen yakin duniya na biyu, sannan ya zama ministan harkokin waje . A wannan lokacin, Aklilu ya taka muhimmiyar rawa a cikin sarkakiyar tsarin da ya kawo Eritriya cikin tarayya da Habasha.

Premiereship

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Bayan faduwar Tsehafi Taezaz Wolde Giyorgis a shekarar 1958, Sarkin sarakuna ya nada Aklilu ya maye gurbinsa a matsayin Tsehafi Taezaz . [4] A watan Afrilun 1961, watanni hudu bayan kashe firaministan da ya gabata Abebe Aragai a wani juyin mulki da bai yi nasara ba, Sarkin sarakuna ya kara wa Aklilu Habte-Wold karin girma zuwa wannan ofishin, yayin da ya rike ofishin Tsehafi Taezaz mai karfi a cikin kundinsa. Wadannan mukamai guda biyu sun ba Aklilu matakin amincewa da Sarkin sarakuna wanda ba wani daga cikin dangin Imperial ya raba.

Wannan alƙawarin, da haɓakar “technocrats” na gama-gari a cikin muƙamai da tasiri sun dagula abubuwan da suka fi dacewa a cikin Iyali na Imperial, aristocracy, da Cocin Habasha. Sansanoni biyu sun samo asali ne a kotu, tare da Firayim Minista Aklilu da 'yan uwansa "masu fasaha" a gefe guda, wadanda suka mamaye ma'aikatu daban-daban da majalisar ministocin sarki, a kan manyan sarakunan da Majalisar Sarakuna ta wakilta, kuma Ras Asrate Medhin ya jagoranta. Kasa . Ko da yake Sarkin sarakuna ya hana siyasar jam'iyya, amma sansanonin biyu masu hamayya da juna sun kasance kamar haka, kuma sun yi wa juna karfi sosai. An toshe batutuwa da dama kamar sake fasalin kasa da sauya kundin tsarin mulki saboda wannan hamayya. A daya bangaren kuma, Bahru Zewde na da ra'ayin cewa "Ba a iya gane tasirin Aklilu a siyasar Habasha ba, ba shi da karfin yin magudin siyasa da magabacinsa ya nuna a matsayin tsahafe t'ezaz, Walda-giyorgis, da kaninsa." Makonnen. Aklilu ya kasance babban ma'aikaci fiye da dillalan wutar lantarki." [5] Tsohon jami'in diflomasiyya Paul B. Henze ya goyi bayan wannan ra'ayi na cewa Aklilu ba ya sha'awar kawo gyara, amma ya maimaita ra'ayin abokin hamayyar Aklilu Ras Asrate cewa "Aklilu shine babban tasiri a kan Sarkin sarakuna." [6] A daya bangaren kuma, John Spencer, wanda ya san Aklilu da kansa, ya bayyana shi a matsayin "mai matukar fayyace kuma mai tunani mai ma'ana kuma babban dan adawa wajen ganawa da wakilan kasashen waje." [7] Spencer ya ci gaba da bayanin cewa, ikon Aklilu ya takaita ne saboda irin fifikon da sarki Haile Selassie ya nuna masa, wanda ya haifar da bacin rai da kebewa daga ’yan uwansa. "A cikin wannan keɓe ikonsa da girmansa sun ragu daidai da na Mai Martaba," in ji Spencer, yana ƙarasa da cewa tare da mutuwar ɗan'uwansa Makonnen a yunƙurin juyin mulkin Habasha na 1960, ya rasa wata muhimmiyar taga game da halayen tunani da ƙungiyoyin sirri na sa. takwarorinsu. [8]

1974 juyin juya hali

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A lokacin da dalibai suka yi zanga-zanga, tabarbarewar sojoji da tabarbarewar tattalin arziki sakamakon takunkumin hana man fetur da ya barke a shekarar 1973 zuwa wani boren al'umma na adawa da gwamnati, an yi ta kiraye-kirayen a yi watsi da Firayim Minista Aklilu. A ranar 23 ga Fabrairu, sai washegari, Sarkin sarakuna ya yi rangwame da dama ga ƙungiyoyin masu zanga-zangar. [9]

A halin da ake ciki, Aklilu ya yi takaici, ya gaji da rike mukami mai nauyi amma ba shi da iko. John Spencer ya ba da misali guda, 'yan watanni kafin wannan rikicin, na asarar iko da Aklilu ya yi:

A cikin harkokin waje inda, shekaru da yawa, ra'ayoyinsa ba su da wata takaddama, yanzu ya fuskanci Ministan Harkokin Waje Minassie Haile, wanda bai bayyana ra'ayinsa game da manufofin harkokin waje ba. Ga Minassie, ya isa ya je wurin Mai Martaba don samun izini mai jituwa na wani saɓanin aikin. Misali a cikin batu... shin ko Sarkin zai kai ziyarar gaggawa a Riyadh domin tattaunawa da Sarki Faisal. Cikin rashin nasiha, Aklilou ya yarda da wani shiri a gaban Mai Martaba. Aklilou ya rasa. Ba tare da wata mazaba ba, da sarki mai rugujewa kawai, Aklilou ya bayyana mani damuwarsa akan gaba. [10]

A lokacin boren jama'a, Aklilu Habte-Wold ya yanke shawarar yin murabus, shawarar da Laftanar Janar Abiye Abebe da Leul Ras Asrate Kassa suka yi. Duka sun soki shi da yin watsi da gwamnati ba tare da an fara kiyaye hukuma, doka da oda a cikin wannan hali ba. Duk da haka, Aklilu ya dage a kan shawararsa, duk da cewa ya ba da shawarar Laftanar Janar Abiye ya zama magajinsa; duk da haka lokacin da ya yi murabus Endelkachew Makonnen ne ya zama sabon Firayim Minista. Murabus da Aklilu ya yi, maimakon sanya masu zanga-zangar, wannan murabus din ya kara musu kwarin gwiwa ne kawai wajen kara bukatu. [9]

Majalisar Masarautar dai ta matsawa Sarkin Masarautar da ya nada wani mai martaba a kan wannan mukami, inda kuma da farko aka amince da Laftanar Janar Abiye Abebe a nada shi sabon Firayim Minista. Sai dai kuma a lokacin da aka gabatar da bukatar Janar Abiye na a ba shi alhaki ga majalisar da aka zaba maimakon Sarkin sarakuna, Majalisar ta yi fatali da Janar din ya nemi a yi watsi da shi. An nada Lij Endelkachew Makonnen, dan marigayi tsohon Firayim Minista. Sabon firaministan ya yi kokarin tinkarar bukatu da dama da masu goyon bayan kawo sauyi suka gabatar, kuma da alama Habasha tana gab da rikidewa kanta zuwa dimokuradiyya da tsarin mulkin tsarin mulkin zamani.[ana buƙatar hujja]</link>[ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (October 2007)">dai</span> ] kwamiti na kananan hafsoshi da ake kira Dergi, wanda aka bai wa ikon binciken cin hanci da rashawa a cikin sojoji, ya kama Tsehafi Taezaz Aklilu da yawancin mutanen da suka yi aiki a majalisar ministocinsa, da kuma sabon Firayim Minista. da majalisar ministocinsa. A ranar 12 ga Satumbar 1974 ne Dergi ya hambarar da Sarkin sarakuna Haile Selassie ya kuma karbi mulki a matsayin mulkin soja na Markisanci wanda zai mulki kasar na kusan shekaru ashirin.

A yammacin ranar 23 ga watan Nuwamba, an cire Tsehafi Taezaz Aklilu Habte-Wold, da dan uwansa Akalework Habte-Wold daga fadar Menelik, aka kai su gidan yari na Akaki, inda aka yanke musu hukuncin kisa tare da wasu tsoffin jami'an gwamnatin sarki 60 . Wannan matakin dai ya haifar da zanga-zanga a fadin duniya, ba wai daga kasashen Turai da Amurka kadai ba, har ma daga kasashen Afirka da dama da suka nuna damuwarsu kan halin da ake ciki na hambararren Sarkin. [11]

Bayanan kula

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  1. Bahru Zewde, Pioneers of Change in Ethiopia (Oxford: James Currey, 2002), p. 82
  2. Haile Selassie, My Life and Ethiopia's Progress, translated by Harold Marcus (Chicago: Frontline, 1999), vol. 2 p. 47
  3. John Spencer, Ethiopia at Bay: A personal account of the Haile Selassie years (Algonac: Reference Publications, 1984), p. 80
  4. Bahru Zewde, A History of Modern Ethiopia, second edition (London: James Currey, 2003), states that Wolde Giyorgis' fall was due to the efforts of Aklilu's older brother, Makonnen (p. 205).
  5. A History, second edition, p. 205
  6. Paul B. Henze, Layers of Time, A History of Ethiopia (New York: Palgrave, 2000), p. 176 n. 91
  7. Spencer, Ethiopia at bay, p. 115
  8. Spencer, Ethiopia at bay, p. 117
  9. 9.0 9.1 Marina and David Ottaway, Ethiopia: Empire in Revolution (New York: Africana, 1978), p. 30
  10. Spencer, Ethiopia at bay, p. 330
  11. Ottaway, Empire in Revolution, p. 61

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