Assizes of Ariano

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Wikidata.svgAssizes of Ariano
constitution (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Significant person (en) Fassara Roger II of Sicily (en) Fassara
Ƙasa Daular Sicily
Kwanan wata 1140
Wuri
 41°09′10″N 15°05′20″E / 41.1528°N 15.0889°E / 41.1528; 15.0889
Roger II, Sarkin Asiya na Ariano

Assizes na Ariano wasu jerin dokoki ne na Masarautar Sicily da aka ƙaddamar a lokacin rani na 1140 a Ariano, kusa da Benevento, na Roger II na Sicily. Bayan kwanciyar hankali a kwanan nan, a cikin tawaye, ya yanke shawarar yin ƙaura zuwa gwamnatin da ke tsakiyar. Assizes sun kafa babban ofisoshin Sicilian kuma sun nemi kiyaye tsarin mulkin a ƙarƙashin tsananin ikon sarauta. Ya ƙunshi maganganu arba'in waɗanda suka shafi dukkan batutuwan da suka shafi damuwar shari'a ta zamani: kadarorin masu zaman kansu, kadarorin jama'a, coci, dokar farar hula, kuɗin masarauta, da sojoji. Aikin ya ci gaba don zamaninsa, yana samun ƙa'idodinsa ba daga Norman da Faransanci kaɗai ba, har ma da Muslim da Byzantine (musamman Justinian ) ra'ayoyin shari'a.

Rabin farko na 1140 Roger ya kashe a Palermo yana shirya Assizes. Tabbas an shirya su sosai. Duk da rubuta dokar a babban birninshi, a watan yuli, ya yi tafiya a cikin jihar zuwa Salerno, babban birni na masarautar Apulia, daga nan kuma ya tafi Abruzzi, inda ya bincika cin nasarar ɗiyansa: Roger da Alfonso . Waɗannan mutanen, a yanzu duke na Apulia da basaraken Capua bi da bi, sun ƙarfafa mulkin Norman a kan teku kuma sun ba da damar manyan abubuwan da za a yi a wannan shekarar.

A Assizes tabbata cewa Sarkin ne kawai lawgiver a Sicily, cewa shi duka biyu hukunci da kuma firist, (kamar yadda ya riqe da legatine iko daga Paparoma ), da kuma duk Sicilians sun daidaita, kuma a karkashin wannan dokokin, ko Latin, Girkanci, Bayahude, ko Muslim, Norman, Lombard, ko Balarabe. Ya hukunta cin amanar ƙasa tare da kisa. Hakanan an yi cikakken bayani a cikin sauran laifukan tashin hankali: tsoro a yaƙi, ɗora wa jama'a gindi, ko riƙe tallafi daga sarki ko abokan sa. A cocin, mabiya addinin kirista da 'yan ridda sun rasa haƙƙinsu. An ba da izinin bishops daga halartar kotuna, kodayake an ba sarki izini a kan wannan, kamar kowane abu, kuma ba za a iya yin roƙo ba. A hankulan sojoji, an rufe aji na jarumi. Babu wanda zai iya zama jarumi idan ba shi da tsatson jirgin. A ƙarshe, ƙaddamarwar ba ta yi watsi da talakawa ba kuma ta buƙaci a bi da su da adalci kuma a ɗora musu nauyi ba tare da izini daga shugabanninsu ba.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Roger ta karshe yi a Ariano ya bayar da wani low quality-coinage misali ga dukan daula, da ducat, shan da sunan da daga duchy na Apulia. Kudin, galibi jan ƙarfe da wasu azurfa, ba zinare kamar yadda yake a bayarwa daga baya ba, ya girma cikin sauri.

Assizes sun wanzu a rubuce-rubuce guda biyu, sun ɗan bambanta da juna, kodayake menene rashi da ƙari. Waɗannan an samo su a cikin 1856 a cikin ɗakunan ajiya na Vatican da na Monte Cassino .

Assizes sune dokokin da Sarki Roger II na Sicily ya gabatar. Da zarar an ƙarfafa mulkinsa sai ya ba da jerin dokoki, kodayake ba a san inda ko lokacin da ya yi hakan ba. Ana tsammanin cewa an bayar da dokokin ne kusan 1140, domin sai bayan wannan kwanan wata ne za a iya samun jami'ai a duk masarautar; kafin lokacin kawai suna bayyana ne kwatsam.

A wannan lokacin, Ariano kawai taron bishop ne da mashahurai kuma ba 'babban taro' wanda duk 'yanci ke taka rawa ba. Mahimman batutuwa kamar sojoji, wajibai na fasiƙanci da sanin ƙasashe, kuma an ba da doka.

Assizes sun rayu a cikin rubutattun rubuce-rubucen dokoki biyu kawai. Cikakken rubutu shine wanda ke cikin Codice Vaticano Latino 8782, wanda za'a iya yin kwanan wata zuwa ƙarshen karni na goma sha biyu kuma wanda ya ƙunshi assize arba'in da huɗu, da kuma gabatarwa. Na biyu Codex 468 na laburaren Montecassino ya samo asali ne daga farkon rabin karni na sha uku. Yana watsa sigar taƙaitaccen sigar dokokin ne kawai, kodayake kuma ya ƙunshi wasu ƙari da wasu assize bakwai waɗanda ba su da rubutun Vatican. [1]

Assizes suna ba da misali na farko na dokokin yankuna bisa dogaro da dokar Roman (Justinaic), kamar yadda "sun rigaye, kuma sun fi mahimmanci a aikace fiye da, sake gano ilimin Rome na ilimi." Maimaitawar Roger ga misalin masarautun Rome yana nuni ne da irin burin da yake da shi. Assizes suna taɓa wasu ɓangarorin doka ne kawai: coci, na jama'a, aure da mai laifi. Tare da su dokar al'ada ta kasance tana aiki, sai dai idan ta saba wa ainihin abin da ke cikin Assizes. Dalilin haka shi ne "saboda ire-iren mutane daban-daban da ke karkashin mulkinmu." [2] Saboda haka, a bayyane yake dan majalisar na da masaniya game da mulki kan kasar da ke da kabilu da yawa; ya girmama halaye daban-daban na ƙungiyoyi daban-daban, kodayake kawai gwargwadon wannan bai yi karo da babban kulawarsa ba.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Majiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Assizes of Ariano in Latin pp 379-386
  2. Assizes of Ariano in Latin p 371