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Bhagat Singh

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Bhagat Singh
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Banga (en) Fassara, 27 Satumba 1907
ƙasa British Raj (en) Fassara
British India (en) Fassara
Harshen uwa Harshen Punjab
Mutuwa Lahore, 23 ga Maris, 1931
Yanayin mutuwa hukuncin kisa (rataya)
Karatu
Harsuna Turanci
Harshen Punjab
Sana'a
Sana'a rebel (en) Fassara, author (en) Fassara da freedom fighter (en) Fassara
Mamba Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (en) Fassara
Naujawan Bharat Sabha (en) Fassara
Fafutuka Indian independence movement (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini mulhidanci
shahidbhagatsingh.org

Bhagat Singh (28 Satumba 1907[1]– 23 Maris 1931) shine mahaifin farko na jama'ar jiharar Indiya da ke hana daukar hukunci. Ya samu kwarjiniyar yin kisan kai na 'yan sanda ta kasa da karanci a farkon disamba 1928 a wani bangarori na gareshi na Biritaniya a Lahore, Punjab, daga inda yake jihar Indiya na kasa, a matsayin bautarwa ga dakin lalata rayuwar 'yan takara. Ya kuma samu matsayin ya dauki hannun jami'ar tafkin jami'ar la'in na lejilishi kanawa a Delhi da yake jihar Indiya a watan Mayu 1929 da kwana a gida, wanda—da rai daya samun yabo daga abubuwan da aka zage a jaridar Indiya—yayi shi mahaifin jama'a a jihar Punjab, sannan bayan gudanar da shi a farko a wani cikakken 'yanci a arewacin Indiya bayan ya yi fuska a 23, da kuma gajeru ne a matsayin rai da jinjirori a tsakiyar yankin.[2]

Bayan da ya fara hana sabon noma, Bhagat Singh da mai sharhiyar shi Shivaram Rajguru, daga jama'a mai yawa da tsawa, Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA), suka gudanar da wani al'amarin na ta kasa da gareshi na Biritaniya, John Saunders, a Lahore, Punjab (yanzu a yau a Pakistan). Suna jajirce wa Scott ta samun wani hukumar lalata na lalata a gare sahabbur Rai, wanda ya amfani da shi da cikas ta fasa. Tun daga da yana haifar da makwafin saboda kasa a kan motor mai tsawo daga kananan jami'ar tafkin, ya kai wasu baki daya na lalata da su Rajguru, wanda ke da hankali. A zamaninsa da ya haife, yana kira da Rajguru a kananan hankali, da mahaifinsa mahaifin da aka zubawa ya daina saura kananan jami'ar tafkin da hukumar tafkin jami'ar tafkin, yayin da yake ganin kai kasa.[3]

Bayan da ya haife, Bhagat Singh da 'yan sanda sun amfana da sunan suna nuni da mutum a matsayin daukar doki ga lalata Rayuwa da suka gane tafarkin Rai, sai kuma su yi jagoranci na haifeshi da mambobin da suka yabo don gaba daya ta iya ta yi jana'izarwa, su kuma suna ciniki da abubuwan da za su gane da kai a ganewa ta jami'ar tafkin. Sakamakon hakan, ya yi ilimi ga yanayin gano da matakan lalata mai tsawo a kananan hankali na John Saunders. A matsayin al'amarin, Bhagat Singh ya sami yabo daga jama'a bayan ya kira shahararran rayuwar Jatin Das a fada da gudun kasa mai tsawo ga jami'ar tafkin.[4]

A wannan lokacin, Bhagat Singh ya sami hukumar da ya kasa na yin abubuwan da suka bayyana cewa ya tsinke hana John Saunders da Channan Singh, sannan ya haife a watan Maris 1931, a farko a yawan shekara goma sha uku. Ya zama mahaifin da aka kuma tserewa bayan a yanzu. Jawaharlal Nehru ya rubuta game da shi: "Bhagat Singh ba ya samu yabo kuma da sabon noma don harsashi da kuma abin da ya kasance da kayayyakin Lala Lajpat Rai, da kuma baya harsashi. Ya kasance wani al'ada; abin ya sha, al'ada tazo, sannan da ma baki daya mai yawa da gari da kasa na Punjab, da kuma yawan harsashi a hagu ta arewacin Indiya."[5]

Bhagat Singh da halitta da na son tsirarar duniya da nasara a farko, ya samu yabo daga wasu wanda ke cikin addini, daga na kowa zuwa kowanne a matsayin 'yan kasa da taurin sauran gari a Indiya. Kasancewar sa na shaheed-e-azam ("Mahaifin da ke cikin harshe" a Harshen Urdu da Punjabi) ya fito daga kwarjin halin rayuwar, hana kasa mai daukar hukunci, da kuma kwararren tsohon kasar da ke hana baiwa da gudun kasa.

Rayuwar Farko

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Bhagat Singh ya yi kira a tsakiyar Punjabi Sikh a ranar 27 ga watan September 1907 a birnin Banga a jihar Punjab, inda aka rika jihar ta Rausa ta Kudu a nahiyar Lyallpur na Punjab a cikin lokaci na kasar Birtaniya kuma yanzu haka a Najeriya; shi ne da ya baiwa wata sarki guda biyu—mata uku da mazaje uku—an gwiwar Vidyavati da bawan jininsa Kishan Singh Sandhu.Abin da ya sa Bhagat Singh ya yi aiki da kowa kuma ya yi tallafin wajen siyasa, wanda ya samu a cikin kwararren jihar a kan Biliyan Canale a shekarar 1907, kuma bayan haka a kan Tsaro na Ghadar na 1914–1915.[6]

Ranar da ya zo da yarinyar Sardaunan (mahaifin) Punjab (kamfanin dama), ta gabatar da 'yan shekara a kofar gidan biyu a Punjab (1930) Bayan an dawo shi cikin makarantar makaranta a Banga domin minti biyu, Bhagat Singh ya kai daurewar Makarantar Dayanand Anglo-Vedic a Lahore. A shekara ta 1923, ya shiga Makarantar Jami'in Tsaro a Lahore, wanda aka gabatar da biyu baya kadan a shekarun baya da Lala Lajpat Rai a sake gabatarwa ga harkokin kare hakkin rayuwar Indiya, wanda ya yi gaskiya game da ci gaban koyarwa da makarantar da aka samu a baiwa ta Harshen Turai ta Indiya.[7]

Ranar da ya amsa mataki a fadar gefenta Kungiyar ke cikin wasu waɗannan 'yan wasan, kuma a ranar 29 ga watan Mayu, 1927, An gabatar da Bhagat Singh cikin wani kama da aka yi a Lahaur da suka jera shi da yin irin ta adalci da aka yi a Lahaur a watan Oktoba na 1926. Ya sake yin gudun mahaifiyar Rs. 60,000 guda biyar bayan ya jera shi.Ya rubuta, da kuma yin tsara, abubuwa a Jarida na Urdu da Punjabi, an gabatar da a Amritsar kuma ya samu damar zuwa da amfani dashi daga kuma zuwa maras lafiyar gargajiya da ake samu daga Naujawan Bharat Sabha wanda ke canza Algaan Britaniya. Shi kuma ya rubuta ga Kirti, jaridun Kirti Kisan Party ("Arewacin Kungiyar Mazan da Fata"). Ya kuma rubuta wa Jaridar Da Musulinci Veer Arjun, wanda ya gabatar a Delhi. Shugaban ya yi amfani da sunadaran tare da kamaru kamaru, cikin su suna Balwant, Ranjit da Vidhrohi.

Ayyukan juyin juya hali

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Here is the summary translated into Hausa:

Ƙarancin John Saunders A shekarar 1928, gidauniyar Birtaniya ta zama Bayanin Simon don sanar da hali na siyasa a Indiya. Wasu jama'a na siyasa a Indiya sun halaka gidauniyar domin bai samu wani Indiyan a cikin jama'ar, da kuma akwai wahalhalin daga dukkan wuraren kasar. Lokacin da gidauniyar ta ziyarci Lahore a 30 ga watan Oktoba 1928, Lala Lajpat Rai ya yi haɗin ganin ziyarar don nuna fasaha akan ita. Matsalolin tsaro da ke tsakanin baya suka kai wasu matsayin yiwa. Maikarar manema jami'in, James A. Scott, ya amfana mataki don amsa matsayin ganin Rai, wanda ya kasance aikin da aka samu taimako. Rai ya mutu daga tsakar zuci a 17 ga watan Nuwamba 1928. Dokarai suna bayyana cewa rashin lafiyarsa zai iya tabbatar da cewa wani damuwa ya sami. Lokacin da wani ya sa a Parliament na Birtaniya, Gidauniyar Birtaniya ta ce ba ta da wata aikin a matsayin damuwa da rashin lafiya ta Rai.

Singh yana da kyakyawar jama'a a cikin Jami'ar Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) kuma yana da shirin hana suna da ita a cikin Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) a 1928.HSRA ta nuna nufin yanke matsalolin Rai.Singh ya samar da yanayin da zai dace a halicciya kamar su Shivaram Rajguru, Sukhdev Thapar, da Chandrashekhar Azad don zubar da Scott. Duk da haka, a matsayin gaskiya, mutanen daya daga cikin mutane sun kama John P. Saunders, wanda shi ne Gwamnatin na Karamar Hukumar, bayan da ya koma Wuraren Karamar Hukumar a Lahore a 17 ga watan Disamba 1928.[8]

HSRA ya bayyana bayan tarihin an sauƙa wa Saundars, da aka rika sunan Balraj, sunan Chandrashekhar Azad. An sami ra'ayin da aka yi matakan kasar da ba a samar da halin da ya kawo bayyani ba. Naujawan Bharat Sabha, wanda ya tattauna ziyara na Lahore tare da HSRA, ya gano cewa matasa sun kasa samun wani maganar da aka tsallaka. Jami'ar siyasa, masu zanga-zangarwa, da manema, kamar yadda Rai ya dauki tsakiya a 1925, suka rubuta cewa bai jin halin rashin jinna da gagarumar aikin ba ne. Murza Magandhi, mai taron kungiyar Congress, ya nuna cewa: Bhagat Singh bai da matsala ba saboda yin aikin harabai amma saboda yadda ya dubi jikansa, mai tsawo da gaskiya da juna. Ya janyo al'umma, wani al'umma mai tsawo, da haka yafi girma rashin jinna Lala Lajpat Rai, da kuma ita ta rayuwa. Ya janyo alamar, wata rana kuma dukkan biranen da ke daga cikin Kudu da Daura na Punjab, kamar yadda ba a cikin hanyar waje ba a Arewa Kasar Indiya, suna sake jin komai daga sunansa. An kasance sunan da kuma shine kwararrun da mutum ya sami mai jin kai da shi ne wanda ya samu shine wani abu mai ƙaunar aminci.[31]

Ƙarancin Channan Singh Bayan da suka dauki Saundars, gurbin saura da suka ƙoƙarin haka, Channan Singh, mai kula daikar da ya kira su, ya mutu a lokacin Chandrashekhar Azad. Bayan da suka koma a ɗakunan al'umma, suka koma da daga cikin motocin waya zuwa birniya mai hakuri. Ƙungiyar kula da matsaloli ta haukatar daukan su, ya kama duk wadannan baya ga su, jami'in takardun tattalin arzikin (CID) zai zama ne a duk inda mutane suka fito daga Lahore. A ɗan lokacin daga cikin wadanda suka kama ga rana biyar suna soke. A 19 ga watan Disamba 1928, Sukhdev ya dubi Durgawati Devi, da yake bayyana kamar Durga Bhabhi, matar wani ma'aikacin HSRA, Bhagwati Charan Vohra, don taimaka, wanda ya amince da hakan. Sunyi ƙoƙarin dakile ɗakunan da ke daga Lahore zuwa Bathinda tare da hankali a rana na gobe.

Hawashin daga Lahore Bhagat Singh da Rajguru, kuma da suka ɓoye bindiga, suka bar su a rana na gobe.[33] Kowane ne mai daga cikin wani tsarin (Bhagat Singh ya ba da maganin tuyar da shi yake kiyasta ne a kuma cutar baki a cikin takardun da suka dawo daga Lahore). A cikin ɗan karamin lokaci, Rajguru ya baro da baya ga Banaris yayin da Singh, Devi da zube daga Howrah, da dukkan su kuma Singh ya dawo daga Lahore biyar rana bayan nan.[9]

Bambantarwa da Kasar Delhi da kamfani Wani lokaci, Bhagat Singh ya fi bayyana uwar gajerun da ya ke da taurari a cikin kasashen da suka fada yake don zama wata mai ɗan'antarwa a yin haihuwar Birtaniya, a guje, m magoya ba da daga farko don ka soke da hikima wanda suka zama matakin, wata masana'antar da yake da magoya yawa da wanda aka gano a Paris, Design na Singh ya shiga don sata wa m a shirin Assembly ta cikin gida mai taro gaban mai aikin, da a cikin a daga hoto, kuma daga laka suna zira shara gobe, a cikin hoto na aikin da za su tasheshi don samar da hikima wanda suka amince da ci gaba wanda suka ke yaki.[10]

Jami'ar jama'a na HSRA don bai bawa jari na bai laluba a kuma ba wanda zai sa wani an tara ga su don suka ke cika da shi a rikicin hikima kamar yadda suke so, a cikin a na laluba kuma a cikin ake kuma a daga don kuɗi na sake yaki masu hikima. Maha Gandhi ya sani cewa sai yawa aikin da hikima wanda a jiye daga tufafi irin mako da ke wankan sa yake ci gaba da mazaunin hukunci.Singh da Dutt sun fada mafarki da hakikanin matsala kan iya gaba da laifin kwamitin da ya faru a farkon biyar na Mayuwa na Mayu. daga karvar da ya dace ya yi don Asafa Ali, tun lokacin da Singh ya yi mai bangarori.Sharudda na da sauya ya kara bayyana cewa zai rike matukar na mai wakiltu. Ga wani muhalli na farko na June, har haka su kamar shida a kuma bakin kawo shaida, sannan kuma alamu mai amfani a nan. Har yanzu, daganan, hukumar ta iya ziyarci a jihar Punjab, wani hukumomin na tare da sana'a, wanda ya sa labarai na sanar da irin sauren zamantakewa don zuwa wasu yankunan da za su rike mutane.[11]

Bayan ƙarƙashin da ya yi a 1929, zuwa farko, Bzbs ne aiki da Wurin Bzbs da ya sake biyo bayan sa. A watan Disambar 1929, gareta na haihuwa da karɓar da ke nahiyar dake cikin kasashen Birtaniya sun kasance a jiya. 1930 da na bin tsohon lokacin da ya ke a dakin Gwamnati ya kuma yiwuwa kuma kuma. alkawarin Musa na haifar da mafi al ade w evensaboda yawan aminci da wani ɗabi'a don siyasar gwamnati, wanda ake bukata. Har ila yau, tsohuwar littafin tsohuwar kasa daga British a zuciyar cewa tsohon zaman lauyar launi sun zama wanda yake nuna hoto ga jam'iyyar. wadda ya ce sun ƙara wa waɗanda basu da damar siyasar gwamnati da mamba da wanda ya bada laifin tsohon zamani ba.

Shahararren

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Subhas Chandra Bose ya ce: "Bhagat Singh ya yi alƙawarin ƙasa mai tsawo mazaunin fasaha." Nehru ya ɗauki hankalin cewa rashin kyauta da Bhagat Singh ya yi ya dace da alƙawarinta ta hanyar cewa: "Shi ne mace mai kasa da ya jefa 'yancin sa a hanyar kwance-kwance ... shi ne kamar kuma wani zirga wanda ya kasance zata gudu a lokacin yawan al'umma daga kasa zuwa kasa ya kare ga iri daga cikin birnin da kuma yake lantarki duk wani zaman". Rabi'u biyar bayan da kashe-gidan Bhagat Singh, Mahaifar Nukiliyar Masu Amfani, Sir Horace Williamson, ya rubuta: "Hoton shi a gida da kuma birnin na biyu a kowace birnin da kowane lokaci ya tsinka kuma ya tabbata wani lokaci wanda ya iya da ƙwararrun kyauta a gaba da haka wanda shi ne ma'aikaciyar Bana Gandhi mai daidai".

Littattafai

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  • Singh, Bhagat (27 September 1931). Why I Am an Atheist (in Turanci). New Delhi: National Book Trust. ISBN 978-1-983124-92-1.
  • Singh, Bhagat (2007). Bhagat Singh : ideas on freedom, liberty and revolution : Jail notes of a revolutionary. Gurgaon: Hope India. ISBN 9788178710563. OCLC 506510146.
  • Singh, Bhagat; Press, General (31 December 2019). Jail Diary and Other Writings (in Turanci). GENERAL PRESS. ISBN 978-93-89716-06-1.[permanent dead link]
  • Singh, Bhagat (28 January 2010). Ideas of a Nation: Singh, Bhagat (in Turanci). Penguin Books Limited. ISBN 978-81-8475-191-8.
  • Singh, Bhagat; Press, General (2 October 2019). No Hanging, Please Shoot Us (in Turanci). GENERAL PRESS. ISBN 978-93-89440-70-6. Archived from the original on 18 May 2023. Retrieved 6 June 2024.
  • Singh, Bhagat (2020). The Complete Writings of Bhagat Singh : Why I am an Atheist, The Red Pamphlet, Introduction to Dreamland, Letter to Jaidev Gupta ... and other works. Chicago: DXBooks. ISBN 9782291088691. OCLC 1153081094.
  • Singh, Bhagat (2009). Selected works of Bhagat Singh. Big Red Oak. ISBN 978-1-4495-5861-1.
  • Singh, Bhagat (2007). Śahīda Bhagata Siṃha : dastāvejoṃ ke āine meṃ. Naī Dillī: Prakāśana Vibhāga, Sūcanā aura Prasāraṇa Mantrālaya, Bhārata Sarakāra. ISBN 9788123014845. OCLC 429632571.
  • Singh, Bhagat (15 August 2019). Letter to my Father (in Turanci). Sristhi Publishers & Distributors.
  • Singh, Bhagat (2008). Bhagatasiṃha ke rājanītika dastāveja (in Harshen Hindi). National Book Trust. ISBN 978-81-237-5109-2.
  • Singh, Bhagat (2010). Bhagat Singh ke siyāsī dastāvez (in Urdanci). National Book Trust, India.

Ayyukan da aka ambata da kuma bibliography

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[12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] }}

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje

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  15. "The Trial of Bhagat Singh", India Law Journal, 1 (3), July–September 2008, archived from the original on 1 October 2015, retrieved 11 October 2011
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