Harshen Punjab

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Harshen Punjab
Punjabi example.svg
language
native labelپنجابی, ਪੰਜਾਬੀ Gyara
ƙasaPakistan, Indiya Gyara
located in the administrative territorial entityPunjab, Haryana, Delhi Gyara
linguistic typologysubject–object–verb, fusional language Gyara
writing systemShahmukhī alphabet, Gurmukhi, Devanagari Gyara
Ethnologue language status2 Provincial Gyara
Wikimedia language codepa Gyara
Dewey Decimal Classification491.42 Gyara
category for films in this languageCategory:Punjabi-language films Gyara

Punjabi (IPAc-en|p|ʌ|n|ˈ|dʒ|ɑː|b|i;[1] Gurmukhi: a harshen |pa|ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ana fassarawa da |pa|pãjābī; Shahmukhi: Nastaliq|پنجابی da kuma |pa|ALA-LC|paṉjābī)[2] Harshen ne da ake Kira da Harshen Indo Aryan kuma yanada sama da mutane miliyan 100 yan'asalin masu amfani dashi a kasashen dake tsakanin Indiya da wadanda ke wasu kasashen duniya baki daya. Harshen asaline ga mutanen Punjabi dama wasu kananan kabilu da cikin yankin Punjab dake tsakanin Kasar Indiya, Wanda ya kai tun Daga arewa cin Indiya har zuwa Kasar Pakistan.

A shekara ta 2015, Punjabi shine na 10th acikin yaruka masu yawan yan'Asali a duk duniya. shine yaren da akafi amfani dashi a Pakistan, kuma na 11th a harshen da akafi amfani dashi a kasar Indiya, kuma na uku (3rd) da ake amfani dashi a yankin kasashen Indiya. A kasar kanada, itace yare na biyar da akafi amfani dashi bayan harshen turanci , da faransanci , da Mandarin da kuma Cantonese. Kuma akwai masu yaren da dama a Daular Larabawa, da Amurika, da United Kingdom, Austaraliya, New Zealand, Italiya, da kuma kasar Netherlands.

Punjabi ya banbanta da sauran harshen Indo-European a wurin amfani da ta yanayin da muryar ke bada ma'ana.[3][4][5] Ana rubuta harshen Punjab da kalmomi biyu na: Shahmukhi ko Gurmukhi. A Punjab, duk nau'in rubutun da ake amfani dasu ana kiransu da: musulman Punjabi su sukafi amfani da Shahmukhi, Gurmukhi wadanda sukafi amfani dashi sune yan'Punjabi masu addinin Sikh da kuma masu addinin Hindu.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh
  2. cite book |last1=Kachru |first1=Braj B. |last2=Kachru |first2=Yamuna |last3=Sridhar |first3=S. N. |title=Language in South Asia |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=O2n4sFGDEMYC&pg=PA128 |accessdate=24 October 2014 |date=27 March 2008 |publisher=Cambridge University Press |isbn=978-1-139-46550-2 |page=128 |quote=Sikhs often write Punjabi in Gurmukhi, Hindus in Devanagari, and Muslims in Perso-Arabic. |deadurl=no |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160610070631/https://books.google.com/books?id=O2n4sFGDEMYC&pg=PA128 |archivedate=10 June 2016 |df=dmy-all
  3. cite book|author-last = Bhatia|author-first = Tej| date = 1999| editor1-last = Lust| editor1-first = Barbara| editor2-last = Gair| editor2-first = James| title = Lexical Anaphors and Pronouns in Selected South Asian Languages| chapter = Lexican Anaphors and Pronouns in Punjabi| page = 637| publisher = Walter de Gruyter| isbn = 978-3-11-014388-1 Other tonal Indo-Aryan languages include Lahnda and Western Pahari.
  4. Phonemic Inventory of Punjabi {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150716184244/http://www.crulp.org/Publication/Crulp_report/CR02_21E.pdf |date=16 July 2015 failed verification|date = November 2016
  5. Geeti Sen. Crossing Boundaries. Orient Blackswan, 1997. ISBN|978-81-250-1341-9. Page 132. Quote: "Possibly, Punjabi is the only major South Asian language that has this kind of tonal character. There does seem to have been some speculation among scholars about the possible origin of Punjabi's tone-language character but without any final and convincing answer..."