Daidaiton Albashi Don Aikin Dai-Dai

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Daidaiton Albashi

Daidaiton albashi don aikin daidai shine batun haƙƙin ma'aikata wanda za'a baiwa mutane a wurin aiki guda albashi ɗaya. An fi amfani da shi a cikin yanayin nuna wariyar jinsi, dangane da bambancin biyan jinsi . Daidaita albashi ya shafi cikakken adadin biyan da fa'idodi, gami da biyan kuɗi na yau da kullun, biyan bashin albashi, kari da alawus. Wasu ƙasashe sun yi ƙaura fiye da na wasu don magance daidaiton albashi.

Tarihin farko[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yayinda aikin kwadago ya zama ya zama gama-gari a lokacin juyin juya halin Masana'antu, galibi ana biyan mata kasa da takwarorinsu na maza don wannan aiki, ko don wani dalili bayyananne cewa su mata ne ko kuma a karkashin wani dalili. Ka'idar daidaiton albashi don aiki iri daya ya taso ne a sames bangaren farko na mata, tare da kokarin farko na samun albashi daidai yana da nasaba da gwagwarmayar kungiyar kwadago a karni na goma sha tara a kasashe masu ci gaban masana'antu: misali, jerin yajin aiki da mata masu hadin kai a cikin Birtaniya a cikin 1830s. Matsin lamba daga Kungiyoyin Kwadago na da tasiri iri daban-daban, inda a wasu lokuta kungiyoyin kwadago ke karfafa ra'ayin mazan jiya. Carrie Ashton Johnson ' yar asalin Amurka ce wacce ta danganci albashi daidai da na mata a cikin ma'aikatun masana'antu game da batun zaben mata . A cikin 1895, jaridar Chicago Tribune ta nakalto tana cewa, "Idan aka ba wa mata kuri'a, za a samu albashi daidai wa daida." Koyaya, bayan Yaƙin Duniya na Biyu, ƙungiyoyin ƙwadago da majalisun dokoki na ƙasashe masu ci gaban masana'antu kamfanoni, guraren aiki, a hankali suka rungumi ƙa'idar daidaita biyan albashi don aikin daidai; Misali ɗaya na wannan tsari shi ne gabatarwar Ingilishi na Dokar Daidaita Doka ta 1970 don amsa duka ga Yarjejeniyar Rome da yajin aikin mashin ɗin Ford na 1968 . A cikin recentan shekarun nan unungiyoyin kwadagon Turai gaba ɗaya suna matsa lamba ga jihohi da masu ba da aiki don ci gaba ta wannan hanyar.

Dokar kare hakkin dan adam ta duniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A dokar kare hakkin bil adama ta kasa da kasa, sanarwa kan biyan daya daidai ita ce Yarjejeniyar Hakkin Daidaita Daidai ta 1951, Yarjejeniyar 100 ta Kungiyar Kwadago ta Duniya, kungiyar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya . Yarjejeniyar ta bayyana cewa

Kowane Memba zai, ta hanyar dacewa da hanyoyin aiki don kayyade adadin albashi sa ba ka dai, zai inganta kuma, gwargwadon yadda ya dace da irin wadannan hanyoyin, tabbatar da aikace-aikacen ga dukkan ma'aikata ka'idar samun lada daidai ga maza da mata ma'aikata don aiki na daidai darajar.
Kudi da ake Albashi da su

Haka kuma an biya albashi daidai don aiki daidai da Mataki na 7 na Yarjejeniyar Kasa da Kasa kan 'Yancin Tattalin Arziki, Tsarin Al'adu da Al'adu, [1] Mataki na 4 na Yarjejeniyar Zamantakewa ta Turai, [2] da Mataki na 15 na Yarjejeniyar Afirka kan Hakkokin' Yan Adam da na Jama'a . [3] Kundin Tsarin Mulki na Kungiyar Kwadago ta Duniya ya kuma yi shelar "ka'idojin samun daidaiton albashi don daidai wa daida".

Ka'idodin kariya huɗu na EEOC suna ba da izini ba daidai ba don aiki daidai lokacin da aka saita albashi "bisa ga (i) tsarin manya; (ii) tsarin cancanta; (iii) tsarin da ke auna yawan kuɗi ta hanyar amfani da su na yau da kullum; ko ( iv) ... duk wani abu banda jima'i. " [4] Bambancin albashi saboda ɗayan waɗannan abubuwan ba ya keta yarjejeniyar.

Halin doka ta hanyar iko[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tarayyar Turai / Yankin Tattalin Arzikin Turai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayan Yakin Turai bayan yakin ya ga daidaitaccen tsari game da shigar mata cikin kasuwar kwadago da dokoki don inganta albashi daidai na aiki iri daya a duk kasashen Gabas da Yamma.

Wasu ƙasashe da ke cikin EU yanzu, gami da Faransa, Jamus, da Poland, sun riga sun tsara ƙa'idar biyan kuɗi daidai don aiki daidai a cikin kundin tsarin mulkinsu kafin kafuwar EU (duba jadawalin da ke ƙasa). Lokacin da Economicungiyar Tattalin Arzikin Turai, daga baya Tarayyar Turai (EU), aka kafa a cikin 1957, maƙasudin biyan kuɗi daidai don aiki iri ɗaya an laƙaba shi a matsayin babbar mahimmanci daga cikin abubuwan da ake da su. Mataki na 141 na Yarjejeniyar Rome ta ce 'kowace Memberungiyar Memberasa za ta tabbatar da cewa an yi amfani da ƙa'idar biyan kuɗi daidai ga mata da mata don aiki iri ɗaya ko aiki iri ɗaya.' Yayin da yake ci gaba da zamantakewar al'umma, wannan shawarar ba lallai ba ce ta nuna ɗabi'un ci gaba da yawa a tsakanin waɗanda suka sanya hannu kan yarjejeniyar:

Duk da yake ana yawan kallon wannan a matsayin misali na ci gaban al'ummomin Turai, wasu suna jayayya cewa Mataki na 141 (a baya 119) an haɗa shi da yawa a matsayin sassauci ga Farantawa da suka riga suna da dokar biyan kuɗi daidai kuma suna tsoron za su kasance a kwatankwacin hasara. [5]

An fayyace dokar EEC a cikin 1975 ta ɗaure da umarnin kai tsaye daidai na biyan albashi 75/117 / EEC. Wannan ya hana duk wani bambanci da kabilanci a dalilin jima'i dangane da biya; wannan da sauran umarnin an hade su cikin Umarni daya a 2006 (2006/54 / EC). [6]

A matakin ƙasa ƙa'idar daidaitaccen albashi gabaɗaya ya kasance cikakke cikakke a cikin dokokin ƙasashe membobin EU 28 da ƙarin ƙasashe na Yankin Tattalin Arzikin Turai (EEA), Iceland, Liechtenstein da Norway. Candidateasashen candidatean takarar EU na Macedonia da Turkiyya suma sun daidaita dokokinsu bisa ƙa'idodin EU. Babban dokar ƙasa game da daidaiton biyan kuɗi tsakanin maza da mata don ƙasashen Turai daban-daban kamar haka.

Kasa Babban tanadin doka
Austria Dokar 1979 kan Daidaita Daidaitawa a kan Maza da Mata (kamar yadda aka gyara tun)
Belgium Doka ta 1999 game da Daidaitawar Kula da Maza da Mata (Labarai na 12 da 25) da Dokar Sarauta ta 9 Disamba 1975
Bulgaria Daidaita albashi don aikin daidai wanda aka haɗa a cikin lambar aiki
Jamhuriyar Czech Biyan aiki don doka an tsara shi. 1/1992 Coll. kan biya, albashi na karin lokaci, da matsakaita kudin shiga da kuma Dokar ba. 43/1991 Coll. akan albashi da alawus na kari akan kari a jihar da wasu kungiyoyi da hukumomi.
Denmark Dokar 1976 kan Daidaitawa Maza da Mata, kamar yadda aka yi kwaskwarima tun lokacin da ya haɗa da ƙarin maki
Kasar Finland Kundin Tsarin Mulki na 1995 (sashi na 5, sakin layi 4) da Dokar Daidaito tsakanin Maza da Mata (sashe na 8, sakin layi na 2)
Faransa Tsarin Mulki na 1946 da Labarai L.140.2 kuma daga nan sai Dokar Ma'aikata
Jamus Tsarin Mulki na 1949 ko "Dokar Asali" (Mataki na uku)
Girka Tsarin Mulki na 1975 (Mataki na 22 (1)), kamar yadda aka gyara a 2001, da Doka 1484/1984 (Mataki na 4)
Hungary Daidai da albashi don aiki iri daya a baya an sanya shi cikin kundin tsarin mulki, amma ya canza; yanzu akwai daidaito tsakanin maza da mata, kuma albashin yana cikin Dokar Kodago.
Iceland Dokar Daidaita Daidaiton ta 1961 (# 60/1961), 1976 Doka don Daidaita tsakanin mata da maza (# 78/1976 ), Dokar 2008 kan Matsayin Daidaito da 'Yancin Daidaita Mata da Maza (# 10/2008) ) da kuma kwaskwarimar da aka kara wa dokar a shekarar 2017: Doka kan takardar shedar biyan kudi daidai gwargwadon Daidaitan Daidaitaccen Biyan da aka gabatar a shekarar 2012 (ÍST 85: 2012 )
Ireland Dokar Daidaito Aikin Kuɗi ta 1998 (IE9909144F), soke dokar 1974 na Anti-Nuna Bambanci (Biya) da Dokar Daidaito Aikin 1977
Isra'ila Dokar 1998 don Daidaitan Daidaitawa a Aiki da 1996 don Doka Daidaita wa Ma'aikata Mata da Maza Masu Aiki
Italiya Tsarin Mulki (Labarai na 3 da 37), Doka 903/1977 (Mataki na 2), da Doka 125/1991
Latvia Daidaita albashi don aikin daidai wanda aka haɗa a cikin lambar aiki
Liechtenstein Daidaita albashi don aikin daidai wanda aka haɗa a cikin lambar farar hula
Lithuania Daidaita albashi don aikin daidai wanda aka haɗa a cikin lambar aiki
Luxembourg Dokar 1981 da ta shafi daidaito tsakanin maza da mata da Dokar Grand-Ducal ta 1974 game da daidaita biyan maza da mata daidai (Labarai na 1, 2, 3 (1), 3 (2) da 4)
Malta Tsarin Mulki (Mataki na 14) da Dokar Daidaito ga Maza da Mata
Netherlands Tsarin Mulki (Mataki na 1) da Dokar 1994 game Daidaita Daidaitawa
Norway Dokar 1978 kan Daidaitan Jinsi
Poland Kundin Tsarin Mulki na 1997, Fasali na II, Mataki na 33.2 ya tanadi daidaiton albashi don ka'idojin aiki daidai, wanda tuni ya kasance a cikin Tsarin Mulki na 1952.
Fotigal Tsarin Mulki (Mataki na 59) da Doka ta 105/1997 da suka shafi daidaito a wurin aiki da aiki
Romania Daidaita albashi don aikin daidai wanda aka kunsa a cikin kundin tsarin mulki
Slovakiya Daidaita albashi don aikin daidai wanda aka kunsa a cikin kundin tsarin mulki
Spain Tsarin Mulki (Mataki na 35) da Dokar Ma'aikata (Labarai na 17 da 28).
Sweden Dokar 1980 akan Daidaito tsakanin maza da mata / Daidaita damar dama, kamar yadda aka yiwa kwaskwarima tun
Birtaniya Dokar Daidaito Daidai ta 1970, kamar yadda Dokokin Daidaita Daidaita na 1983 suka yi kwaskwarima, da Dokar Nuna Bambancin Namiji na 1975 da 1986, wanda Dokar Daidaito ta 2010 ta maye gurbinsu.

Dokar Sabuntawa ta 2018 game da Takaddun Shaida Daidaito dangane da Daidaitan Biyan Kuɗi a Iceland

Iceland ta gabatar da Daidaiton Batun Daidaita a 2012, ÍST 85: 2012 (Daidaitaccen tsarin kula da albashi - Bukatu da shiriya).kungiyar kwadagon Icelandic, ƙungiyar masu ba da aiki da kuma jami'an gwamnati ne suka haɓaka matsayin tare da manufar cewa zai taimaka wa ma'aikata wajen hana wariyar albashi da kuma ba su damar zama sanannu.

A cikin 2017, gwamnatin Icelandic ta yanke shawarar ƙara kwaskwarima ga Dokokin 2008 na Dokoki kan Matsayin Daidaita Da Rightsancin Mata Da Maza (# 10/2008). Kwaskwarimar doka ce ta takaddar takaddar biyan albashi daidai kuma an fara aiki da ita a ranar 1 ga Janairu a 2018. Dangane da kamfanonin gyare-gyare da cibiyoyin da ke daukar ma'aikata 25 ko sama da haka, a kowace shekara, za a bukaci samun takardar shaidar biyan kudi domin tabbatar da shaida Manufar wannan takaddar takaddar dole ce ta tilasta zartar da doka ta yanzu da ke haramta ayyukan nuna banbanci dangane da jinsi kuma yana buƙatar cewa mata da maza da ke aiki don mai aiki ɗaya za a biya su daidai albashi kuma su more daidaito na aiki don aiki iri ɗaya ko ayyuka iri ɗaya.

Amurka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dokar Tarayya: Dokar Biyan Daidaitawa ta 1963 da Take VII na Dokar 'Yancin Bil'adama na 1964[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A ƙarni na 20, mata sun kai kusan kashi ɗaya cikin huɗu na ma'aikata na Amurka amma har yanzu ana biyansu ƙasa da maza, ko dai aiki ɗaya ne ko wani aiki na daban. Akwai dokoki daban-daban na mata a wasu jihohi kamar, ba sa aiki da dare da kuma taƙaita lokacin aikinsu. Mata sun fara shiga karin ayyukan masana'anta lokacin da aka gwabza Yaƙin Duniya na II ya fara maye gurbin maza waɗanda suka shiga soja. Gibin albashi ya ci gaba da ƙaruwa yayin yaƙin. Hukumar Kwadago ta Kasa ta sanya manufofi don taimakawa wajen samar da daidaito ga matan da ke maye gurbin maza kai tsaye.

Yunkurin farko na dokar biyan albashi daidai a Amurka, HR 5056, "Haramta Nuna Bambanci a Kan Lamarin Jima'i," 'yar majalisa Winifred C. Stanley na Buffalo, NY ce ta gabatar da ita a ranar 19 ga Yuni, 1944. Shekaru 20 bayan haka, dokar da gwamnatin tarayya ta zartar a shekarar 1963 ta sanya doka ba ta biyan maza da mata kudaden albashi daban-daban na aiki iri daya kan ayyukan da ke bukatar kwarewa iri daya, yana daga cikin kokarinsu, da kuma daukar nauyinsu, kuma ana aiwatar da su a karkashin irin wannan yanayin aikin. Shekara daya bayan zartar da Dokar Biyan Daidaita, Majalisa ta zartar da Dokar 'Yancin Dan Adam ta 1964. Lakabi na VII na wannan aikin ya sanya haramtacciyar wariya dangane da launin fata, addinin, launin, ko jinsi na mutum. [7] Take na VII ya kai hari kan nuna wariyar jinsi da yawa fiye da Dokar Daidaito Daidaitawa ba kawai ga lada ba har zuwa biyan da ake amfaji da shi Kuma ana Kiran shi da mahimmancin diyya, sharuɗɗa, halaye ko gata na aiki. Don haka tare da Dokar Biyan Daidaitawa da Take na VII, mai ba da aiki ba zai iya hana mata albashi daidai dokar dai ta Samar da abubuwa da dama na aiki daidai ba; hana mata canja wuri, karin girma, ko karin albashi; sarrafa kimantawar aiki don mayar da albashin mata; ko kuma ware maza da mata da gangan zuwa aiki gwargwadon jinsi. [8]

Tunda Majalisar na yin muhawara kan wannan kudirin a daidai lokacin da Dokar Daidaita Daidata ta fara aiki, akwai damuwa kan yadda wadannan dokokin biyu za su yi mu'amala, wanda ya kai ga zartar da Gyaran Sanata Bennett. Wannan Kwaskwarimar ta ce: "Ba zai zama aikin ba bisa ka'ida ba a karkashin wannan karamin juzu'i ga duk wani mai aiki ya banbanta ta hanyar jima'i ... idan irin wannan bambancin yana da izini ta tanadin [Daidaita Dokar Biya]." An sami rudani kan fassarar wannan Kwaskwarimar, wacce aka bar wa kotuna don warwarewa. [9] Don haka dokar tarayya ta Amurka yanzu ta ce "masu ba da aiki ba za su iya nin ƙa'idojin na daga cikin nasarori da aka sami, ƙoƙari da nauyi, kuma akwai abubuwan da ake aiwayar da suaiwatar da su a ƙarƙashin irin wannan yanayin aiki a cikin tsari ɗaya." [4]

Jihar New York[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 1944, jihar New York ta haramta nuna wariya game da albashi dangane da jinsin mutum. A ranar 10 ga Yulin 2019, Gwamnan New York Andrew Cuomo ya sanya hannu kan dokar doka wacce ke ba da tabbacin samun daidaiton albashi don aikin daidai ba tare da la'akari da jinsin mutum ba. Wannan ya ginu ne a kan dokar 1944 ta hana ma’aikata daga tambayar ‘yan takarar aiki game da albashin da suka biya a baya, wata baraka a tarihin aiwatar da daidaiton biyan albashin su dangane da jinsi. Cuomo ya sanya hannu kan dokar tare tare da faretin cin Kofin Duniya na Mata na 2019 a Birnin New York.

Jihar Washington[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Washington, Gwamna Evans ya aiwatar da nazarin daidaiton albashi a 1973 da wani a 1977. [10] Sakamakon ya nuna karara cewa lokacin da ake kwatanta ayyuka na maza da mata sun kasance babu kusan wani juyi tsakanin matsakaitan ayyuka iri daya kuma a kowane bangare, an sami rata kashi ashirin cikin dari. Misali, ma'aikacin sabis na abinci yana samun $ 472 a kowane wata, kuma Direban Motar Isarwa ya sami $ 792, duk da cewa an ba su duka lamba ɗaya "maki" a kan ma'auni kwatankwacin jihar. Abin takaici ga jihar, kuma ga ma'aikatan jihar, magajinsa Gwamna Dixie Lee Ray ya kasa aiwatar da shawarwarin binciken (wanda ya bayyana karara cewa mata sun yi kasa da kashi 20 cikin dari fiye da maza). [11] Don haka a cikin 1981, AFSCME sun gabatar da korafin nuna wariyar jinsi tare da EEOC akan wasu mahimman dokokin Gwamnatin Washington. Kotun Yankin ta yanke hukuncin cewa tunda jihar tayi wani bincike na nuna wariyar jinsi a cikin jihar, ta gano cewa akwai bambanci sosai a cikin albashi, kuma basu yi wani abu ba don inganta wadannan bambance-bambance, wannan ya zama nuna wariya a karkashin Title VII wanda yake "mamayewa da niyya . " [12] Daga nan Kotun ta umarci Jiha da ta biya mata sama da 15,500 kudaden da aka biya daga 1979 bisa la'akari da nazarin 1983 na kwatankwacin darajar. [13] Wannan ya wuce $ 800 miliyan. Koyaya, Kotun ofaukaka forara ta Amurka game da Yanki na Tara ta soke wannan shawarar, tana mai bayyana cewa Washington koyaushe tana buƙatar albashin ma'aikatansu don yin daidai da kasuwar 'yanci, kuma nuna wariya yana ɗaya daga cikin abubuwan da ke haifar da bambancin albashi. Kotun ta ce, "Jiha ba ta haifar da banbancin kasuwa ba ... [kuma] ba doka ko dabaru da suke ganin tsarin kasuwar 'yanci wani kamfani ne da ake zargi." [14] Duk da yake karar ba ta yi nasara ba a karshe, hakan ya haifar da dokar jihohi don kara albashin ma’aikatan jihar. Kudaden aiwatar da wannan tsarin biyan kudi daidai yake kashi 2.6% na kudin ma'aikata ga jihar. [15]

Minnesota[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin Minnesota, jihar ta fara yin la’akari da ingantacciyar manufa mai dacewa a ƙarshen shekarun 1970 lokacin da Minnesotaungiyar Minnesotaungiyar Minnesota ta Majalisar kan Tattalin Arzikin Mata ta umarci Hay Associates don gudanar da bincike. Sakamakon ya kasance abin birgewa kuma yayi daidai da sakamakon a Washington (akwai tazarar kashi 20% tsakanin maza da mata masu biya). Hay Associates ya tabbatar da cewa a cikin shekaru 19 tun da aka zartar da Dokar Daidaito Daidai, nuna bambancin albashi ya ci gaba har ma ya karu daga 1976 zuwa 1981. [16] Ta yin amfani da tsarin su, sun lura cewa yayin da aka ba masu direbobin bayarwa da masu buga takardu dukkansu maki 117 kowannensu "ya dace" ga jihar, an ba direban isar da kayan isar da sako (wata sana'a ce da maza suka mamaye) a duk wata yayin da aka biya ma'aikacin magatakarda. (wata mata ta mamaye sana'a) ana biyan ta $ 1,115 a wata. [17] Binciken ya kuma nuna cewa mata ba su da yawan gaske a cikin manaja da mukamai na kwararru, kuma galibi ana rarraba ayyukan gwamnati ta hanyar jima'i. Binciken daga karshe ya ba da shawarar cewa jihar ta dauki matakai da dama na ayyuka: 1) kafa kyawawan abubuwan da za a iya kwatanta su da ayyukan mata; 2) keɓe kuɗi don inganta rashin daidaiton biyan kuɗi; 3) karfafawa mata gwiwa don tabbatar da mata da tsiraru 4) ci gaba da nazarin yanayin don inganta shi. Majalisar Dokokin Minnesota ta motsa nan da nan don mayar da martani. A 1983 jihar ta kasafta 21.8 dala miliyan don fara gyara banbance banbancen ma’aikatan jihar. [18] Daga 1982 zuwa 1993, albashin mata a jihar ya ƙaru da kashi 10%. Kamar yadda jaridar Star Tribune ta ruwaito, a shekara ta 2005 mata a cikin gwamnatin jihar ta Minnesota sun samar da dala 97 a kan dala, hakan ya sanya jihar ta Minnesota a matsayin daya daga cikin mafiya daidaito ga mata ma’aikatan jihar a kasar. Shekaru biyar bayan haka a shekara ta 2010, an cimma cikakkiyar daidaiton kuɗin biyan mata a cikin aikin yi a jihar, tare da maimaitawa, yawanci ƙananan canje-canje a cikin ƙananan hukumomi da ke faruwa a kai a kai.

Dokar tarayya: Lilly Ledbetter Dokar Biyan Gaskiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

lokacin albashi dai dai dan gaskiya

A shekarar 2009, Shugaba Obama ya rattaba hannu kan dokar biyan kudi ta Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay, inda ya ba mata damar kai karar ma’aikata saboda rashin biyansu albashi har na tsawon kwanaki 180 bayan an biya su kudin da ba su dace ba. A ranar 29 ga Janairun 2016, ya sanya hannu a kan dokar zartarwa wacce ta tilasta wa dukkan kamfanoni da akalla ma’aikata 100 su bayyana albashin dukkan ma’aikatan ga gwamnatin tarayya, tare da ragin albashin ta hanyar jinsi, jinsi, da kuma kabilanci. Manufar ita ce a ƙarfafa masu ba da aiki su ba da albashi daidai don aiki daidai ta hanyar ƙara nuna gaskiya.

Massachusetts[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A watan Agusta na 2016, Gwamnan Massachusetts Charlie Baker ya sanya hannu kan kudurin doka don inganta kan Dokar Biyan Daidaita ta Massachusetts da ta riga ta kasance. A ranar 1 ga watan Yulin, 2018, wannan gyaran da aka sabunta ya fara aiki ne don kare ma'aikata daga tambayar wanda ya dauke su albashinsu na baya. Gwamna Baker ya nemi canji a tsarin na yanzu bayan ya fahimci cewa mata a bangarorin su, a matsakaita, suna yin cent 76 akan dala idan aka kwatanta da maza masu yin aiki iri ɗaya. A karkashin sabunta Dokar Biyan Daidaitawa ta Massachusetts, ba a ba masu aiki damar samun banbanci a cikin albashi ga ma'aikatan da ke yin aikin da ke bukatar irin kwarewa, kokari, da nauyi. Dokar Biyan Daidaitawa ta Massachusetts kawai tana ba da izinin bambance-bambance a cikin biyan lokacin da ya dogara da cancanta, yawan shekaru, kudaden shiga da aka samu, ilimi, da wuri ko tafiya. A lokacin isowarsa a shekarar 2018, Dokar Biyan Daidaitawa ta Massachusetts ta zama mai ba da karfi mafi karfi na neman a biya su daidai tsakanin masu jinsi a Amurka. Ta zama jiha ta farko da ta samar da tabbaci na kariya ga masu daukar aiki a karkashin yanayin da suka gudanar da binciken kansu na ayyukan biyansu. Don kiyayewa, akwai buƙatar a tabbatar da rikodin ƙoƙarin da aka yi don rufe ɓarna a cikin biyan kafin su zama masu alhakin nunka daga cikin ma'aikacin da aka nuna wariyar.

Dokokin jihohi da na kananan hukumomi, 2010s[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

California da New York City sun amince da dokokin da suka haramtawa ma’aikata yin tambaya game da tarihin albashi don tantance albashin da za a bayar don sabon aiki. Ana nufin wannan don rage gibin biyan jinsi ta hanyar rage tasirin wariyar da ta gabata. Sauran jihohin Amurka da yawa suna yin la'akari da irin waɗannan dokokin, har zuwa Mayu 2017.

Ostiraliya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 1948, Sanarwar Duniya game da 'Yancin Dan-Adam ta fara fahimtar daidaiton albashi don aiki daidai. Kungiyar kwadago ta duniya ce ta fitar da Yarjejeniyar Biyar Daidai. Taron ya bayyana cewa yana bada shawarar a ayyana ayyuka bisa yanayin aikin maimakon wanda yake aikin. Mata da maza sun shiga cikin zanga-zangar, suna kiran gwamnati da ta gyara babban taron 1951 da kuma biyan kuɗin doka daidai a Australiya. A cikin 1969, akwai karar da Unionungiyar Ma'aikatan Masana'antu ta Australasian ta kawo game da Nama da liedungiyar Cinikin Kawancen. Ma’aikata sun yi ta jayayya kan a biya kowane ma’aikaci albashi daidai kuma hukuncin da hukumar ta yanke shi ne cewa mace ta ba da mafi karancin albashi a kashi 85 na na mazan. Wannan shawarar ta taimaka wajen biyan albashi daidai ga matan da ke aiki iri daya da maza za su yi, amma sauran matan duk sun samu kashi 85 cikin 100. A cikin 1972 an sake sake yanke shawara kuma dokoki sun nuna cewa ko mata ko maza waɗanda ke aiki a irin wannan aikin da ke da ƙima iri ɗaya, sun cancanci ƙimar aiki ɗaya.

A karkashin tsohuwar tsarin gyara albashin Australiya, "an biya albashi daidai na aiki daidai wa daida" na mata a shekarar 1969. An sanya dokar hana nuna wariya saboda jinsi a shekarar 1984.

Kanada[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A amfani da Kanada, ana amfani da sharuɗɗan biyan daidaito da daidaiton biya ɗan bambanci da na sauran ƙasashe. Sharuɗɗan biyu suna nuni da ra'ayoyi daban daban na shari'a.

Biyan daidaito, ko daidaiton albashi don aikin daidai, yana nufin buƙatar cewa a biya maza da mata kuɗi ɗaya idan suna yin aiki iri ɗaya a ƙungiya ɗaya. Misali, dole ne a biya mace mai aikin wutar lantarki daidai da na lantarki a namiji a kungiya daya. An halatta bambance-bambance masu ma'ana idan saboda girma ko cancanta.

Dokar tana buƙatar daidaiton biyan kuɗi a kowane ɗayan hurumin zartar da doka na Kanada (yankuna goma, yankuna uku, da gwamnatin tarayya). Lura cewa dokar tarayya tana aiki ne kawai ga waɗancan ma'aikata a cikin wasu masana'antun da gwamnatin ke sarrafawa kamar bankuna, masu watsa shirye-shirye, da kamfanonin jiragen sama, don kaɗan. Ga yawancin ma'aikata, dokar da ta dace ita ce ta lardin ko yanki.

Ga ma'aikata da aka tsara ta tarayya, ana bada tabbacin daidaiton biya a karkashin Dokar 'Yancin Dan Adam ta Kanada . A Ontario, ana buƙatar daidaiton biyan kuɗi a ƙarƙashin Dokar Ka'idodin Aiki na Ontario.   Kowane yanki na Kanada yana da doka iri ɗaya, kodayake sunan doka zai bambanta.

Sabanin haka, daidaiton biyan kuɗi, a cikin mahallin Kanada, yana nufin cewa dole ne a biya mata ayyukan maza da kuma ayyukan mata-na ƙima iri ɗaya idan a cikin ma'aikaci ɗaya. Ana kiran kalmar Kanada game da daidaiton biyan kuɗi a matsayin "kwatankwacin darajar" a cikin Amurka. Misali, idan ma'aikatan jinya da ma'aikatan wutar lantarki ana ganin suna da ayyuka daidai wa daida, dole ne a biya su ɗaya. Wata hanyar rarrabe ra'ayoyin ita ce a lura da cewa daidaiton biyan kudi yana magana ne kan 'yancin mata ma'aikata a matsayinsu na daidaiku, yayin da daidaiton biyan yake magana kan' yancin mata da mata suka mamaye a matsayin kungiya.

Wasu yankuna na Kanada suna da dokokin biyan kuɗi yayin da wasu basu da, saboda haka wajibcin rarrabe tsakanin daidaiton biyan kuɗi da biyan daidaito a cikin amfanin Kanada. Misali, a Ontario, ana tabbatar da daidaiton biyan kudi ta hanyar Dokar Ka’idojin Aiki ta Ontario yayin da aka tabbatar da daidaiton albashi ta dokar Ontario Pay Equity Act. A gefe guda kuma, larduna uku na yamma (British Columbia, Alberta, da Saskatchewan) suna da dokar daidaita daidaito amma ba su da dokar biyan haraji. Wasu larduna (alal misali, Manitoba) suna da dokoki waɗanda ke buƙatar daidaiton biyan kuɗi ga masu ba da ma'aikatun gwamnati amma ba na ma'aikata masu zaman kansu ba; a halin yanzu, dokar daidaita daidaiton biya ta shafi kowa da kowa.

Indiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kare tsarin mulki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A zaman wani bangare na Ka'idodinta na Manufofin Siyasa, Tsarin Mulki na Indiya ta hanyar Mataki na 39 ya tanadi cewa dukkan jihohi suna jagorantar manufofinsu don samun daidaito a kan aiki daidai ga maza da mata, da kuma tabbatar da cewa maza da mata suna da 'yancin yin isassun hanyoyin rayuwa. Duk da cewa wadannan Ka'idojin Ba su da hurumin zartar da su ta kowace kotu, amma suna da mahimmanci ga shugabancin kasar kuma jiha wajibi ne ta yi la’akari da su yayin zartar da dokoki.

Duk da cewa “biyan albashi iri daya don aiki iri daya” ba bayyanannen haqqin tsarin mulki bane, an karanta shi a cikin Kundin Tsarin Mulki ta hanyar fassarar Labarai na 14, 15 da 16 - wanda ke tabbatar da daidaito a gaban doka, kariya daga nuna wariya da daidaito a cikin lamuran aikin gwamnati. Kotun Koli ta Indiya ita ma ta ayyana wannan a matsayin wata manufa ta tsarin mulki, ga kowane mutum kuma yana iya samunta ta hanyar aiwatar da hakkokinsu na yau da kullun da aka shimfida a cikin Labarai na 14 zuwa 16. A cikin mashahurin hukuncin Kotun Koli, an kalubalanci yanayin aikin masu karbar iska ta Air India. Sharuɗɗan aiki sun buƙaci yin ritayar tilas ga mata: (i) bayan sun kai shekaru 33; (ii) idan sun yi aure cikin shekaru huɗu na hidimar; itama doka ce da aka yarda da ita ko (iii) akan ciki na farko. Kotun duk da haka ta yi fatali da wadannan tanade-tanaden kuma ta kasance masu nuna son kai da nuna wariya saboda ta saba wa doka ta 14, 15 da 16 ta Kundin Tsarin Mulki.

Kariyar doka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A shekarar 1976, an zartar da dokar ba da lada daidai da nufin samar da lada daidai ga maza da mata ma’aikata da kuma hana nuna banbanci dangane da jinsi a dukkan al’amuran da suka shafi aikin yi da damar aiki. Wannan dokar ba wai kawai ta samar wa mata da 'yancin neman a biya su daidai ba ne, amma duk wani rashin daidaito dangane da tsarin daukar ma'aikata, horas da aiki, karin girma, da sauyawa a tsakanin kungiyar ana iya kalubalantar ta a karkashin wannan Dokar. Koyaya, girmanta bai kai ga yanayin da: (i) mace ke ƙoƙarin bin ƙa'idodin dokokin ba mata kulawa ta musamman ba; da (ii) ana bai wa mace kulawa ta musamman saboda haihuwar ɗa, ko sharuɗɗan da suka shafi ritaya, aure ko mutuwa. Kamfanoni da masu ɗaukan ma'aikata ɗayansu ana iya ɗaukar nauyinsu don kiyaye ƙa'idodin da aka tsara a ƙarƙashin wannan Dokar. A cikin shari'oi daban-daban, Kotun Koli ta Indiya ma ta nuna cewa nuna wariyar jinsi yana faruwa ne kawai lokacin da maza da mata suka yi aiki iri daya ko aiki iri daya Wanda ake bukata. Koyaya, ya fayyace cewa ana buƙatar ɗaukar sassauƙa yayin yanke shawarar wane irin aiki ne zai iya zama kwatankwacin yin la'akari da ayyukan da aka aiwatar a matsayin ɓangare na aikin, kuma ba ayyukan da za a iya yi ba.

Taiwan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Taiwan ta kafa dokar daidaita daidaito tsakanin maza da mata a aikin yi a shekara ta 2002. Yana tsara cewa dole ne mai ba da aiki ya ba da albashi ɗaya ga ma'aikatan da suke yin aiki iri ɗaya. Doka ta tanadi cewa, ma’aikata ba za su nuna wariya ga ma’aikata ba saboda bambancin jinsi ko jinsi a batun biyan albashi. Ma'aikata zasu sami albashi daidai don aiki iri ɗaya ko ƙimarsu ɗaya. Koyaya, idan irin waɗannan bambance-bambancen sakamakon tsarin manya ne, kyauta da tsarin horo zai tabbatar daya taimaka sosai, tsarin cancanta ko wasu dalilai masu gamsarwa na abubuwan da ba na jima'i ba ko kuma waɗanda ba na jima'i ba, ƙuntatawa da aka ambata a sama ba zai yi aiki ba. Masu ba da aiki ba za su iya bin hanyoyin rage albashin sauran ma’aikata ba don guje wa ka’idar sakin layin da ya gabata.

Sukar[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sukar da ka'idar biyan albashi daidai na awanni masu aiki da mata ke aiki daidai da kananan ayyuka ta hanyar azuzuwan kariya sun hada da sukar hanyoyin da aka yi amfani da su don cimma hakan da kuma hanyar da ake auna rata. Wasu  sunyi imani cewa ayyukan gwamnati don daidaita bambancin biyan jinsi na haifar da tsoma baki ga tsarin musayar son rai. Suna jayayya batun na asali shine cewa mai aikin shine mamallakin aikin, ba gwamnati bane ko ma'aikaci. Mai ba da aikin yi shawarwari game da aikin kuma ya biya gwargwadon aikinsa, ba bisa ga aikin aiki ba. Batun tare da hakan shine maza ana ganin su manyan masu aiki ne bisa irin kwarewar da mace zata iya yi. Kasuwanci mai zaman kansa ba zai so ya rasa mafi kyawun wa'inda sune masu yin sa ba ta hanyar rama musu ƙasa kaɗan kuma zai iya rashin karfin biyan payingan ƙwararrun masu yin sa saboda yawan aiki zai ragu. [19] [20] Koyaya, Women'sungiyar Mata mai zaman kanta ta faɗi wani binciken wanda ke nuna hangen nesa na albashi mai yiwuwa ya ɓace "lokacin da aka sarrafa shi don ƙwarewa, ilimi, da yawan shekarun aiki". [21]

Bambanci tsakanin daidaiton albashi don aiki daidai da biya daidai na aiki daidai yake[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Daidaita albashi don aikin daidai Daidaita albashi don aiki daidai wa daida
Daidaitan albashi yana kwatankwacin albashin masu rike da mukamai a ayyuka iri daya ko makamancin haka. Adadin biyan kuɗi yana kwatanta ƙimar da albashin ayyuka daban-daban, kamar nas da ma'aikacin lantarki.
Ko maza ko mata na iya yin korafin cewa aikinsu ba shi da daraja. Idan aka biya namiji mai rike da mukami kasa da mace mai aiki a wannan aikin, zai iya shigar da kara. Hakanan, mace ko miji na iya yin gunaguni idan aka biya ta ko aka biya ta ƙasa da namiji ko mace a cikin aiki ɗaya. Mutane (maza da mata) ne kawai a cikin aikin da aka tanada wa mata waɗanda ke iya yin korafin cewa ba a daraja aikinsu. Idan ma'aikaci daya ya biya masu aikin jinya kasa da ma'aikatan lantarki, to za su iya shigar da kara.

A cewar Cibiyar Kula da Daidaituwar Cigaba ta Washington ta amfani da bayanai daga Ofishin Labarun Labarun Labarun, ayyukan da suka fi yawan maza yawanci ana biyansu da kyau ba tare da la'akari da kwarewa ko matakin ilimi ba. [22]

Misali, sau da yawa yana buƙatar irin wannan ƙwarewar da ilimi don zama lantarki kamar yadda yake don zama mai jinya. Koyaya, masu aikin lantarki, fannin da maza suka fi yawa, suna samun albashi fiye da masu jinya, fannin da ya mamaye mata. A cikin yanayi inda, misali, wutar lantarki ke yin aikin su ƙafa 200 sama da ƙasan bene na rijiyar mai, to ya kamata acigaba da amfaninda it's hard biya ya zama mafi girma saboda haɗarin sun yi yawa haka. Koyaya, wannan baya bayanin rata tsakanin matsakaicin aikin masu wutar lantarki.

Sukar da aka yi wa daidaitaccen albashi don aiki iri ɗaya shi ne rashin ingantattun hanyoyin daidaitawa, ya dogara ne da abubuwan da ke ƙarkashin ikon mallaka kuma ba ya dogara da ainihin hujjoji da ƙididdiga Kamar yadda yake a misalin da ya gabata, bincika ya tabbata da cewa magana ce ta ƙarya cewa masu aikin lantarki ke samun kuɗi fiye da masu jinya. Dangane da ƙididdigar masu aikin wutar lantarki suna samun ~ 1015 $ / mako-mako ( [23] ) yayin da masu jinya ke samun ~ 1223 $ / mako-mako ( [24] ), don haka a wannan yanayin yana tabbatar da cewa ma’aikatan jinya, filin da mace ta mamaye, sun fi ma’aikatan lantarki yawa, namiji mamaye filin.

Dokokin nuna gaskiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mace rike da wata alama da ke nuna cewa tana samun kasa da "shi" (abokin aikin maza) na aiki daya.

Dokar nuna gaskiya ita ce buɗewa, da ka'idojin fa'idoji waɗanda ke ɗaukar kasuwanci da gwamnatoci. Dokokin nuna gaskiya suna tilasta kamfanoni su bayyana albashin ga ma'aikata, masu daukar ma'aikata, da kuma gwamnati. Tsarancin biyan jinsi an bayyana shi azaman matsakaicin bambanci tsakanin biyan diyya da aka baiwa ga jinsunan mu maza da mata don aikinsu ko aikinsu. An sanya dokokin nuna gaskiya don rage wannan gibin na biyan albashi. Waɗannan dokokin sun haifar da ragin kashi biyu cikin ɗari a gibin jinsi ta hanyar samar da albashi ga jama'a, wanda ya sauƙaƙa ganin banbancin biyan kowane jinsi.

Ba tare da dokokin nuna gaskiya ba, masu ba da aiki suna ɗaukar mata da yawa idan aka kwatanta da maza saboda ƙananan albashi. Masu ba da aikin da ke ɗaukar nauyin maza da mata daidai suke ɗora wa kamfanoni ƙimar albashi, saboda albashin maza ya fi tsada sosai kuwa.

Garuruwan da suka aiwatar da dokokin nuna gaskiya sun nuna shaidar mahimman canje-canje a cikin albashin mata saboda nuna gaskiya. Bayyananniyar ba wai kawai a cikin gwamnati da ma'aikata ba ne, amma a tsakanin ma'aikata, ba wa mata da maza abokan aiki damar lura da albashin juna. Mata, musamman, na iya amfani da wannan bayanin don samun daidaiton biyan kuɗi. Wannan na iya taimakawa wajen rage rashin daidaiton biyan kuɗi na mata lokacin da suke aiki iri ɗaya da na mazaje.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Allonby v. Accrington da Kwalejin Rossendale
  • Daidaita Ranar Biya
  • Mata na talauci
  • Gibin biyan jinsi a Indiya
  • Rufin gilashi
  • Dokar farashi ɗaya
  • Mata kayan abu

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

"Karanta Sabis ɗin Binciken Kasuwanci (CRS) game da Biyan Kuɗi

  1. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, article 7
  2. European Social Charter: Part II, Article 4, section 4
  3. African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, Article 15
  4. 4.0 4.1 U.S Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. EEOC Facts About Equal Pay and Compensation Discrimination, accessed on August 26, 2011.
  5. New JNCHES Equality Working Group, 'The Gender Pay Gap - A Literature Review', p. 7 fn. 15, citing Townsend-Smith, Sex Discrimination in Employment (London: Sweet and Maxwell, 1989).
  6. New JNCHES Equality Working Group, 'The Gender Pay Gap - A Literature Review', p. 7.
  7. "Civil Rights Act of 1964." 42 U.S.C. § 2000e-2000e-17
  8. Williams, Robert et al. Closer Look at Comparable Worth: A Study of the Basic Questions to be Addressed in Approaching Pay Equity. National Foundation for the Study of Equal Employment Policy: Washington, DC, 1984, pg. 28.
  9. Webber, Katie. "Comparable Worth—Its Present Status and the Problem of Measurement." Hamline Journal of Public Law, Vol. 6, No. 38 (1985), pg. 37.
  10. Remick, Helen. "'A Want of Harmony': Perspectives on Wage Discrimination and Comparable Worth." Ed. Remick, Helen. Comparable Worth and Wage Discrimination: Technical Possibilities and Political Realities. Temple University Press: Philadelphia, 1984, pg. 102.
  11. Stewart, Debra A. "State Initiatives in the Federal System: The Politics and Policy of Comparable Worth in 1984." Publius, Vol. 15, No. 3 (Summer 1985), pg. 84.
  12. American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees, AFL-CIO (AFSCME), et al. v. State of Washington et al. No. C 82-465T (District Court for the Western District of Washington), 1983.
  13. Legler, Joel Ivan. "City, County and State Government Liability for Sex-Based Wage Discrimination After County of Washington v. Gunther and AFSCME v. Washington." The Urban Lawyer, Vol. 17, No. 2 (Spring 1985), pg. 241.
  14. American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees, AFL-CIO (AFSCME), et al. v. State of Washington et al. 770 F.2d 1401 (9th Cir), 1985.
  15. "National Committee on Pay Equity," pay-equity.org, Accessed Nov. 8, 2010
  16. Cook, Alice H. Comparable Worth: A Case book of experiences in states and localities. Industrial Relations Center: University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1985, pg. 141
  17. "Pay Equity: The Minnesota Experience: Fifth Edition." Legislative Commission on the Economic Status of Women, April 1994, pg. 13.
  18. Stewart, Debra A. "State Initiatives in the Federal System: The Politics and Policy of Comparable Worth in 1984." Publius, Vol. 15, No. 3 (Summer 1985), pg. 91.
  19. Vedantam, Shankar (2009) "Caveat for Employers." Washington Post, June 1, 2009, page A8
  20. Jackson, Derrick (2009) "Subtle, and stubborn, race bias." Boston Globe, July 6, 2009, page A10
  21. O'Neill, June. "The Gender Gap in Wages, circa 2000" American Economic Review, Vol. 93, No. 2 (May 2003), pp. 309-314.
  22. https://www.payscale.com/data/gender-pay-gap
  23. https://beta.bls.gov/dataViewer/view/timeseries/LEU0254666500
  24. https://beta.bls.gov/dataViewer/view/timeseries/LEU0254541300