Barack Obama

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President Barack Obama.jpg
Official portrait, 2012

An haifi Obama a Honolulu, Hawaii . Bayan kammala karatu daga Jami'ar Columbia a shekara ta( 1983 ), yayi aiki a matsayin mai shirya al'umma a Chicago . A cikin shekara ta( 1988 ), yayi rajista a Makarantar Shari'a ta Harvard, inda ya kasance shugaban baƙar fata na farko na Dokar Harvard Law. Bayan kammala karatunsa, ya zama lauyan kare hakkin jama'a da kuma ilimi, yana koyar da dokar tsarin mulki a Jami'ar Chicago Law School daga shekara ta( 1992 ) zuwa shekara ta (2004). Da ya koma siyasa mai zaɓe, ya wakilci gundumar( 13 ) a majalisar dattijai ta Illinois daga shekara ta (1997) zuwa shekara ta (2004), lokacin daya tsaya takarar Majalisar Dattawan Amurka. Obama ya sami kulawar ƙasa a cikin shekara ta( 2004) tareda lashe zaɓen farko na Majalisar Dattawa, babban jawabinsa na Babban Taron Dimokraɗiyya na watan Yuli, da zaɓensa na watan Nuwamba a Majalisar Dattawa. A cikin shekara ta (2008), shekara guda bayan fara kamfen ɗin sa, kuma bayan babban kamfen nakusa da Hillary Clinton, Jam'iyyar Democrat ta tsayar dashi takarar shugaban ƙasa. An zabi Obama akan dan takarar Republican John McCain a babban zaben kuma an rantsar dashi tare da abokin takararsa, Joe Biden, a ranar ashirin( 20) ga watan Janairu, a shekara ta( 2009). Bayan watanni tara, an ba shi lambar yabo ta Nobel ta zaman lafiya ta shekara( 2009) .

Obama ya rattaba hannu kan wasu muhimman takardu na doka a cikin shekaru biyu na farko a ofis . Babban sauye -sauyen sun haɗa da: Dokar Kulawa Mai Kyau (ACA ko "Obamacare"), ko da yake batare da zaɓin inshorar lafiyar jama'a ba ; Dokar Dodd – Frank Wall Street Reform da Dokar Kariyar Masu Amfani ; da kuma Kada Ku Tambayi, KadaKu Fada Dokar Kashewa na shekara ta (2010). Dokar Maidowa da Inshorar Baƙin Amurka na shekara ta( 2009) da Taimakon Haraji, Inshorar rashin aikin yi, da Dokar Samar da Ayyuka na shekara ta( 2010) sunyi aiki azaman matsalolin tattalin arziƙi a tsakanin Babban koma bayan tattalin arziki . Bayan doguwar muhawara kan iyakan bashin kasa, ya sanya hannu kan Kulada Kasafin Kudi da Ayyukan Taimakon Masu biyan Haraji na Amurka . A cikin manufofin ketare, ya haɓaka matakan sojojin Amurka a Afganistan, yarage makaman nukiliya tare da Amurka- Rasha Sabuwar START yarjejeniya, kuma ya kawo ƙarshen shiga soja a Yaƙin Iraki . Yabada umarnin shiga soja a Libya don aiwatar da kudurin Kwamitin Sulhu na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya na shekara ta( 1973), wanda yabada gudummawa gakifar da Muammar Gaddafi . Yakuma bada umarnin aikin soji wanda yayi sanadiyar kashe Osama bin Laden .

Bayan ya sake lashe zabe ta hanyar kayar da abokin hamayyarsa na Republican Mitt Romney, an rantsar da Obama a wa'adi na biyu a shekara ta( 2013). A cikin wannan lokacin, ya inganta haɓakawa ga Amurkawa LGBT. Gwamnatinsa ta gabatar da taƙaitaccen bayani wanda ya buƙaci Kotun Koli ta soke haramcin auren jinsi kamar yadda ya sabawa doka (Amurka v. Windsor da Obergefell v. Hodges ); An halatta auren jinsi daya a duk fadin kasar a shekara ta (2015) bayan da Kotu ta yanke hukuncin haka 'a Obergefell . Yabada shawarar sarrafa bindiga don mayar da martani kan harbin Makarantar Sakandare ta Sandy Hook, wanda ke nuna goyon baya ga hanakai hari kan makarantu, kuma ya bada manyan ayyuka na zartarwa game da dumamar yanayi da shige da fice. A cikin manufofin kasashen waje, ya bada umarnin shiga ayyukan soji a Iraki da Siriya don mayar da martani ga nasarorin da ISIL ta samu bayan ficewarta daga Iraki a shekara ta( 2011), ya'inganta tada haifar da Yarjejeniyar Paris ta shekara ta (2015) kan canjin yanayi na duniya, ya jagoranci kuma a ƙarshe ya nemi afuwa game da mummunan harin da aka kai asibitin Kunduz., ya ci gaba da aiwatar da kawo karshen ayyukan fada da Amurka a Afganistan a cikin shekara ta (2016), ya fara sanya takunkumi kan Rasha bayan mamayar da akayi a Ukraine sannan kuma bayan katsalandan a zaben Amurka na shekara ta (2016), ya karya yarjejeniyar hadin gwiwa ta Yarjejeniyar Nukiliya tare da Iran, kuma ya daidai ta alakar Amurka da Cuba . Obama ya gabatar da alkalai uku ga Kotun Koli : Sonia Sotomayor da Elena Kagan an tabbatar da su a matsayin alkalai, yayin da Merrick Garland ya fuskanci cikas daga bangaren majalisar dattijai mai rinjaye na Republican karkashin jagorancin Mitch McConnell, wanda bai taba yin sauraro ko kada kuri'akan nadinba. Obama ya bar ofis a cikin Janairu shekara ta( 2017 )kuma yaci gaba da zama a Washington, DC

A lokacin wa’adin mulkin Obama a matsayin shugaban kasa, martabar Amurka a kasashen waje, da kuma tattalin arzikin Amurka, ya inganta sosai. Gaba daya ana ganin shugabancin Obama da kyau, kuma kimanta shugabancinsa tsakanin masana tarihi, masana kimiyyar siyasa, da sauran jama'a akai-akai suna sanya shi a cikin manyan shugabannin Amurka. Tun lokacin daya bar ofis, Obama ya cigaba da aiki cikin siyasar Demokraɗiyya, gami da bayyana a Babban Taron Demokraɗiyya na shekara ta (2020) .   A ƙarshen watan Agusta a shekara ta( 1961 ), yan makonni bayan an haife shi, Barack da mahaifiyarsa sun koma Jami'ar Washington a Seattle, inda suka zauna na shekara guda. A wannan lokacin, mahaifin Barack ya kammala digirinsa na farko a fannin tattalin arziki a Hawaii, ya kammala a watan Yunin( 1962 ). Ya tafi don halartar makarantar digiri na biyu akan malanta a Jami'ar Harvard, inda ya sami MA a fannin tattalin arziki. Iyayen Obama sun sake aure a watan Maris shekara ta (1964). [1] Obama Sr ya dawo Kenya a shekara ta (1964), inda yayi aure a karo na uku kuma ya yi aiki da gwamnatin Kenya a matsayin Babban Manazarcin Tattalin Arziki a Ma’aikatar Kudi. [2] Ya ziyarci ɗansa a Hawaii sau ɗaya kawai, a Kirsimeti a shekara ta (1971), [3] kafin a kashe shi a cikin hatsarin mota a shekara ta (1982), lokacin Obama yana ɗan shekara( 21). Da yake tunawa da ƙuruciyarsa, Obama ya ce: "Mahaifina bai yi kama da mutanen da ke kusa da ni ba - cewa yana da baki kamar farar fata, mahaifiyata farar fatace kamar madara - da ƙyar tayi rajista a cikin tunanina." [4] Ya bayyana irin gwagwarmayar da yayi tun yana matashi don daidaita tunanin jama'a game da al'adun da yaƙunsa.

Ilimi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Rikodin makarantar Barack Obama a St. Francis na Makarantar Elementary Catholic ta Assisi. An yi wa Obama rajista a matsayin "Barry Soetoro" (lamba 1), kuma an yi kuskuren rubuta shi a matsayin ɗan ƙasar Indonesiya (lamba 3) da Musulmi (lamba 4).
  1. Scott (2011), pp. 87–93.
  2. Obama "Dreams from My Father a Story of Race and Inheritance"
  3. Scott (2011), pp. 142–144.
  4. Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 9–10.