Barack Obama

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President Barack Obama.jpg
Official portrait, 2012

An haifi Obama a Honolulu, Hawaii . Bayan kammala karatu daga Jami'ar Columbia a shekara1983, ya yi aiki a matsayin mai shirya al'umma a Chicago . A cikin shekara1988, ya yi rajista a Makarantar Shari'a ta Harvard, inda ya kasance shugaban baƙar fata na farko na Dokar Harvard Law . Bayan kammala karatunsa, ya zama lauyan kare hakkin jama'a da kuma ilimi, yana koyar da dokar tsarin mulki a Jami'ar Chicago Law School daga shekara1992 zuwa shekara2004. Da ya koma siyasa mai zaɓe, ya wakilci gundumar 13 a majalisar dattijai ta Illinois daga shekara1997 zuwa shekara2004, lokacin da ya tsaya takarar Majalisar Dattawan Amurka . Obama ya sami kulawar ƙasa a cikin shekara2004 tare da lashe zaɓen farko na Majalisar Dattawa, babban jawabinsa na Babban Taron Babban Taron Dimokraɗiyya na Yuli, da zaɓen sa na Nuwamba a Majalisar Dattawa. A cikin shekara2008, shekara guda bayan fara kamfen ɗin sa, kuma bayan babban kamfen na kusa da Hillary Clinton, Jam'iyyar Democrat ta tsayar da shi takarar shugaban ƙasa. An zabi Obama akan dan takarar Republican John McCain a babban zaben kuma an rantsar da shi tare da abokin takararsa, Joe Biden, a ranarashirin 20 ga Janairu, 2hekara009. Bayan watanni tara, an ba shi lambar yabo ta Nobel ta zaman lafiya tashekara 2009 .

Osama's ya rattaba hannu kan wasu muhimman takardu na doka a cikin shekaru biyu na farko a ofis . Babban sauye -sauyen sun haɗa da: Dokar Kulawa Mai Kyau (ACA ko "Obamacare"), kodayake ba tare da zaɓin inshorar lafiyar jama'a ba ; Dokar Dodd – Frank Wall Street Reform da Dokar Kariyar Masu Amfani ; da kuma Kada Ku Tambayi, Kada Ku Fada Dokar Kashewa na shekara2010 . Dokar Maidowa da Inshorar Baƙin Amurka na shekara2009 da Taimakon Haraji, Inshorar rashin aikin yi, da Dokar Samar da Ayyuka na 2010 sunyi aiki azaman matsalolin tattalin arziƙi a tsakanin Babban koma bayan tattalin arziki . Bayan doguwar muhawara kan iyakan bashin kasa, ya sanya hannu kan Kula da Kasafin Kudi da Ayyukan Taimakon Masu biyan Haraji na Amurka . A cikin manufofin ketare, ya haɓaka matakan sojojin Amurka a Afganistan, ya rage makaman nukiliya tare da Amurka- Rasha Sabuwar START yarjejeniya, kuma ya kawo ƙarshen shiga soja a Yaƙin Iraki . Ya ba da umarnin shiga soja a Libya don aiwatar da kudurin Kwamitin Sulhu na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya na shekara1973, wanda ya ba da gudummawa ga kifar da Muammar Gaddafi . Ya kuma ba da umarnin aikin soji wanda ya yi sanadiyar kashe Osama bin Laden .

Bayan ya sake lashe zabe ta hanyar kayar da abokin hamayyarsa na Republican Mitt Romney, an rantsar da Obama a wa'adi na biyu a shekara2013. A cikin wannan lokacin, ya inganta haɓakawa ga Amurkawa LGBT . Gwamnatinsa ta gabatar da taƙaitaccen bayani wanda ya buƙaci Kotun Koli ta soke haramcin auren jinsi kamar yadda ya sabawa doka ( Amurka v. Windsor da Obergefell v. Hodges ); An halatta auren jinsi daya a duk fadin kasar a shekarar 2015 bayan da Kotu ta yanke hukunci haka a Obergefell . Ya ba da shawarar sarrafa bindiga don mayar da martani kan harbin Makarantar Sakandare ta Sandy Hook, wanda ke nuna goyon baya ga hana kai hari kan makamai, kuma ya ba da manyan ayyuka na zartarwa game da dumamar yanayi da shige da fice. A cikin manufofin kasashen waje, ya ba da umarnin shiga ayyukan soji a Iraki da Siriya don mayar da martani ga nasarorin da ISIL ta samu bayan ficewarta daga Iraki a shekara2011, ya inganta da ta haifar da Yarjejeniyar Paris ta shekara2015 kan canjin yanayi na duniya, ya jagoranci kuma a ƙarshe ya nemi afuwa game da mummunan harin da aka kai asibitin Kunduz., ya ci gaba da aiwatar da kawo karshen ayyukan fada da Amurka a Afganistan a cikinhekara 2016, ya fara sanya takunkumi kan Rasha bayan mamayar da aka yi a Ukraine sannan kuma bayan katsalandan a zaben Amurka nahekara 2016, ya karya yarjejeniyar hadin gwiwa ta Yarjejeniyar Nukiliya tare da Iran, kuma ya daidaita alakar Amurka da Kuba . Obama ya gabatar da alkalai uku ga Kotun Koli : Sonia Sotomayor da Elena Kagan an tabbatar da su a matsayin alkalai, yayin da Merrick Garland ya fuskanci cikas daga bangaren majalisar dattijai mai rinjaye na Republican karkashin jagorancin Mitch McConnell, wanda bai taba yin sauraro ko kada kuri'a kan nadin ba. Obama ya bar ofis a cikin Janairu shekara2017 kuma ya ci gaba da zama a Washington, DC

A lokacin wa’adin mulkin Obama a matsayin shugaban kasa, martabar Amurka a kasashen waje, da kuma tattalin arzikin Amurka, ya inganta sosai. Gabaɗaya ana ganin shugabancin Obama da kyau, kuma kimanta shugabancinsa tsakanin masana tarihi, masana kimiyyar siyasa, da sauran jama'a akai -akai suna sanya shi a cikin manyan shugabannin Amurka. Tun lokacin da ya bar ofis, Obama ya ci gaba da aiki cikin siyasar Demokraɗiyya, gami da bayyana a Babban Taron Demokraɗiyya na shekara2020 .   A ƙarshen watan Agusta 1961, 'yan makonni bayan an haife shi, Barack da mahaifiyarsa sun koma Jami'ar Washington a Seattle, inda suka zauna na shekara guda. A wannan lokacin, mahaifin Barack ya kammala digirinsa na farko a fannin tattalin arziki a Hawaii, ya kammala a watan Yunin 1962. Ya tafi don halartar makarantar digiri na biyu a kan malanta a Jami'ar Harvard, inda ya sami MA a fannin tattalin arziki. Iyayen Obama sun sake aure a watan Maris 1964. [1] Obama Sr ya dawo Kenya a 1964, inda ya yi aure a karo na uku kuma ya yi aiki da gwamnatin Kenya a matsayin Babban Manazarcin Tattalin Arziki a Ma’aikatar Kudi. [2] Ya ziyarci ɗansa a Hawaii sau ɗaya kawai, a Kirsimeti 1971, [3] kafin a kashe shi a cikin hatsarin mota a 1982, lokacin Obama yana ɗan shekara 21. Da yake tunawa da ƙuruciyarsa, Obama ya ce: "Mahaifina bai yi kama da mutanen da ke kusa da ni ba - cewa yana da baki kamar farar fata, mahaifiyata farar fata ce kamar madara - da ƙyar ta yi rajista a cikin tunanina." [4] Ya bayyana irin gwagwarmayar da ya yi tun yana matashi don daidaita tunanin jama'a game da al'adun da ya ƙunsa.

Ilimi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Rikodin makarantar Barack Obama a St. Francis na Makarantar Elementary Catholic ta Assisi. An yi wa Obama rajista a matsayin "Barry Soetoro" (lamba 1), kuma an yi kuskuren rubuta shi a matsayin ɗan ƙasar Indonesiya (lamba 3) da Musulmi (lamba 4).
  1. Scott (2011), pp. 87–93.
  2. Obama "Dreams from My Father a Story of Race and Inheritance"
  3. Scott (2011), pp. 142–144.
  4. Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 9–10.