Andrew Johnson

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Andrew Johnson
President Andrew Johnson.jpg
Ɗan majalisar Dattawan Taraiyar Amurka

4 ga Maris, 1875 - 31 ga Yuli, 1875
William Gannaway Brownlow (en) Fassara - David M. Key (en) Fassara
District: Tennessee Class 1 senate seat (en) Fassara
17. shugaban Tarayyar Amurka

15 ga Afirilu, 1865 - 4 ga Maris, 1869
Abraham Lincoln - Ulysses S Grant (en) Fassara
16. Mataimakin Shugaban Ƙasar Taraiyar Amurka

4 ga Maris, 1865 - 15 ga Afirilu, 1865
Hannibal Hamlin (en) Fassara - Schuyler Colfax (en) Fassara
Governor of Tennessee (en) Fassara

12 ga Maris, 1862 - 4 ga Maris, 1865
Isham G. Harris (en) Fassara - William Gannaway Brownlow (en) Fassara
Ɗan majalisar Dattawan Taraiyar Amurka

4 ga Maris, 1861 - 4 ga Maris, 1862 - David T. Patterson (en) Fassara
District: Tennessee Class 1 senate seat (en) Fassara
Ɗan majalisar Dattawan Taraiyar Amurka

4 ga Maris, 1859 - 4 ga Maris, 1861
District: Tennessee Class 1 senate seat (en) Fassara
Ɗan majalisar Dattawan Taraiyar Amurka

8 Oktoba 1857 - 4 ga Maris, 1859
James C. Jones (en) Fassara
District: Tennessee Class 1 senate seat (en) Fassara
United States representative (en) Fassara

4 ga Maris, 1843 - 3 ga Maris, 1853
Thomas Dickens Arnold (en) Fassara - Brookins Campbell (en) Fassara
District: Tennessee's 1st congressional district (en) Fassara
member of the Tennessee House of Representatives (en) Fassara


member of the State Senate of Tennessee (en) Fassara

Rayuwa
Haihuwa Raleigh (en) Fassara, 29 Disamba 1808
ƙasa Tarayyar Amurka
Harshen uwa Turanci
Mutuwa Elizabethton (en) Fassara, 31 ga Yuli, 1875
Makwanci Andrew Johnson National Cemetery (en) Fassara
Yanayin mutuwa Sababi na ainihi (stroke (en) Fassara)
Yan'uwa
Mahaifi Jacob Johnson
Mahaifiya Mary McDonough
Abokiyar zama Eliza McCardle Johnson (en) Fassara  (17 Mayu 1827 -  31 ga Yuli, 1875)
Yara
Karatu
Harsuna Turanci
Sana'a
Sana'a ɗan siyasa, hafsa, slaveholder (en) Fassara, statesperson (en) Fassara da tailor (en) Fassara
Tsayi 178 cm
Wurin aiki Washington, D.C.
Aikin soja
Fannin soja Union Army (en) Fassara
Digiri Janar
Ya faɗaci American Civil War (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Kiristanci
Jam'iyar siyasa Democratic Party (en) Fassara
Republican Party (en) Fassara
National Union Party (en) Fassara
Andrew Johnson Signature.png

Andrew Johnson (29 ga Disamba, 1808 - 31 ga Yuli, 1875) shi ne Mataimakin Shugaban 16 da Shugaba na 17 na Amurka . Shi ne shugaban ƙasa na farko da aka tsige, amma ba a tsige shi daga muƙaminsa ba. Tsigewar ta faru ne saboda ya kori Sakataren Yaki bayan Majalisa ta yi doka. Hakanan ana ganin wannan baƙon abu ne, domin galibi ya rage ga shugaban ƙasa ya naɗa kuma ya kori sakatarorinsa. Koyaya, Majalisa ba ta son shi saboda shi ɗan Democrat ne kuma ba ya son taimaka wa tsofaffin bayi .

Rayuwar farko[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An haifi Johnson a Raleigh, North Carolina a cikin 1808, a cikin gida mai daki daya. Iyalinsa talakawa ne sosai kuma bai taɓa zuwa makaranta ba. Ya kasance mai koyon sana'anta ta tela kuma wani tela mai suna Selby ya riƙe shi a matsayin bawa mara ƙayatarwa, wani nau'in bawa. Kwangilar ta bayyana cewa Johnson ya kamata ya yi wa Selby aiki har sai ya kai shekara 21, amma Johnson bai ji dadin aikin ba ya gudu tare da dan uwansa. Tela ya fitar da fastocin da ake so amma Johnson bai dawo ba. A ƙarshe ya fara kasuwanci nasa a Greeneville a Tennessee, inda ya haɗu ya auri Eliza McCardle. Tana rashin lafiya sosai saboda tarin fuka, cutar huhu, amma Johnson yana ƙaunarta sosai. Ta koya masa karatu yadda ya kamata kuma ta taimaka masa wajen yin karatu, wanda hakan ya taimaka masa shiga siyasa. Ya zama magajin garin Greeneville a cikin 1834, yana da shekaru 25. A cikin 1843, an zabe shi a Majalisar Wakilai a Washington DC A cikin 1853, ya zama Gwamnan Tennessee, matsayi mafi iko a jihar. Bayan yayi wa'adi biyu, maimakon haka an zabe shi Sanata (a wannan lokacin, Babban Taron Tennessee ya zabi duka wadannan mukamai, ba mutane ba) kuma ya dawo Washington DC Johnson yana da matukar arziki sannan kuma ya mallaki bayi da yawa da kansa. Lokaci ne da kasar ta shiga wani mawuyacin hali saboda bautar da sauran yanayi.

Harkar siyasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Lokacin da Tennessee da wasu jihohin bayi goma na Kudancin suka bayyana cewa ba sa cikin Amurka, shi kadai ne memba daga cikinsu da bai daina kujerarsa ba. Madadin haka, ya tafi Amurka ya taimaki Arewa a yakin, abin da ake kira "Union Democrat". Duk da kasancewarsa dan dimokuradiyya, an zabe shi a matsayin Mataimakin Lincoln na Abraham a kan tikitin "National Union" a 1864, wanda ke ganin ya kamata a kawo karshen yakin kuma a mara wa kudu baya cikin kungiyar. Lincoln ya zaɓi Johnson ne saboda ya kasance mai biyayya amma kuma yana ganin zai yi kyau a samu dan Democrat kan tikitin zaben ya nuna ba batun siyasa jam’iyya bane. Johnson ya 'yanta bayinsa a cikin 1863, jim kaɗan kafin doka ta sanya shi ba bisa doka ba. A cikin 1865, Majalisa ta dakatar da bautar a cikin Amurka gaba ɗaya kafin yakin ya ƙare.

Ya zama shugaban ƙasa a 1865 bayan da aka kashe Abraham Lincoln. 'Yan Republican ne ke jagorantar majalisa a lokacin, kuma bayan kisan Lincoln, suna son tsaurara sharudda fiye da yadda Johnson ya yi na sake ginin jihohin Kudancin da suka yi tawaye. Majalisa ta kuma fi abokantaka da Amurkawan Afirka waɗanda ba su daɗe da bayi, kuma 'yan Republican da yawa sun so su yi zaɓe kuma a ba su ƙasa. Johnson, wanda dan Democrat ne, yana tunanin zai cutar da fararen fata a Kudancin kuma yana matukar adawa da waɗannan manufofin. A sakamakon haka, ya yi fatali da kudurori 29 da Majalisa ta zartar, kuma shi ne shugaban da ya ke da wadanda suka fi karfin veto. Wannan na iya faruwa idan Majalisa ta zartar da doka a karo na biyu tare da mafi rinjayen 2/3, ma'ana ninki biyu na mutane da yawa suna goyon bayan dokar kamar yadda suke adawa da ita. Idan wannan ya faru veto ya gaza kuma doka ta zartar. Baƙon abu ne sosai amma ya faru sau 15 ga Johnson, wanda rikodin ne.

Ya kuma kasance Shugaban kasa na farko da aka tsige a 1868, amma daga baya aka wanke shi a Majalisar Dattawa. Lokacin da Majalisa ta cire shugaban kasa, dole ne Majalisar Wakilai ta zabe don tsige shi, sannan Majalisar Dattawa ta yanke hukunci, ta hanyar yawan masu rinjaye 2/3. Kodayake 'yan jam'iyyar Republican suna da yawan sanatocin, to amma hukuncin bai samu nasara ba da kuri'a daya. Da yawa daga cikin 'yan Republican sun yi tunanin ba aikinsu bane maye gurbin shugaban, kuma an kammala tuhumar da ake yiwa Johnson. Don haka Johnson zai iya ci gaba da aikinsa na shekarar da ta gabata. Akwai wasu shekaru 130 kafin a tsige wani shugaban, Bill Clinton a 1998. Johnson shine kaɗai shugaban ƙasar Amurka da bai taba zuwa makaranta ba, kuma shi da matarsa Eliza McCardle Johnson ne suka koya masa karatu. Ya kuma koya wa kansa doka da siyasa ta hanyar karatun kansa. Amurka ta sayi Alaska daga Rasha kan dala miliyan 7.2 (farashin ya kasance cent 2 a kowace kadada) yayin da yake shugaban kasa, amma Sakataren Harkokin Wajen William Seward ne ya shirya sayan. Yanzu ana ɗaukarsa mai hikima sosai kuma albarkatun ƙasa a Alaska a yau suna da darajar biliyoyi da yawa.

Bayan wa’adinsa ya ƙare, Johnson ya bar Washington. A 1875, ya dawo bayan an sake zaɓen shi sanata na Tennessee. Ya mutu a wannan shekarar. Har yanzu shi kadai ne shugaban Amurka da ya taɓa yin sanata bayan zama shugaban ƙasa. Wani tsohon shugaban ƙasa, John Quincy Adams, ya yi aiki a Majalisar Wakilai bayan shugabancin sa, amma.

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sauran yanar gizo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]