James A. Garfield

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg James A. Garfield
James Abram Garfield, photo portrait seated.jpg
20. shugaban Tarayyar Amurka

4 ga Maris, 1881 - 19 Satumba 1881
Rutherford B. Hayes (en) Fassara - Chester A. Arthur (en) Fassara
Election: 1880 United States presidential election (en) Fassara
17. Shugaban da aka zaɓa na Tarayyar Amurka

2 Nuwamba, 1880 - 4 ga Maris, 1881
Rutherford B. Hayes (en) Fassara - Grover Cleveland (en) Fassara
Election: 1880 United States presidential election (en) Fassara
United States representative (en) Fassara

4 ga Maris, 1863 - 8 Nuwamba, 1880
Albert G. Riddle (en) Fassara - Ezra B. Taylor (en) Fassara
District: Ohio's 19th congressional district (en) Fassara
member of the State Senate of Ohio (en) Fassara

Rayuwa
Cikakken suna James Abram Garfield
Haihuwa Moreland Hills (en) Fassara, 19 Nuwamba, 1831
ƙasa Tarayyar Amurka
Harshen uwa Turanci
Mutuwa Elberon (en) Fassara, 19 Satumba 1881
Makwanci Lake View Cemetery (en) Fassara
Yanayin mutuwa kisan kai (ballistic trauma (en) Fassara
aneurysm (en) Fassara
sepsis (en) Fassara
myocardial infarction (en) Fassara
pneumonia (en) Fassara)
Killed by Charles J. Guiteau (en) Fassara
Yan'uwa
Mahaifi Abram Garfield
Mahaifiya Eliza Ballou
Abokiyar zama Lucretia Garfield (en) Fassara  (11 Nuwamba, 1858 -  19 Satumba 1881)
Yara
Karatu
Makaranta Williams College (en) Fassara
Hiram College (en) Fassara
(1851 - 1854)
Harsuna Turanci
Harshen Latin
Ancient Greek (en) Fassara
Sana'a
Sana'a ɗan siyasa, statesperson (en) Fassara, hafsa da Lauya
Wurin aiki Washington, D.C.
Aikin soja
Fannin soja Union Army (en) Fassara
United States Army (en) Fassara
infantry (en) Fassara
Digiri Manjo Janar
Ya faɗaci American Civil War (en) Fassara
Battle of Middle Creek (en) Fassara
Battle of Shiloh (en) Fassara
Siege of Corinth (en) Fassara
Battle of Chickamauga (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) (en) Fassara
Jam'iyar siyasa Republican Party (en) Fassara
James A Garfield Signature.svg

James Abram Garfield (19 ga Nuwamba, 1831 - 19 ga Satumba, 1881) shi ne Shugaban Amurka na 20 (1881) kuma Shugaba na 2 da aka kashe (aka kashe shi yana kan mulki). Shugaba Garfield ya kasance a ofis daga Maris zuwa Satumba na 1881. Ya kasance a ofis na tsawon watanni shida da kwanaki goma sha biyar. Kusan rabin wannan lokacin yana kwance sakamakon yunƙurin kashe shi. An harbe shi a ranar 2 ga Yuli kuma daga ƙarshe ya mutu a watan Satumba na shekarar da ya hau mulki.

Rayuwar farko[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An haifi Garfield a garin Orange Township, yanzu Moreland Hills, Ohio . Mahaifinsa ya mutu a 1833, lokacin da James Abram yana ɗan watanni 18. Ya girma mahaifiyarsa da kawunsa suna kula da shi.

Ilimi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin garin Orange, Garfield ya halarci makaranta, wanda ya gabaci Makarantun Orange City. Daga 1851 zuwa 1854, ya halarci Kwalejin Yammacin Turai (wanda daga baya aka sa masa suna Hiram College) a Hiram, Ohio . Daga nan ya wuce zuwa Kwalejin Williams da ke Williamstown, Massachusetts, inda ya kasance ɗan'uwan Delta Upsilon. Ya kammala a 1856 a matsayin fitaccen ɗalibi wanda ke jin daɗin kowane fanni ban da ilmin sunadarai . Sannan ya koyar a Kwalejin Eclectic. Ya kasance malami a cikin harsunan gargajiya don shekarar karatu ta 1856-1857, kuma ya zama shugaban Cibiyar daga 1857 zuwa 1860.

Rayuwar mutum[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Nuwamba 11, 1858, ya auri Lucretia Rudolph . Suna da yara bakwai (maza biyar mata biyu): Eliza A. Garfield (1860-63); Harry A. Garfield (1863-1942); James R. Garfield (1865-1950); Mary Garfield (1867-1947); Irvin M. Garfield (1870-1951); Abram Garfield (1872-1958); da Edward Garfield (1874-76). Sona ɗaya, James Rudolph Garfield, ya bi shi cikin siyasa kuma ya zama Sakataren Cikin Gida a ƙarƙashin Shugaba Theodore Roosevelt . Garfield iya rubuta a Greek tare da hagu hannu da kuma Latin da hannun dama a lokaci guda. [1]

Ayyuka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Garfield ya yanke shawarar cewa rayuwar ilimi ba nashi ba ce kuma ya karanci karatun shari'a kai tsaye. An shigar dashi cikin mashayan Ohio a 1860. Tun kafin shiga cikin mashaya, ya shiga siyasa. An zaɓe shi sanatan jihar Ohio a cikin 1859, yana aiki har zuwa 1861. Ya kasance ɗan Republican duk rayuwarsa ta siyasa. Ya kasance janar a yakin basasar Amurka, kuma ya yi yaƙi a yaƙin Shiloh da Gangamin Chattanooga.

Kisan kai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Garfield ya zama shugaban ƙasa a ranar 3 ga Maris, 1881 kuma an harbe shi a Washington, DC a ranar 2 ga Yuli. Charles J. Guiteau ne ya harbi Garfield a baya da misalin karfe 9:30 na safe. Guiteau ya taimaka wa kamfen din Garfield na shugaban kasa, sannan ya nemi a ba shi aiki lokacin da ya ci nasara, amma shugaban ya ce masa a’a. Bai cika watanni huɗu ba a wa'adin shugabancin 20 na Amurka. Garfield ya mutu makonni goma sha daga baya a ranar 19 ga Satumba, 1881, yana da shekara 49. Shugaban Majalisar Wakilai na 31 James G. Blaine yana gefen Garfield lokacin da aka harbe shi. A wannan lokacin, ba kowa bane ga shugaban na Amurka ya samu masu tsaron kansa, duk da cewa Lincoln yana da kariya yayin yaƙin basasa .

Mataimakin shugaban kasar Chester A. Arthur ya zama Shugaban kasa lokacin da Garfield ya mutu. An yiwa Guiteau kisan kai, kuma da yawa suna tunanin ba za a same shi da laifi ba saboda mahaukaci ne . A zahiri an same shi da laifi kuma an rataye shi don kisan, yana karanta waka kafin ya hau kan marata. Yanzu an yi imanin cewa an kashe Garfield da gaske saboda likitocinsa, waɗanda suka liƙa yatsunsu a cikin raunukansa yayin kula da shi da haifar da mummunar cuta . Alexander Graham Bell, wanda ya Ƙirƙiri wayar, ya yi kokarin gano alburushi ɗin tare da na'urar gano karafa ta zamani, amma ya kasa saboda gadon an yi masa waya da karfe (wanda bai sani ba). Yayin da Garfield ke raye, an yada labaran halin da yake ciki a duk faɗin kasar ta hanyar sakon waya, wanda wani sabon abu ne.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sauran yanar gizo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]