John Quincy Adams

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg John Quincy Adams
JQA Photo.tif
6. shugaban Tarayyar Amurka

4 ga Maris, 1825 - 4 ga Maris, 1829
James Monroe - Andrew Jackson
Election: 1824 United States presidential election (en) Fassara
6. Shugaban da aka zaɓa na Tarayyar Amurka

9 ga Faburairu, 1825 - 4 ga Maris, 1825
James Monroe - Andrew Jackson
Election: 1824 United States presidential election (en) Fassara
United States Secretary of State (en) Fassara

22 Satumba 1817 - 4 ga Maris, 1825
James Monroe - Henry Clay (en) Fassara
United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom (en) Fassara

28 ga Afirilu, 1814 - 22 Satumba 1817
Jonathan Russell (en) Fassara - Richard Rush (en) Fassara
Ɗan majalisar Dattawan Taraiyar Amurka

4 ga Maris, 1807 - 8 ga Yuni, 1808 - James Lloyd (en) Fassara
District: Massachusetts Class 1 senate seat (en) Fassara
Ɗan majalisar Dattawan Taraiyar Amurka

4 ga Maris, 1805 - 4 ga Maris, 1807
District: Massachusetts Class 1 senate seat (en) Fassara
Ɗan majalisar Dattawan Taraiyar Amurka

4 ga Maris, 1803 - 4 ga Maris, 1805
Jonathan Mason (en) Fassara
District: Massachusetts Class 1 senate seat (en) Fassara
United States representative (en) Fassara


United States Ambassador to Germany (en) Fassara


← no value - Henry Wheaton (en) Fassara
United States Ambassador to Russia (en) Fassara


William Short (en) Fassara - James A. Bayard (en) Fassara
United States Ambassador to the Netherlands (en) Fassara


William Short (en) Fassara - William Vans Murray (en) Fassara
member of the State Senate of Massachusetts (en) Fassara

Rayuwa
Cikakken suna John Quincy Adams
Haihuwa Braintree (en) Fassara, 11 ga Yuli, 1767
ƙasa Tarayyar Amurka
British America (en) Fassara
Mazaunin Massachusetts
Harshen uwa Turanci
Mutuwa Washington, D.C., 23 ga Faburairu, 1848
Makwanci United First Parish Church (en) Fassara
Yanayin mutuwa Sababi na ainihi (cerebral hemorrhage (en) Fassara)
Yan'uwa
Mahaifi John Adams
Mahaifiya Abigail Adams
Abokiyar zama Louisa Adams (en) Fassara  (26 ga Yuli, 1797 -  23 ga Faburairu, 1848)
Yara
Siblings Abigail Adams Smith (en) Fassara, Susanna Adams (en) Fassara, Charles Adams (en) Fassara da Thomas Boylston Adams (en) Fassara
Ƙabila Adams family (en) Fassara
Karatu
Makaranta Jami'ar Harvard
Leiden University (en) Fassara
Harvard College (en) Fassara
Harsuna Turanci
Faransanci
Jamusanci
Harshen Latin
Dutch (en) Fassara
Ancient Greek (en) Fassara
Sana'a
Sana'a ɗan siyasa, statesperson (en) Fassara, Lauya da Mai wanzar da zaman lafiya
Tsayi 171 cm
Wurin aiki Washington, D.C.
Employers Jami'ar Harvard
Kyaututtuka
Mamba American Philosophical Society (en) Fassara
American Academy of Arts and Sciences (en) Fassara
Phi Beta Kappa Society (en) Fassara
American Antiquarian Society (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Unitarianism (en) Fassara
Jam'iyar siyasa Whig Party (en) Fassara
John Quincy Adams Signature.svg

John Quincy Adams (11 ga Yuli, 1767 - 23 ga Fabrairu, 1848) shi ne Shugaban Amurka na shida. Shine shugaban ƙasa na farko wanda yake ɗan Shugaban ƙasa. [1] Hakanan, Adams shine shugaban ƙasa na farko da aka ɗauki hoto, maimakon zanen fenti.

Adams ya kasance ɗan Tarayya ne kuma ya yi aiki a gwamnatocin duk shuwagabannin da suka gabace shi. Ya kasance Sakataren Gwamnati a karkashin James Monroe, wanda ya gabace shi a matsayin shugaban kasa. Ya fara aikinsa ne yana ɗan shekara 27 a shekarar 1794 lokacin da Shugaba Washington ya nada shi Ministan Amurka zuwa Netherlands.

Adams ya jagoranci yaƙi da bautar a cikin Majalisa. A cikin 1838, yana da shekara 71, yayi magana game da bayin Afirka na jirgin bawa na Amistad . Ya yi nasara a shari’ar. Ya kuma kalubalanci tsarin mulki na Dokar Gag a Majalisa kuma ya ga cire shi a cikin 1844 bayan shekaru takwas na gwagwarmaya da shi.

Rayuwar farko[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An haifeshi a 1767 a Braintree, Massachusetts . Tun yana yaro ya kalli yakin Bunker Hill, yakin Yakin Juyin Juya Hali na Amurka, daga gonar danginsa. Lokacin da mahaifinsa, John Adams, ya yi tafiya zuwa Turai, John Quincy ya tafi tare da shi a matsayin sakataren sa. Ya kware a iya magana da wasu yarukan. Baya ga Ingilishi, ya kuma iya Turanci da Faransanci sosai, kuma yana da ɗan sanin yaren Dutch, Jamusanci, Girkanci, Italiyanci, Sifen, da Rasha.

Ilimi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ya tafi Harvard College ya zama lauya . Yana dan shekara 26, aka nada shi Minista a Netherlands sannan ya tafi Berlin . A shekarar 1802, an zabe shi a Majalisar Dattijan Amurka . Shekaru shida bayan haka, Shugaba James Madison ya nada shi Ministan Rasha .

A matsayinsa na Sakataren Gwamnati lokacin da James Monroe yake Shugaban ƙasa, Adams ya tsara haɗin gwiwa na Oregon tare da andasar Ingila kuma ya taimaka samun Florida daga Spain. Ya kuma taimaka wajen yin koyarwar Monroe .

Mai Tsarkaka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 1830s, bautar ya zama wani batun da ke haifar da rikice-rikice a Amurka. Ya dade yana adawa da bautar, Adams ya yi amfani da sabon matsayinsa a Majalisar don yakarsa, kuma ya zama fitaccen shugaban kasa da ke adawa da bautar. Bayan daya daga cikin nasarorin sake zaben nasa, ya ce dole ne ya "kawo ranar da aka yi annabcin da za a kori bayi da yaƙi daga doron ƙasa." Ya rubuta a cikin jaridarsa mai zaman kansa a cikin 1820:

Tattaunawa game da wannan tambaya ta Missouri ya ci amanar asirin rayukansu. A cikin abin da ba a yarda da shi ba sun yarda cewa bautar mugunta ce, sun ƙi shi, kuma suka ɗora ta duka a kan kafaɗar Burtaniya. Amma lokacin da aka gwada su da sauri, sai su nuna a ƙasan rayukansu girman kai da girman kai a cikin yanayin shugabancin su. Suna kallon ƙasƙanci game da ɗabi'ar Yankee, saboda ba shi da ɗabi'a na wuce gona da iri irin nasu kuma ba zai iya ɗaukar marasa kulawa kamar karnuka ba. Yana daga cikin sharrin bautar da ya ɗora tushen asalin ƙa'idodin ɗabi'a. Yana kafa ƙididdigar ƙarya na nagarta da mugunta: don me zai iya zama mafi ƙarya da rashin zuciya fiye da wannan koyarwar wacce ke sanya farkon farkon kuma mafi kyawun 'yancin ɗan adam ya dogara da launin fata?

A cikin 1836, a wani ɓangare dangane da yadda Adams yake gabatar da ƙararraki na dan kasa wanda yake neman a soke bautar a Gundumar Kolombiya, Majalisar Wakilai ta sanya "dokar gag" wacce take gabatar da duk wata bukata game da bautar. 'Yan jam'iyyar Democrats da Kudancin Whigs sun fi son mulkin amma yawancin Whigs na Arewa sun ƙi shi kamar Adams.

A ƙarshen 1836, Adams ya fara kamfen don izgili ga masu mallakar bayi da dokar gag. Ya yi ƙoƙari sau da yawa don gabatar da buƙatun yaƙi da bautar, sau da yawa ta hanyoyin da ke haifar da da martani mai ƙarfi daga wakilan Kudancin. Kodayake dokar ta baci ta kasance a wurin, tattaunawar ta ɓarke da ayyukanshi da yunƙurin da wasu suka yi don kwantar masa da hankali ya haifar da tambayoyi game da haƙƙin koke, da 'yancin yin muhawara kan doka, da kuma ɗabi'ar bayi. Adams yayi gwagwarmaya sosai da mulkin gag na wasu shekaru bakwai, daga ƙarshe ya motsa ƙudurin da ya haifar da soke shi a cikin 1844.

A cikin 1841, bisa bukatar Lewis Tappan da Ellis Gray Loring, Adams ya shiga shari'ar Amurka v. Amistad din . Adams ya je Kotun Koli a madadin bayin Afirka da suka yi tawaye suka kwace jirgin ruwan Spain Amistad . Adams ya bayyana a ranar 24 ga Fabrairu, 1841, kuma yayi magana na tsawon awanni hudu. Hujjarsa ta yi nasara; Kotun ta yanke hukuncin ne kan 'yan Afirka, wadanda aka ayyana su a matsayin' yanci kuma suka koma gidajensu.

Shugabancin kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Majalisar Wakilan Amurka ce ta zaɓi Adams a matsayin shugaban ƙasa bayan zaɓen shugaban kasar Amurka na 1824 da bai baiwa kowa rinjayen kuri'un zabe ba. Mutanen da suke son Andrew Jackson ya yi nasara sun ce akwai wata yarjejeniya tsakanin Adams da Kakakin Majalisar Henry Clay ; Adams ya sanya Clay sakataren Gwamnatin sa .

Adams ya gabatar da doka don ci gaban Amurka a matsayin wani ɓangare na abin da ya kira "Tsarin Amurka." Wannan yana nufin ya kirkiro hanyoyi, magudanan ruwa, kuma yayi amfani da babban harajin s, ko haraji kan shigo da kaya. Daga bada shawarwari sun halittar kasa jami'a, [2] wani sojan ruwa makarantar kimiyya, [3] kuma a kasa astronomical Observatory . [4] Adams ya yi yaƙi da majalisa sau da yawa kamar yadda yawancin magoya bayan Andrew Jackson ba su son goyon bayansa ga bankin ƙasa da haraji.

Adams ya faɗi zaɓen 1828 ga Jackson. An lura da zaben saboda harin kai harin da ‘yan takarar suka kaiwa juna.

1850 Kwafin hoto na 1843 na John Quincy Adams

Daga baya rayuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Adams ya dawo Massachusetts na wani ɗan gajeren lokaci bayan da ya ɓace. Ya sake komawa Washington DC a 1831 bayan an zabe shi a Majalisar Wakilan Amurka. Ya kasance babban mai adawa da bautar . Ya kasance a Majalisar har zuwa ranar mutuwarsa a ranar 23 ga Fabrairu, 1848.

Mutuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

John Quincy Adams yayin rayuwar sa ta karshe bayan faduwarsa a cikin Capitol. Arthur Joseph Stansbury wanda aka zana a fensir, aka maido shi ta hanyar dijital.

A ranar 21 ga Fabrairu, 1848, Adams ya sha wahala a bugun jini a cikin ɗakin majalisar. Ya faɗi ya mutu a cikin Gidan kwana biyu bayan haka a ranar 23 ga Fabrairu, 1848. Yana da shekara tamanin. Ya kasance na 7 (kuma ana iya cewa mafi mahimmanci)  mutuwar shugaban Amurka.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. John Quincy Adams Whitehouse biography
  2. The National University School of Law was not established until 1869
  3. Not established until 1845 during the Polk Administration
  4. A Bill for Observatory was signed by President Adams in 1825; the United States Naval Observatory was formerly established in 1830