Daular Mandara

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Zuwan Mora, babban birnin Mandara wanda mai binciken Ingila Edward Francis Finden ya yi a 1826.

Masarautar Mandara (wani lokacin ana kiranta Wandala ) ta kasance ce masarautar Afirka a cikin tsaunin Mandara wanda a yau ake da kuma yanzu ake kiran wurin da Kamaruzzaman . Mutanen Mandara sun fito daga zuriyar masarautar.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sultan Bukar Afade c. 1911/15.

Gargajiya ta bayyana cewa an kafa Mandara ne jim kadan kafin 1500 ta hannun wata mata mai suna Soukda da wani mafarauci wanda ba dan asalin Mandarawa mai suna Gaya. Fra Mauro (a cikin 1459) da Leo Africanus (a cikin 1526); sun ce sunan mandara a wancan lokacin ya kasance ba'a san sun sa ba.

A cikin karni na farko a masarautar, sarakunan ta sunyi yaqi da kungiyoyin kawance dan kokarin fadada yankunan su. Bayan cin nasarar Dulo (ko Duolo) da kuma kafa babban birnin a Dulo c. 1580, daular Sankre, jagoran yaƙi, ya fara. Lokacin da Dulo yayi ƙoƙari don kwace mulki, masarautar Bornu ta goyi bayan iƙirarin Aldawa Nanda, ɗan gidan Sankre. Sarki Idris Alaoma na Borno da kansa ya nada Nanda a matsayin sarki a shekarar 1614. Don haka Bornu ya sami babban mukami a kan Mandara.

Mai Bukar Aji, shine sarki na 25, ya kokarin ya sanya Mandara ta koma garin musulunci a c. 1715, wanda daular zata cigaba da kasan cewa har kusan shekara ɗari biyu. Baƙin musulmai ne suka musuluntar da Bukar zuwa musulunci, kuma musuluncin masarautar zai ci gaba acikin karnin har a gaba. Masarautar ta sami zamani mai daraja a karkashin Bukar da wanda ya gaje shi, Bukar Guiana (1773-1828). A kusan 1781, Mandara ta ci daular Borno a wani babban yaqi, tare da kara fadada ikonsu a yankin. A ƙarshen karnin makuran karfin su, Mandara ta karɓi yabo daga wasu manyan fannoni 15. Hakakuma, masarautar ta fuskanci koma baya a shekarar 1809, lokacin da Modibo Adama, wani dalibi dan kungiyar Fulani na Usman dan Fodio, ya jagoranci jihadi a kan Mandara. Adama a takaice ya kwace Dulo, koda yake ba da daɗewa ba Mandara ta kore shi daga kan iyakokin masarautar. Rashin nasarar Adama ya tilasta wa Borno yin abokantaka da Mandara suka saki abotansu a dalilin mamayewar Fulani.

Sultan Bukar Afade (a kan doki) yana bin mutanen sa, c.1911 / 15.

Bayan mutuwar shugaba Bukai Dgjiama, rikicin Mandara ya taso daga wadanda ba musulmai ba, Fulani kuma sun sake kai hari. A shekarar 1850, Borno ba zata iya ba da damar kai hari kan masarautar da ta raunana ba. Wannan rikice-rikice da aka sabunta ya fara ɓoye ƙarfin masarautar, yana ba da hanya ga mamayewar sojojin Muhammadu Ahmad a cikin 1880s. A shekarar 1895 ko kuma 1896, sojojin Muhammad Ahmad sun lalata Dulo, suna masu nuna koma baya ga ikon Mandara. Ko ta yaya, masarautar ta ci gaba da kasancewa, tana ta ci gaba da kai hare-haren ta Fulani har sai da ta kai musu a 1893.

Bature Mai bincike mai suna Dixon Denham, yayi tafiyan bude ido na rakiya tare da wasu bayi daga Borno izuwa cikin masarautar Mandara a watan Fabrairun 1823; duk da cewar ya gudu kuma ya tsira da ransa, sakamakon cin nasarar da wasu maharan da suka samu, amman ya dawo da daya daga cikin bayanan masarautan da ya samu cikin Turai. A cikin shekarar 1902, kasar Jamus ta karbi ragaman masarautan, daga baya ta mika ma ragamar a hannun Faransa a shekarar 1918. A shekarar 1960, masarautar Mandara ta zama wani bangare na sabon Kamaru mai cin gashin kansa.

Masu mulkin Mandara (a zamanin nan a Kamaru )[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

(Kwanakin wata a karkace na nuna a zahiri shine ci gaba da ofishin)

Lokacin Ba shi da tushe Bayanin kula
c. 1500 Gidauniyar Masarautar Mandara
Sarkin Musulmi na Mandara
1715 zuwa 1757
1757 zuwa 1773 T'Kse Bldi, Sultan
1773 zuwa 1828 Bukar D'Gjiama, Sultan
1828 zuwa 1842 Hiassae, Sultan
1842 zuwa 1894 Bukar Narbanha, Sultan
1894 zuwa 1902 Umar Adjara, Sultan
1902 An hade cikin Kamaruzzaman
1902 zuwa 1911 Umar Adjara, Sultan (daidaita.)
1911 zuwa 1915 Bukar Afade, Sultan
1915 zuwa 1922 Umar Adjara, Sultan
1922 zuwa Mayu 1924 Amada, Sultan
Mayu 1924 zuwa 18 Maris 1942 Kola Adama, Sultan
18 Maris 1942 don gabatarwa Hamidu Umar, Sultan

Dubi kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Siyasa ta Kamaru
  • Shugabannin hukumomin Kamaru
  • Headsan mulkin mallaka na Kamaru Biritaniya na Kamaru (Cameroons)
  • Shugaban gwamnatin Burtaniya na Kamaru (Cameroons)
  • Turawan mulkin mallaka na Faransa Kamaru (Cameroun)
  • Shugabannin Faransa na Kamaru (Cameroun)
  • Fon (take)
    • Fon na Batibo
  • Shugabannin jamusawa na Kamaru (cameroon)
  • Sarakunan Mandara
  • Sarakunan Bamum
  • Lissafin masu riƙe da ofis

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Barkindo, Bawuro Mubi (1989). Mai alfarma Sarkin Mandara zuwa 1902 . Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag.
  • DeLancey, Mark W., da DeLancey, Mark Dike (2000). Kundin tarihi na Jamhuriyar Kamaru . Na uku ed.
  • Fanso, VG (1989). Tarihin Kamaru don Makarantun Sakandare da Kwaleji: Juzu'i na 1: Tarihi prehistoric zuwa karni na sha tara . London: Macmillan Education Ltd.