Dziga Vertov

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Dziga Vertov
David Kaufman (Dziga Vertov) 1913.jpg
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Białystok (en) Fassara, 2 ga Janairu, 1896
ƙasa Kungiyar Sobiyet
Russian Empire (en) Fassara
Mutuwa Moscow, 12 ga Faburairu, 1954
Makwanci Novodevichy Cemetery (en) Fassara
Yanayin mutuwa Sababi na ainihi (Sankara)
Ƴan uwa
Abokiyar zama Yelizaveta Ignatevna Svilova (en) Fassara  (1929 -  1954)
Ahali Mikhail Kaufman (en) Fassara da Boris Kaufman (en) Fassara
Karatu
Harsuna Rashanci
Sana'a
Sana'a marubin wasannin kwaykwayo, darakta, editan fim da Mai daukar hotor shirin fim
Kyaututtuka
Artistic movement documentary film (en) Fassara
IMDb nm0895048

Dziga Vertov ( Russian: Дзига Вертов, an haife David Abelevich Kaufman, Russian: Дави́д А́белевич Ка́уфман, kuma anfi sani da Denis Kaufman ; 2 January 1896 [ - 12 Fabrairu 1954) wani fim ɗin shirin na majagaba ne na Soviet da daraktan labarai, da kuma masanin ka'idar cinema. Ayyukansa na yin fim da ra'ayoyinsa sun rinjayi salon cinema vérité na shirya fina-finai da kuma Dziga Vertov Group, haɗin gwiwar yin fina-finai mai tsattsauran ra'ayi wanda ke aiki daga 1968 zuwa 1972. Ya kasance memba na ƙungiyar Kinoks, tare da Elizaveta Svilova da Mikhail Kaufman.

A cikin zaben Sight & Sound na 2012, masu sharhin fina-finai sun zaɓi Man with a Movie Camera ((1929) fim na takwas mafi girma da aka taɓa yi.[1]

'Yan'uwan Vertov Boris Kaufman da Mikhail Kaufman sun kuma lura da masu shirya fina-finai, kamar yadda matarsa, Yelizaveta Svilova.[2]

Tarihin Rayuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Shekarun farko[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An haifi Vertov David Abelevich Kaufman daga zuriyar Yahudawa a Białystok, Poland, sannan wani yanki na Daular Rasha . Ya Russified sunan Bayahude David da patronymic Abele vich zuwa Denis Arkadievich a wani matsayi bayan 1918.[3] Vertov yayi karatun kiɗa a Białystok Conservatory har sai da danginsa suka gudu daga sojojin Jamus da suka mamaye zuwa Moscow a 1915. Ba da daɗewa ba Kaufmans suka zauna a Petrograd, inda Vertov ya fara rubuta waƙoƙi, almara na kimiyya, da satire . A cikin 1916-1917 Vertov yana karatun likitanci a Cibiyar ilimin halin dan Adam a Saint Petersburg kuma yana gwaji tare da "collage sauti" a lokacinsa na kyauta. A ƙarshe ya karɓi sunan "Dziga Vertov", wanda ke fassara sako-sako daga Ukrainian a matsayin 'sarkin sama'. [4]

Rubutun farko-farko[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Vertov sananne ne da rubuce-rubucensa farko da yawa, galibi yayin da yake makaranta, waɗanda ke mai da hankali kan mutum ɗaya da yanayin hangen nesa na kyamarar kyamara, wanda aka san shi da kiran "ido na biyu".

ba a buga Yawancin ayyukan farko na Vertov ba, kuma 'yan rubuce-rubucen sun tsira bayan yakin duniya na biyu, ko da yake wasu abubuwa sun bayyana a cikin fina-finai na baya da kuma takardun shaida da Vertov da 'yan uwansa, Boris Kaufman da Mikhail Kaufman suka kirkiro.

Vertov sananne ne don ƙididdiga akan hakaya, da rashin daidaituwa, dangane da yanayin qualia (ƙwarewar ji).[5]

Bayan juyin juya halin Oktoba[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayan juyin halin Bolshevik na 1917, yana da shekaru 22, Vertov ya fara gyara don Kino-Nedelya ( Кино-Неделя , jerin fina-finai na kwamitin Cinema na Moscow na mako-mako, da jerin labarai na farko a Rasha), wanda ya fara fitowa a watan Yuni 1918. Yayin da yake aiki da Kino-Nedelya ya sadu da matarsa ta gaba, darektan fim da edita, Elizaveta Svilova, wanda a lokacin yana aiki a matsayin edita a Goskino . Ta fara aiki tare da Vertov, ta fara a matsayin editan sa amma ta zama mataimakiya kuma mai ba da umarni a fina-finai na gaba, irin su Mutum mai Kyamarar Fim (1929), da Waƙoƙi Uku Game da Lenin (1934).

Vertov ya yi aiki a cikin jerin Kino-Nedelya na tsawon shekaru uku, inda ya taimaka wajen kafawa da gudanar da motar fim akan jirgin kasan Mikhail Kalinin a lokacin yakin basasar Rasha da ke gudana tsakanin 'yan tawaye da masu adawa da juyin juya hali . Wasu daga cikin motocin da ke cikin jirgin agit-trains an sanye su da ƴan wasan kwaikwayo don yin wasan kwaikwayo ko na'urorin bugu ; Vertov's yana da kayan aiki don harba, haɓakawa, shiryawa, da shirya fim. Jiragen kasan sun je fagen fama a kan ayyukan farfaganda da tayar da hankali da aka yi niyya da farko don karfafa kwarin gwiwar sojojin; an kuma yi nufin tada hankulan jama'a na juyin juya hali.

A cikin shekara ta 1919, Vertov ya tattara faifan labarai don shirinsa na tunawa da juyin juya halin Musulunci; ya kuma kula da daukar fim din aikin sa na The Battle for Tsaritsyn (1919).[6] a cikin 1921 ya tattara Tarihin Yaƙin Basasa . An kafa abin da ake kira "Majalisar Dokokin Uku," ƙungiyar da ke ba da sanarwa a cikin LEF, mujallar labaran Rasha mai tsattsauran ra'ayi, a cikin 1922; "Uku" na rukuni sune Vertov, matarsa (nan gaba) matarsa da edita Elizaveta Svilova, da ɗan'uwansa kuma mai daukar hoto Mikhail Kaufman.[7] Sha'awar Vertov game da injina ya haifar da sha'awar tushen injinan silima .

An buga bayaninsa "We: Variant of a Manifesto" a cikin fitowar farko ta Kino-Fot, wanda Aleksei Gan ya buga a 1922. Ya fara da bambance-bambance tsakanin "kinoks" da sauran hanyoyin zuwa masana'antar silima mai tasowa:

"Muna kiran kanmu kinoks - akasin "masu daukar hoto", garke na barasa suna yin garambawul suna yin cinikin rigar su.
Ba mu ga alaƙa tsakanin kinochestvo na gaskiya da wayo da lissafin masu cin riba ba.
Muna la'akari da wasan kwaikwayo na Russo-Jamus-wasan kwaikwayo - wanda aka yi la'akari da shi tare da bayyanar da tunanin yara - rashin hankali. "[8]

Kino-Pravda[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin shekara ta 1922, shekarar da aka saki Nanook na Arewa Vertov ya fara jerin Kino-Pravda.[9] Jerin ya ɗauki takensa daga jaridar gwamnati Pravda . "Kino-Pravda" (a zahiri fassara, "fim gaskiya") ya ci gaba da agit-prop na Vertov. "Kungiyar Kino-Pravda ta fara aikinta a wani ginshiki a tsakiyar Moscow", in ji Vertov. Ya kira shi damshi da duhu. Akwai kasa kasa da ramuka daya tuntube a kowane juyi. Vertov ya ce, "Wannan damshin ya hana fim ɗinmu na fim ɗin da aka gyara cikin ƙauna su manne tare da kyau, ya tsatsa almakashi da maƙarƙashiyar mu.[10]

Hangen nesan Vertov, wanda aka bayyana a cikin kasidunsa akai-akai, shine ya ɗauki “gaskiya fim”—wato gutsuttsuran gaskiya waɗanda idan aka haɗa su tare, suna da gaskiya mai zurfi wadda ba za a iya gani da ido tsirara ba. A cikin jerin Kino-Pravda, Vertov ya mai da hankali kan abubuwan yau da kullun, gujewa damuwar bourgeois da yin fim kasuwanni, sanduna, da makarantu a maimakon haka, wani lokaci tare da kyamarar ɓoye, ba tare da fara neman izini ba. Yawancin lokaci, abubuwan da ke faruwa na Kino-Pravda ba su haɗa da sake kunnawa ko tsarawa ba. (Daya banda shi ne sashi game da shari'ar 'yan juyin juya halin zamantakewa : wuraren sayar da jaridu a kan tituna da mutanen da ke karanta takardun a cikin trolley duka an shirya su don kyamara. ) Hotunan fina-finai mai sauƙi ne, aiki, rashin daidaituwa-watakila sakamakon rashin sha'awar Vertov a cikin "kyakkyawa" da "girman almara". An samar da al'amurra ashirin da uku na jerin abubuwan cikin shekaru uku; kowace fitowar ta ɗauki kusan mintuna ashirin kuma yawanci tana ɗaukar batutuwa uku. Labarun galibi suna bayyanawa, ba labari ba, kuma sun haɗa da vignettes da fallasa, suna nuna alal misali sabunta tsarin trolley, ƙungiyar manoma zuwa ƙungiyoyi, da gwajin masu neman sauyi na zamantakewa; wani labari ya nuna yunwa a jihar Kwaminisanci . Har ila yau akwai ra'ayi na farfaganda, amma tare da karin dabara, a cikin shirin da ke nuna ginin filin jirgin sama: harbi daya ya nuna tankunan Tsar suna taimakawa wajen shirya wani tushe, tare da rubutun "Tankuna a kan aikin aiki".

Vertov a fili ya yi niyya yin aiki tare da masu sauraronsa a cikin jerin-a cikin kashi na ƙarshe ya haɗa da bayanan tuntuɓar - amma a cikin kashi na 14 jerin sun zama gwaji sosai har wasu masu suka sun yi watsi da ƙoƙarin Vertov a matsayin "mahaukaci".[ana buƙatar hujja] da martani ga sukar su tare da tabbatar da cewa masu sukar sun kasance masu yin kutse a cikin "yunƙurin juyin juya hali" a cikin toho, kuma ya kammala wani muƙala tare da alkawarin "fashe hasumiyar Babel ".[11] A ra'ayi na Vertov, "hasumiya ta fasaha na Babel" ita ce aikin fasaha na cinematic don ba da labari - abin da masanin fim Noël Burch ya kwatanta yanayin wakilci - wanda zai zo ya mamaye fina-finan Hollywood na gargajiya .

A wannan lokaci a cikin aikinsa, Vertov ya kasance mai nuna rashin gamsuwarsa a fili kuma bai gamsu da al'adar labari ba, kuma ya nuna rashin amincewarsa ga almara mai ban mamaki na kowane nau'i a bayyane kuma akai-akai; ya dauki wasan kwaikwayo a matsayin wani "abin da ya shafi talakawa". Vertov ya yarda da zargi ɗaya da aka yi a kan ƙoƙarinsa kan jerin Kino-Pravda - cewa jerin, yayin da suke da tasiri, suna da iyakataccen sakin.

A karshen jerin Kino-Pravda, Vertov ya yi amfani da sassaucin ra'ayi na tasha motsi, daskarewa firam, da sauran salon cinematic "artificialities", wanda ya haifar da sukar ba kawai game da akidarsa ba, har ma da fasahar fina-finai. Vertov ya bayyana kansa a cikin "A kan 'Kinopravda'": a cikin editan "yanayin fina-finai" tare don jerin Kino-Nedelia, "ya fara shakkar wajibcin haɗin wallafe-wallafen tsakanin abubuwan gani na mutum tare. . . . Wannan aikin ya zama wurin tashi don 'Kinopravda' ".[12] A ƙarshen wannan makala, Vertov ya ambaci wani aiki mai zuwa wanda da alama zai kasance Mutumin da ke da kyamarar Fim (1929), yana kiransa "fim ɗin gwaji" wanda aka yi ba tare da wani labari ba; kawai sakin layi uku a sama, Vertov ya ambaci wani yanayi daga Kino Pravda wanda ya kamata ya zama sananne ga masu kallo na Mutum mai Kyamarar Fim : manoman aiki, haka ma macen birni, haka ma, editan fim din mace yana zaɓar mummunan. . . ".[13]

Man with a Movie Camera[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  Tare da shigar da Lenin na iyakance masu zaman kansu ta hanyar Sabon Tsarin Tattalin Arziki (NEP) na 1921, Rasha ta fara karɓar fina-finai na almara daga nesa, lamarin da Vertov yayi la'akari da zato maras tabbas, yana kiran 'yan wasan kwaikwayo a matsayin "lalacewar tasiri" akan ma'anar proletarian ("On"). Kinopravda' ", 1924). A wannan lokacin Vertov ya kasance yana amfani da jerin shirye-shiryensa na labarai a matsayin tudu don ba da labarin almara mai ban mamaki tsawon shekaru da yawa; ya ci gaba da sukarsa ko da bayan liyafar da Sergei Eisenstein na Battleship Potemkin (1925) ya yi. Potemkin wani fim ne na almara wanda ya ba da labarin kisan gilla da aka yi a kan wani jirgin ruwan yaki wanda ya faru a sakamakon zaluncin da matukan jirgin suka yi; Fim ɗin wani yanki ne na farfaganda a bayyane amma ƙwararre da ke ɗaukaka masu fafutuka. Vertov ya rasa aikinsa a Sovkino a cikin Janairu 1927, maiyuwa ne sakamakon sukar wani fim wanda ya yi wa'azin layin Jam'iyyar Kwaminisanci sosai. An kore shi saboda yin Sashe na shida na Duniya: Talla da Tarayyar Soviet don Kungiyar Kasuwancin Jiha a cikin fim ɗin farfaganda, yana sayar da Soviet a matsayin al'umma mai ci gaba a ƙarƙashin NEP, maimakon nuna yadda suka dace da tattalin arzikin duniya.

Studio State na Ukraine ya ɗauki Vertov don ƙirƙirar Mutum mai Kyamarar Fim . Vertov ya ce a cikin makalarsa "Mutumin da ke da kyamarar fim" yana fafutukar "domin tsaftace harshen fim, don rabuwa da harshen wasan kwaikwayo da wallafe-wallafe". [14] Ta hanyar sassan Kino-Pravda na baya, Vertov yana yin gwaji sosai, yana neman watsi da abin da ya yi la'akari da clichés na fim (da kuma karbar zargi); Gwajin nasa ya ma fi fitowa fili da ban mamaki a lokacin Mutum mai kyamarar Fim, wanda aka yi fim a Ukraine. Wasu sun soki shirye-shiryen da aka bayyana a cikin wannan fim da cewa sun yi hannun riga da koyarwar Vertov na "rayuwa kamar yadda take" da "rayuwar da ba a sani ba": yanayin da mace ta tashi daga gado kuma ta yi ado a fili an shirya shi, kamar yadda aka juya baya. harbin chess da ake turawa daga kan allo na dara da kuma hoton bidiyon da Mikhail Kaufman ke hawa a cikin mota yana daukar mota ta uku.

Duk da haka, takardun shaida guda biyu na Vertov, waɗanda galibi ana amfani da su a tare, a zahiri sun bambanta, kamar yadda Yuri Tsivian yayi sharhi a cikin waƙar sharhi akan DVD don Man with the Movie Camera: na Vertov, "rayuwa kamar yadda yake" yana nufin rikodin rayuwa kamar yadda zai kasance. ba tare da kamara ba. "Rayuwar da ba a sani ba" na nufin rikodin rayuwa lokacin da aka yi mamaki, kuma watakila an tsokane shi, ta gaban kyamara. [15] Wannan bayanin ya saba wa zato na kowa cewa ga Vertov "rayuwar da aka kama" tana nufin "rayuwar da ba ta san kyamara ba". Duk waɗannan harbe-harbe na iya yin daidai da ka'idar Vertov "wanda aka kama ba tare da sani ba". Mikhail Kaufman ya bayyana a cikin wata hira da aka yi da shi a hankali. Ya zama gaskiya gaskiyar fahimta. Misali, a cikin Mutum mai Kyamarar Fim, an nuna jiragen kasa biyu kusan suna narkewa cikin juna. Ko da yake an koya mana ganin jiragen kasa ba sa tafiya kusa da haka, Vertov ya yi ƙoƙari ya nuna ainihin abin da jiragen kasa biyu ke wucewa. Mikhail ya yi magana game da fina-finan Eisenstein da cewa sun bambanta da nasa da na ɗan'uwansa a cikin cewa Eisenstein "ya fito daga gidan wasan kwaikwayo, a gidan wasan kwaikwayo mutum ya jagoranci wasan kwaikwayo, beads guda ɗaya". "Dukkanmu mun ji ... cewa ta hanyar fim din za mu iya haɓaka sabon nau'in fasaha. Ba wai kawai zane-zane na rubuce-rubuce ba, ko kuma fasahar tarihin tarihi, amma fasahar da ta danganci hotuna, ƙirƙirar aikin jarida mai ma'ana, "in ji Mikhail. Fiye da gaskiyar fim ma, Mutumin da ke da kyamarar Fim ya kamata ya zama hanyar da za ta sa waɗanda ke cikin Tarayyar Soviet suka fi dacewa da ayyukansu. Ya rage motsinsa, kamar yanke shawarar tsalle ko a'a. Kuna iya ganin yanke shawara a fuskarsa, rarrabawar tunani ga masu sauraro. Yana son zaman lafiya tsakanin ayyukan mutum da na injina, domin su kasance, a wata ma'ana, daya.

Cine-Eye[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

"Cine-Eye" hanya ce da Dziga Vertov kuma ya fara tsara shi a cikin aikinsa "WE: Variant of a Manifesto" a 1919.

Dziga Vertov ya yi imani da ra'ayinsa na Kino-Glaz, ko "Cine Eye" a Turanci, zai taimaka wa "mutum" na zamani ya samo asali daga wata halitta marar lahani zuwa mafi girma, mafi daidaitaccen tsari. Ya kwatanta mutum da injuna: “A fuskar injin muna jin kunyar gazawar mutum don sarrafa kansa, amma me za mu yi idan muka ga hanyoyin da ba su dace ba na wutar lantarki sun fi farin ciki fiye da gaggawar rashin ƙarfi na mutane masu aiki [. . . ]" [16] Kamar yadda ya sanya shi a cikin 1923 credo, "Ni ne Cine-Eye. Ni ne idon injina. Inji na nuna muku duniya kamar yadda ni kadai nake iya gani. Ina 'yantar da kaina daga yanzu har abada daga rashin motsin mutum. Ina cikin motsi akai-akai. . . Hanyara tana kaiwa zuwa ga ƙirƙirar sabon fahimtar duniya. Don haka zan iya fahimtar duniyar da ba ku sani ba."[17]

Kamar sauran masu yin fina-finai na Rasha, ya yi ƙoƙarin haɗa ra'ayoyinsa da dabarunsa don ci gaban manufofin Tarayyar Soviet. Yayin da Sergei Eisenstein ya kalli abubuwan jan hankali nasa a matsayin kayan aikin kirkire-kirkire ta hanyar da jama'a masu kallon fina-finai za su iya fuskantar "tasirin tunani da tunani" don haka suna iya fahimtar "bangaren akida" na fina-finan da suke kallo, Vertov ya yarda da Cine . -Ido zai rinjayi ainihin juyin halittar mutum, "daga ɗan ƙasa mai ɓarna ta hanyar waƙar injin zuwa cikakken mutumin lantarki". [18]

Vertov ya kewaye kansa tare da wasu waɗanda kuma suka kasance masu cikakken imani a cikin ra'ayoyinsa. Waɗannan su ne Kinoks, sauran masu yin fina-finai na Rasha waɗanda za su taimaka masa a cikin begen sa na samun nasarar a "cine-eye".

Vertov ya yi imanin cewa fim ɗinsa ya kasance "mai ban sha'awa" da "wasan kwaikwayo" saboda tasirin wallafe-wallafe, wasan kwaikwayo, da kiɗa, kuma waɗannan fina-finai na tunanin mutum-wasan kwaikwayo "sun hana mutum zama daidai a matsayin agogon gudu kuma yana hana sha'awar dangi da na'ura". ". Ya so ya nisa daga “samfurin ‘tatsuniya’ kafin juyin juya hali” na yin fim zuwa wanda ya dogara da yanayin injina, yana neman “kawo farin ciki na kere-kere ga duk aikin injiniya” [19] da kuma “kawo maza kusa da injina” . [19]

A watan Mayu 1927 Vertov ya koma Ukraine, kuma ra'ayin Cine-Eye ya mutu.

Ayyukan karshe[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ayyukan nasara na Vertov sun ci gaba har zuwa 1930s. Sha'awa: Symphony na Donbass (1931), jarrabawa a cikin masu hakar ma'adinan Soviet, an kira shi 'fim mai sauti', tare da rikodin sauti akan wurin, kuma waɗannan sauti na inji an haɗa su tare, suna haifar da sakamako mai kama da sauti.

Bayan shekaru uku,Three Songs about Lenin (1934) sun kalli juyin juya hali ta idanun manoman Rasha. Don fim ɗinsa, duk da haka, Mezhrabpomfilm ya ɗauki Vertov hayar, ɗakin studio na Soviet wanda ya samar da yunƙurin farfaganda. Fim ɗin, wanda aka ƙare a cikin Janairu 1934 don Lenin's obit, an fito da shi a bainar jama'a ne kawai a cikin Tarayyar Soviet a cikin Nuwamba na waccan shekarar. Daga Yuli 1934 an nuna shi a wani nuni na sirri ga manyan jami'an Soviet daban-daban da kuma ga manyan kasashen waje ciki har da HG Wells, William Bullitt, da sauransu, kuma an nuna shi a bikin Fim na Venice a watan Agusta 1934.[20] An fitar da sabon sigar fim ɗin a cikin 1938, gami da jerin tsayin daka don nuna "nasarar" Stalin a ƙarshen fim ɗin tare da barin fim ɗin "maƙiyi" na lokacin. A yau akwai sake gina 1970 ta Yelizaveta Svilova . Tare da haɓakawa da takunkumin hukuma na hakikar gurguzu a cikin 1934, Vertov an tilasta masa ya yanke kayan aikin sa na fasaha sosai, daga ƙarshe ya zama ɗan edita na labaran Soviet.[ana buƙatar hujja] fim na ƙarshe wanda Vertov ya iya kiyaye hangen nesa na fasaha, an sake shi a cikin 1937.

Dziga Vertov ya mutu sanadiyyar ciwon daji a Moscow a 1954.[6]

Iyali[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ɗan'uwan Vertov Boris Kaufman ɗan wasan kwaikwayo ne wanda ya yi aiki tare da Jean Vigo a cikin shirin L'Atalante (1934) kuma da yawa daga baya ga daraktoci irin su Elia Kazan a Amurka wanda ya lashe lambar yabo ta Oscar saboda aikinsa a kan Waterfront . Wani ɗan'uwansa, Mikhail Kaufman, ya yi aiki tare da Vertov a kan fina-finansa har sai da ya zama ɗan jarida a kansa. Mikhail Kaufman na darektan halarta na halarta na farko shine fim ɗin In Spring (1929).

A shekara ta 1923, Vertov ya auri abokin aikinsa na dogon lokaci Elizaveta Svilova.[21]

Tasiri da abunda ya bari[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Abubuwan da Vertov ya bari har yanzu yana nan a yau. Ra'ayoyinsa sun sake bayyana a cikin cinema vérité, motsi na 1960 mai suna bayan Vertov's Kino-Pravda . 1960s da 1970s sun ga farfaɗowar sha'awa ta duniya a Vertov.[22]

Bincikensa masu zaman kansa, salon bincike na Vertov ya rinjayi kuma ya karfafa yawancin masu yin fim da daraktoci kamar Situationist Guy Debord da kamfanoni masu zaman kansu irin su Vertov Industries a Hawaii. Kungiyar Dziga Vertov ta aro sunansa. A cikin 1960, Jean Rouch yayi amfani da ka'idar yin fim na Vertov lokacin yin Chronicle of a Summer . Abokin aikinsa Edgar Morin ya kirkiro kalmar cinéma vérité lokacin da yake kwatanta salon, ta amfani da fassarar kai tsaye na Vertov's KinoPravda .

Ƙungiyar sinima ta Kyauta a Ƙasar Ingila a cikin shekarun 1950, Gidan Cinema kai tsaye a Arewacin Amirka a ƙarshen 1950s da farkon 1960s, da kuma Candid Eye a Kanada a cikin 1950s duk suna da bashi ga Vertov.[23]

Wannan ya farfaɗo da gadon Vertov ya haɗa da sake gyara sunansa a cikin Tarayyar Soviet, tare da jujjuyawar fina-finansa, ayyukan tarihi, da rubuce-rubuce. A cikin 1962, an buga littafin tarihin Soviet na farko akan Vertov, sannan kuma wani tarin, "Dziga Vertov: Articles, Diaries, Projects". A cikin 1984, don tunawa da cika shekaru 30 na mutuwar Vertov, ƙungiyoyin al'adu na New York guda uku sun fara nazarin aikin Vertov na farko na Amurka.[24]

New Media theorist Lev Manovich ya ba da shawarar cewa Vertov a matsayin ɗaya daga cikin farkon majagaba na nau'in cinema na bayanai a cikin maƙalar Database a matsayin siffa ta alama .

Fina-finai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

File:Kino glaz.jpg
Poster na Kino-Eye, wanda Alexander Rodchenko ya tsara (1924)
Soviet Toys
  • 1918 Кинонеделя ( Kino Nedelya / Cinema Week )
  • 1918 Годовщина революции ( Anniversary of the juyin juya halin Musulunci )
  • 1922 История гражданской войны ( History of the Civil War )
  • 1922 Киноправда ( Kino-Pravda )
  • 1924 Советские игрушки ( Soviet Toys )
  • 1924 Кино-глаз ( Kino-Eye ), mai daukar hoto Ilya Kopalin
  • 1926 Шестая часть мира ( Sashe na Shida na Duniya )
  • 1928 Одиннадцатый ( Shekara ta sha ɗaya )
  • 1929 Человек с киноаппаратом ( Mutumin da ke da Kyamarar Fim )
  • 1931 Эntuzyazm (Симфония Донбаса )
  • 1934 Три песни о Ленине ( Wakoki Uku Game da Lenin )
  • 1937 Памяти Серго Орджоникидзе ( In Memory of Sergo Ordzhonikidze )
  • 1937 Колыбельная ( Lullaby )
  • 1938 Три героини ( Jarumai Uku )
  • 1942 Казахстан - фронту! ( Kazakhstan for the Front! )
  • 1944 В горах Ала-Тау ( In the Mountains of Ala-Tau )
  • 1954 Новости дня ( Labarai na Ranar )

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Soviet monage ka'idar
  • Ka'idar fim na tsari
  • Cinéma Vérité
  • Cinema mai tsafta
  • Fim ɗin Abstract

Bayanan kafa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. "Sight & Sound Revises Best-Films-Ever Lists". studiodaily. 1 August 2012. Retrieved 1 August2012.
  2. McClane, Betsy A. (2013). A New History of Documentary Film (2nd ed.). New York: Bloomsbury. pp. 42, 47.
  3. Early Soviet Cinema; Innovation, Ideology and Propaganda by David Gillespie Wallflower Press London 2005, page 57
  4. Documentary Film: A Very Short Introduction: A Very Short Introduction by Patricia Aufderheide; Oxford University Press, 28 November 2007, page 37
  5. "Dziga Vertov". Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Hicks, Jeremy. (2007). Dziga Vertov : defining documentary film. London: I.B. Tauris. p. 55. ISBN 9781435603523. OCLC 178389068.
  7. Paul Rotha (1930). The film till now, a survey of the cinema. Jonathan Cape. pp. 167–170.
  8. "We: Variant of a manifesto" (PDF). monoskop.org. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
  9. McLane, Betsy A. (5 April 2012). A New History of Documentary Film: Second Edition. A&C Black. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-4411-2457-9.
  10. Leyda, Jay (21 August 1983). Kino: A History of the Russian and Soviet Film, With a New Postscript and a Filmography Brought Up to the Present. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-00346-7.
  11. Vertov 1924, p. 47
  12. Vertov 1924, p. 42
  13. Vertov 1924, p. 46
  14. Vertov 1928, p. 83
  15. At 16:04 on the commentary track.
  16. Vertov 1922, p. 69
  17. The film factory : Russian and Soviet cinema in documents. Taylor, Richard, 1946–, Christie, Ian, 1945–. London: Routledge. 1994. p. 93. ISBN 041505298X. OCLC 32274035.
  18. Vertov 1922, pp. 69–71
  19. 19.0 19.1 Vertov 1922, p. 71
  20. MacKay, John (2012). "Allegory and Accommodation: Vertov's Three Songs of Lenin (1934) as a Stalinist Film". In Ioffe, Dennis; White, Frederick (eds.). Russian Avant-Garde and Radical Modernism: An Introductory Reader. Academic Studies Press. p. 420. ISBN 9781618111425.
  21. Penfold, Christopher. "Elizaveta Svilova and Soviet Documentary Film" (PDF). eprints.soton.ac.uk. University of Southampton Institutional Research Repository. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 August 2019.
  22. Barnouw, Erik. "Dziga Vertov – Director – Films as Director:, Publications". www.filmreference.com.
  23. Dancyger, Ken (2002). The technique of film and video editing: history, theory, and practice, by Ken Dancyger. ISBN 9780240804200.
  24. Monaco, James (1991). The Encyclopedia of Film. Perigee Books. p. 552. ISBN 9780399516047. American retrospective of Vertov'.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Littattafai da Labarai
  • Barnouw, Erik . Documentary: Tarihin Fim ɗin da ba na almara ba. Jami'ar Oxford Press. Haƙƙin mallaka na asali 1974.
  • Bohlman, Philip Vilas. Kiɗa, Zamani, da Ƙasashen waje a cikin Sabuwar Jamus. 1994, pp. 121-152
  • Christie, Yan . "Rushes: Pordenone Retrospective: Gazing into the Future.", in: Sight and Sound . 2005, 15, 1, 4–5, Cibiyar Fina-Finan Burtaniya
  • Kuka, Simon. " Idanun mu, suna jujjuyawa kamar masu haɓakawa: Wheel of Life, Curve of Velocities, da Dziga Vertov's Theory of Interva l." Oktoba, 2007: 79-91.
  • Ellis, Jack C. Ra'ayin Rubuce-rubuce: Mahimman Tarihin Fim da Bidiyo na Documentary na Harshen Turanci. Prentice Hall, 1989.
  • Feldman, Seth. "' Aminci Tsakanin Mutum da Na'ura': Dziga Vertov's Mutumin Mai Kyamarar Fim. " a cikin: Barry Keith Grant, da Jeannette Sloniowski, eds. Takaddun Takardun Takardun: Rufe Karatun Fim da Bidiyo. Wayne State University Press, 1998. pp. 40-53.
  • Feldman, Seth. Juyin Halitta a farkon aikin Dziga Vertov. 1977, Arno Press, New York.
  • Graffy, Julian; Deriabin, Aleksandr; Sarkisova, Oksana; Keller, Sarah; Scandiffio, Theresa. Lines na Resistance: Dziga Vertov da Twenties ; edita kuma tare da gabatarwar Yuri Tsivian. Le Giornate del cinema muto, Gemona, Udine
  • Heftberger, Adelheid. Kollision der Kader. Dziga Vertovs Filme, die Visualisierung ihrer Strukturen und mutu Digital Humanities . Munich: bugun rubutu + kritik, 2016.
  • Hicks, Jeremy. Dziga Vertov: Ma'anar Fim ɗin Takardu. London & New York: IB Tauris, 2007.
  • Le Grice, Malcolm. Abstract Film and Beyond. Studio Vista, 1977.
  • Mackay, John. "Allegory da Accommodation: Vertov's "The Three Songs of Lenin" (1934) a matsayin Stalinist Film. A cikin Tarihin Fim: Jarida ta Duniya ; 18.4 (2006) 376-391.
  • Mackay, John. "Hayaniyar da ba ta da tsari: Hankali da Kunnen Tari."
  • Mackay, John. "Fim Makamashi: Tsari da Metanarrative a Dziga Vertov's "Shekara Ta Sha Daya" (1928). Oktoba ; 121 (Summer 2007): 41-78.
  • Mackay, John. "'The'Spinning Top' yana Wani Juyi: Vertov A Yau."
  • Mackay, John. John Mackay | Jami'ar Yale - Academia.edu Drafts na Dziga Vertov: Rayuwa da Aiki]
  • Michelson, Annette & Turvey, Malcolm, ed. "New Vertov Nazarin." Batu na Musamman na Oktoba, ( Oktoba 121 (Summer 2007)).
  • Roberts, Graham. Mutumin Mai Hoton Fim. IB Tauris, 2001. ISBN 1-86064-394-9
  • Singer, Ben. "Masu ba da labari na Hargitsi: Whitman, Vertov da kuma 'Littafin Mawaka'," Littattafai / Fim na Kwata-kwata ; 15:4 (Faɗuwar 1987): 247–258.
  • Tode, Thomas & Wurm, Barbara, Austriya Film Museum, ed. Dziga Vertov. Tarin Vertov a Gidan Tarihi na Fina-Finan Austria , Bilingual (Jamus-Ingilishi). (Takarda - Mayu 2006), FilmmuseumSynemaPublikationen.-- sigar kan layi akwai a nan .
  • Tsivian, Yuri, ed. Lines na Resistance: Dziga Vertov da Twenties . Le Giornate del Cinema Muto, 2004. ISBN 88-86155-15-8
  • Vertov, Dziga. Ya da Kinopravda. 1924, da Mutumin da ke da Kyamarar Fim. 1928, a cikin: Annette Michelson ed. Kevin O'Brien karfinsu Kino-Eye : Rubutun Dziga Vertov, Jami'ar California Press, 1995.
  • Dziga Vertov. Mu. Sigar Manifesto. 1922, a cikin Ian Christie, Richard Taylor ed. Kamfanin Fim: Cinema na Rasha da Soviet a cikin Takardu, 1896-1939 Routledge, 1994. ISBN 0-415-05298-X
  • Warren, Charles, ed. Bayan Takardu: Kasidu akan Fim ɗin Ƙirarriya. Jami'ar Wesleyan Press, 1996.
DVDs
  • Mutumin Dziga Vertov tare da DVD ɗin Kamara na Fim, waƙar sharhin sauti ta Yuri Tsivian.
  • Entuziazm (Simfonija Donbassa) DVD, sigar da aka maido da sigar da ba a dawo da ita ba tare da takaddun shaida kan maido da Peter Kubelka.

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]