Gorée

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Infotaula d'esdevenimentGorée
Senegal Gorée island harbor.jpg
Dakar Gorée.svg
 14°40′01″N 17°23′54″W / 14.666944444444°N 17.398333333333°W / 14.666944444444; -17.398333333333
Suna a harshen gida (fr) Île de Gorée
Iri island (en) Fassara
cultural heritage (en) Fassara
Communes d'arrondissement of Senegal (en) Fassara
urban area (en) Fassara
Suna saboda Goedereede (en) Fassara
Bangare na Four Communes (en) Fassara
Wuri Plateau/Gorée Arrondissement (en) Fassara
Ƙasa Senegal da Portuguese Empire (en) Fassara
Yawan fili 0.182 km²

Yanar gizo iledegoree.org

Île de Gorée (lafazin Faransanci: [ildəɡoʁe]; "Gorée Island"; Wolof: Beer Dun) ɗaya ne daga cikin 19 communes d'arrondissement (watau gundumomi) na birnin Dakar, Senegal. Tsibiri ne mai girman hekta 18.2 (acre 45) mai nisan kilomita 2 (1.1 nmi; 1.2 mi) a teku daga babban tashar jiragen ruwa na Dakar ( 14°40′N 17°24′W), sanannen wuri ga masu sha'awar. a cikin cinikin bayi na Atlantic ko da yake ainihin rawar da yake takawa a tarihin cinikin bayi shine batun takaddama.

Yawanta na ƙidayar 2013 ya kasance mazauna 1,680, yana ba da yawan mazaunan 5,802 a kowace murabba'in kilomita (15,030/sq mi), wanda shine rabin matsakaicin yawan birnin Dakar. Gorée ita ce mafi ƙanƙanta kuma mafi ƙarancin yawan jama'a a communes d'arrondissement 19 na Dakar.

Wasu muhimman cibiyoyi na cinikin bayi daga Senegal sun kasance a arewa, a Saint-Louis, Senegal, ko kuma kudu a cikin Gambiya, a bakin manyan koguna don kasuwanci.[1][2] Wuri ne na Tarihin Duniya na UNESCO kuma yana ɗaya daga cikin wurare 12 na farko a duniya da aka sanya su a cikin 1978.[3]

Sunan cin hanci da rashawa ne na asalin sunan sa na Dutch Goedereede, ma'ana "kyakkyawan hanya".

Tarihi da cinikin bayi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Historical affiliations
Portugal 1444–1588
Dutch Republic 1588–1629
Portugal 1629<br Dutch Republic 1629–1664
England 1664–1677
Flag of France (1794–1815, 1830–1974, 2020–present).svg Faransa 1677–1758
Great Britain 1758–1763
Flag of France (1794–1815, 1830–1974, 2020–present).svg Faransa 1763–1779
Great Britain 1779–1783
Flag of France (1794–1815, 1830–1974, 2020–present).svg Faransa 1783–1960
Flag of Senegal.svg Senegal 1960–present
Yaren mutanen Holland sun kafa sansani na Nassau (1628) da Orange (1639). Zane mai launi, Holland, karni na 17

Gorée ƙaramin tsibiri ne mai tsayin mita 900 (ft 3,000 ft) kuma tsayinsa mita 350 (1,150 ft) a faɗin yankin Cap-Vert. Yanzu wani yanki na birnin Dakar, ƙaramin tashar jiragen ruwa ne kuma wurin zama na Turai a bakin teku. Kasancewar kusan babu ruwan sha, tsibirin bai zauna ba kafin zuwan Turawa. Fotigal sune farkon waɗanda suka kafa kasancewar Gorée c. 1450, inda suka gina wani karamin dutse chapel da kuma amfani da kasa a matsayin makabarta.

An san Gorée da wurin da Gidan Bayi (Faransanci: Maison des esclaves), wanda dangin Afro-Faransa Métis suka gina kusan 1780-1784. Gidan bayi yana ɗaya daga cikin tsofaffin gidaje a tsibirin. Yanzu ana amfani da shi azaman wurin yawon buɗe ido don nuna ta'addancin cinikin bayi a duk faɗin duniyar Atlantic.

Bayan koma bayan cinikin bayi daga kasar Senegal a shekarun 1770 zuwa 1780, garin ya zama wata muhimmiyar tashar jiragen ruwa don jigilar gyada, man gyada, danko larabci, hauren giwa, da sauran kayayyakin cinikayyar ''halal'''. Wataƙila dangane da wannan ciniki ne aka gina abin da ake kira Maison des Esclaves.[1] Kamar yadda ɗan tarihi Ana Lucia Araujo ya tattauna, ginin ya fara samun suna a matsayin wurin ajiyar bayi musamman saboda aikin mai kula da shi Boubacar Joseph Ndiaye, wanda ya iya motsa masu sauraron da suka ziyarci gidan tare da wasan kwaikwayonsa.[4][5] Yawancin jama'a suna ziyartar gidan bayi, wanda ke taka rawar wurin tunawa da bauta. A watan Yunin 2013, shugaban Amurka Barack Obama ya ziyarci gidan bayi.

Tsibirin Gorée na ɗaya daga cikin wurare na farko a Afirka da Turawa suka yi zama, kamar yadda Portuguese suka zauna a tsibirin a 1444. Ƙasar Netherlands ta sake kama shi a 1588, sannan Portuguese sake, kuma Dutch. Sun ba shi sunan tsibirin Goeree na Holland, kafin Ingila ta karbe shi karkashin Robert Holmes a 1664.

Mulkin mallaka na Faransa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bayan mamayar Faransa a shekara ta 1677, a lokacin yakin Franco-Dutch, tsibirin ya kasance mafi yawan Faransanci har zuwa shekara ta 1960. An sami ɗan gajeren lokaci na mamayar Birtaniyya a lokacin yaƙe-yaƙe daban-daban da Faransa da Birtaniyya suka yi. Ƙasar Ingila ta mamaye tsibirin musamman a tsakanin 1758 da 1763 bayan kama Gorée da kuma mamaye Senegal a lokacin Yaƙin Shekaru Bakwai kafin a mayar da shi Faransa a Yarjejeniyar Paris (1763). A cikin ɗan gajeren lokaci tsakanin 1779 zuwa 1783, Gorée ya sake kasancewa ƙarƙashin ikon Burtaniya, har sai an sake ba da shi ga Faransa a 1783 a Yarjejeniyar Paris (1783). A wannan lokacin, sanannen Joseph Wall ya yi aiki a matsayin Laftanar-Gwamna a can, wanda ya sa aka yi wa wasu mutanensa bulala ba bisa ka'ida ba har suka mutu a shekara ta 1782; saboda wadannan laifuka, an kashe Wall daga baya a Ingila.[6]

Gorée ya kasance babban wurin ciniki, wanda aka haɗa shi zuwa Saint-Louis, babban birnin Masarautar Senegal. Baya ga bayi, an kuma sayar da kakin zuma, fatu da hatsi. Yawan jama'ar tsibirin ya bambanta bisa ga yanayi, daga 'yan Afirka 'yan ɗari kaɗan da Creoles zuwa kusan 1,500. Da an sami 'yan mazauna Turai kaɗan a kowane lokaci.

An kama Gorée a lokacin Yaƙin Shekaru Bakwai, 29 Disamba 1758

A cikin karni na 18 da na 19, Gorée ya kasance gida ga wani ɗan kasuwa na Franco-African Creole, ko Métis, al'ummar 'yan kasuwa masu alaƙa da al'ummomi iri ɗaya a Saint-Louis da Gambiya, da kuma ƙetaren Tekun Atlantika zuwa yankunan Faransanci a Amurka. Matan Métis, waɗanda ake kira sa hannu daga zuriyar senhora na Portugal na matan Afirka da 'yan kasuwa na Turai, suna da mahimmanci musamman ga rayuwar kasuwancin birni. Alamun sun mallaki jiragen ruwa da kadarori kuma sun umarci magatakarda maza. Sun kuma shahara wajen noman kayan sawa da nishaɗi. Ɗaya daga cikin irin wannan alamar, Anne Rossignol, ta zauna a Saint-Domingue (Haiti na zamani) a cikin 1780s kafin juyin juya halin Haiti.

Schley, Jacobus van der, 1715-1779. Tsibirin Gorée da kagaransa

A watan Fabrairun 1794 a lokacin juyin juya halin Faransa, Faransa ta kawar da bauta, kuma an ce cinikin bayi daga Senegal ya daina. Wani zanen Faransanci na kimanin 1797 (hoton) ya nuna har yanzu yana ci gaba, amma wannan yana iya zama anachronism. A cikin Afrilu 1801, Birtaniya ta sake kama Gorée.[7]

A cikin Janairu 1804 wani ƙaramin Faransanci daga Curacao ya kama Gorée, amma Birtaniyya ta sake kama shi a cikin Maris.

A cikin Maris 1815, a lokacin dawowar siyasarsa da aka sani da Kwanaki ɗari, Napoleon ya kawar da cinikin bayi don gina dangantaka da Birtaniya. A wannan karon, an ci gaba da shafewa.

Kamar yadda cinikin bayi ya ragu a ƙarshen karni na sha takwas, Gorée ya koma kasuwanci na halal. Karamin birni da tashar jiragen ruwa ba su da matsala don jigilar kayan gyada masu yawa na masana'antu, waɗanda suka fara isa da yawa daga babban yankin. Saboda haka, 'yan kasuwa sun kafa gaban kai tsaye a cikin babban yankin, na farko a Rufisque (1840) sannan a Dakar (1857). Yawancin iyalai da aka kafa sun fara barin tsibirin.

An kafa ikon mallakar ikon mallakar jama'a na jama'ar Gorée a cikin 1872, lokacin da ta zama haɗin commune Faransa tare da zaɓaɓɓen magajin gari da majalisar gunduma. Blaise Diagne, mataimakin dan Afirka na farko da aka zaba a Majalisar Dokokin Faransa (wanda ya yi aiki daga 1914 zuwa 1934), an haife shi a Gorée. Daga kololuwar kusan 4,500 a cikin 1845, yawan jama'a ya ragu zuwa 1,500 a 1904. A cikin 1940 an haɗa Gorée zuwa gundumar Dakar.

Daga 1913 zuwa 1938, Gorée ya kasance gida ga École normale supérieure William Ponty, kwalejin malamai na gwamnati wanda Gwamnatin Mulkin Mallaka ta Faransa ke gudanarwa. Da yawa daga cikin wadanda suka yaye makarantar wata rana za su jagoranci gwagwarmayar neman ‘yancin kai daga Faransa. A cikin 1925, masanin tarihi, masanin zamantakewa, da Pan-African WEB Du Bois ya rubuta game da makaranta a cikin 1925 "A kan tsibirin Goree mai ban sha'awa wanda tsohuwar ginshiƙi ya fuskanci Dakar na zamani da kasuwanci na ga yara maza masu kyau biyu ko uku na makarantar sakandare sun taru a ciki. daga duk Senegal ta hanyar gwaje-gwajen gasa kuma ƙwararrun malamai na Faransa sun koyar da su daidai da tsarin karatu wanda, gwargwadon abin da ya gabata, ya yi daidai da na kowace makarantar Turai, "yayin da Faransa ta yi wa mulkin mallaka kan yadda ƙayyadaddun kayan aikin ilimin jama'a ke cikin kasar gaba daya da kuma bayyana rashin bege game da kara zuba jari.[8][9]

An haɗa Gorée zuwa babban yankin ta hanyar sabis na jirgin ruwa na tsawon mintuna 30 na yau da kullun, don masu tafiya a ƙasa kawai; babu motoci a tsibirin. Babban wurin yawon bude ido na Senegal, tsibirin an jera shi a matsayin wurin tarihi na UNESCO a shekarar 1978. Yanzu ya kasance mafi yawan abin tunawa ga cinikin bayi. Yawancin gine-ginen kasuwanci da na zama na tarihi an mai da su gidajen abinci da otal don tallafawa zirga-zirgar yawon buɗe ido.

Gudanarwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Taswirar Gorée

Tare da kafuwar Dakar a 1857, Goré a hankali ya rasa mahimmancinsa. A shekara ta 1872, hukumomin mulkin mallaka na Faransa sun ƙirƙira ƙauyuka biyu na Saint-Louis da Gorée, gundumomi na farko na yammacin Afirka a yammacin Afirka, tare da matsayi iri ɗaya da kowace ƙungiya a Faransa. Dakar, a babban yankin, yana cikin gundumar Gorée, wanda gwamnatinsa ke a tsibirin. Duk da haka, a farkon 1887, Dakar ya rabu da gundumar Gorée kuma an mai da shi ta hanyar jama'a a kansa. Don haka, yankin Gorée ya zama iyaka ga ƙaramin tsibiri.

A cikin 1891, Gorée yana da mazauna 2,100, yayin da Dakar ke da mazauna 8,737 kawai. Koyaya, ya zuwa 1926 yawan mutanen Gorée ya ragu zuwa mazauna 700 kawai, yayin da yawan mutanen Dakar ya ƙaru zuwa mazauna 33,679. Don haka, a cikin 1929 an haɗa ƙungiyar Gorée tare da Dakar. Ƙungiyar Gorée ta ɓace, kuma Gorée yanzu ƙaramin tsibiri ne na gundumar Dakar.

A shekara ta 1996, majalisar dokokin Senegal ta kada kuri'a a wani gagarumin garambawul na bangaren gudanarwa da na siyasa na kasar Senegal. An raba al’ummar Dakar, wanda ake ganin babba ce kuma mai yawan jama’a ba za ta iya gudanar da shi yadda ya kamata ba daga karamar hukuma, an raba shi zuwa communes d'arrondissement 19 da aka ba da iko mai yawa. An kiyaye gundumar Dakar sama da waɗannan yankuna 19 na communes d'arrondissement. Yana daidaita ayyukan gundumomi d'arrondissement, kamar yadda Greater London ke daidaita ayyukan gundumomin London.

Don haka, a cikin 1996 an ta da commune Gorée daga matattu, ko da yake yanzu ta zama commune d'arrondissement ne kawai (amma a zahiri tare da iko mai kama da na gama gari). Sabuwar commune d'arrondissement na Gorée (a hukumance, Commune d'Arrondissement de l'île de Gorée) ta mallaki tsohuwar mairie (zauren gari) a tsakiyar tsibirin. Anyi amfani da wannan azaman mairie na tsohuwar gundumar Gorée tsakanin 1872 zuwa 1929.

Majalisar commune d'arrondissement (conseil municipal) ce ke mulkin gundumar Gorée ta dimokuradiyya a kowace shekara 5, kuma ta shugaban karamar hukuma da mambobin majalisar karamar hukuma suka zaba.

Magajin garin Gorée na yanzu shine Augustin Senghor, wanda aka zaba a 2002.

Archaeology na tsibirin Gorée[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tsibirin ita ce Cibiyar Tarihi ta Duniya ta UNESCO, tun daga Satumba 1978.[10] Yawancin manyan gine-gine a Gorée an gina su a cikin rabin na biyu na karni na sha takwas. Babban gine-gine shine gidan bayi, 1786; Makarantar William Ponty, 1770; Musée de la mer (Maritime Museum), 1835; Fort d'Estrées, asalin baturin arewa, wanda yanzu ya ƙunshi Gidan Tarihi na Senegal, wanda aka gina tsakanin 1852-65; Palais du Government (Fadar Gwamnati), 1864, wanda gwamna-janar na farko na Senegal ya mamaye daga 1902-07.[11] Gidan sarauta na Gorée da ofishin 'yan sanda na Gorée na ƙarni na goma sha bakwai, wanda a da ya kasance wurin rarrabawa, an yi imanin shi ne wurin da aka gina ɗakin sujada na farko da Portuguese ta gina a karni na sha biyar, kuma bakin tekun yana da sha'awar masu yawon bude ido.

François d'Orléans – Tam-tam à Gorée (1837)

Wannan wurin tarihi ba kasafai misali ne na mulkin mallaka na Turai ba inda muke ganin 'yan Afirka masu 'yanci da bautar (wanda ke da rabin yawan mutanen Gorée), Turawa da Afro-Turai suna zaune tare da juna, kamar yadda tsibirin ya kasance sanannen cibiya a cinikin bayi na Atlantic. . Archaeology akan tsibirin Gorée yana haifar da sakamako masu karo da juna da yawa. A gefe ɗaya na bakan, bayin da aka yi a Gorée an yi musu rashin kyau, kamar dabbobi, a daya bangaren kuma akwai shaidar mutanen bayi da ake maraba da su a matsayin ɓangare na iyalai. An rubuta signares ('yan matan Afirka ko Afro-Turai) sun fi son cin abinci a ƙasa tare da cokali da kwano na gama gari, a matsayin bayi na gida, amma mazan Turai sun kiyaye al'ada kuma suna amfani da tebur.[12]

Dokta Ibrahima Thiaw (Mataimakin Farfesa na Archaeology a Cibiyar Fondamental d'Afrique Noire (IFAN); da Cheikh Anta Diop na Dakar, Senegal ne suka gudanar da binciken archaeological kan Gorée. Dr Susan Keech McIntosh (Farfesa na Archaeology, Jami'ar Rice, Houston, Texas); da Raina Croff (Dan takarar PhD a Jami'ar Yale, New Haven, Connecticut). Dokta Shawn Murray (Jami'ar Wisconsin-Madison) kuma ya ba da gudummawa ga binciken archaeological a Gorée ta hanyar nazarin gida da gabatar da bishiyoyi da shrubs, wanda ke taimakawa wajen gano tsohuwar tsiron da aka samu a cikin tono.[13] Hakazalika binciken da aka yi a Gorée ya gano abubuwan da aka shigo da su Turai da yawa: bulo, ƙusoshi, kwalabe na abubuwan giya kamar giya, giya da sauran barasa, beads, yumbura da gunflints.[12][14]

Gorée Archaeological Project[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Aikin Gorée Archaeological Project, ko GAP, ya fara gudanar da ayyukansa (bincike, gwaji, taswira, da kuma hakowa) a cikin 2001. Aikin, wanda ya tsawaita tsawon shekaru da yawa, yana da nufin tattara kayan tarihi da suka shafi lokutan tarihi na kafin- da bayan zaman Turai, da kuma gano amfani da sassa daban-daban a tsibirin ta hanyar amfani da al'adun kayan da aka tono daga wuraren. A sakamakonsa na farko, Ibrahima Thiaw ya kuma tattauna matsalolin hakowa a tsibirin yawon bude ido.[14]

Fage[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

La Signare de Gorée avec ses esclaves (Alamar Goré tare da bayinta), Musée de la Compagnie des Indes

Manjo Kyaftin Lançarote na Portugal da ma’aikatansa ne suka fara kulla dangantakar Afro-Turai da tsibirin Gorée a shekara ta 1445. Bayan da suka ga Gorée mai tazarar kilomita uku daga gabar tekun Dakar na kasar Senegal a zamanin yau, Lançarote da jami’ansa suka aika zuwa bakin teku. jami'ai su bar hadayun zaman lafiya ga 'yan asalin tsibirin.[12] Sun ajiye biredi, madubi da takarda da aka zana giciye a kan ƙasar Gorée, waɗanda duk an yi nufin su zama alamomin ayyukan lumana. Duk da haka, 'yan Afirka ba su amsa yadda ake so ba kuma suka yayyage takarda tare da farfasa biredi da madubi, don haka ya kafa yanayin dangantakar da ke gaba tsakanin Portuguese da 'yan Afirka na tsibirin Gorée.[14] Duk da haka, tarihi ya nuna ko da ’yan Afirka sun karɓi hadayun da za a ci gaba da yanka su da bautar da su.

Tun daga farkon karni na 18, an raba matsugunan Gorée zuwa bariki: kwata na Bambara (bayi), gourmettes ('yan Afirka na Kirista), da kwata ga mazaunan Gorée, gami da 'yan Afirka masu 'yanci. A ƙarshen rabin karni na 18, rarrabuwa ya kasance tsakanin signares da danginsu da sauran tsibirin da kuma wuraren da aka kafa a baya.

Matsala kafin Turai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dangane da sakamakon farko na Ibrahim Thiaw, matakan da ke tsakanin adibas ɗin tuntuɓar Turai kafin da kuma bayan sun kasance suna da alaƙa da ɓarna a fili na tururuwa. Ɗaya daga cikin fassarar wannan ita ce yuwuwar cewa waɗannan tsutsotsin tsummoki sun zama sanadin watsi da Gorée kafin zuwan Holland.[14]

Adadin da aka yi a zamanin kafin Turawa suna da yawa tare da tukwane da aka yi wa ado da igiyoyi da kifayen kashin bayan gida kuma ana iya samun su a cikin mahallin matsugunin cikin gida, a ƙarƙashin ko a daidai matakan benaye da wuraren murhu. Tukwane da ke kusa da ƙauyuka na nuna cewa waɗannan ƙauyuka sun kasance na dindindin ko na dindindin. Kayan aikin kamun kifi da na'urori ba safai ba ne duk da cewa adadin kifin ya yi yawa. Hakanan babu alamar ƙarfe ko amfani da shi kafin karni na sha takwas.

Saboda ɗimbin fasalulluka da ke ɗauke da tukwane na al'ada da aka samu a cikin tsakiyar ƙawancen Turai, Thiaw ya kammala cewa watakila an yi amfani da tsibirin ne da farko don ayyukan al'ada da ayyuka. Duk da haka, watsi yana bayyana a ilimin kimiya na tarihi a tsakiyar karni na sha biyar, mai yiyuwa ne saboda wani gagarumin mamayewa. Babu wata shaida ta archaeological ko ta zahiri na gwagwarmaya ko rikici tsakanin Turawa na ƙarshe ko wata ƙungiyar al'adu. Hasashen Thiaw yana nuna yiwuwar cewa lokacin da Portuguese suka yi amfani da tsibirin don binne matattu, tsibirin, a idanun 'yan asalin, ya zama abin ƙyama ko kuma mummunan ikon ruhohin teku ya yi tasiri.[15]

Mazaunin Turawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wakilin mai zane na Goré a cikin 1842

Akwai wasu hasashe na yadda Gorée ya kasance ƙarƙashin ikon Turawa ko Yaren mutanen Holland. Akwai wasu shaidun rubutu da ke nuna cewa mutanen Holland sun sayi tsibirin daga hannun shugaban Dakar ko kuma daga masunta na cikin gida a tsibirin. Duk da yake akwai ƙananan shaidar archaeological na wannan ma'amala, duk ajiyar Turai suna da yawa.[14] A kan Gorée akwai mabambantan adibas guda huɗu da aka samo ta hanyar tonowa da gwaji. Nau'o'in ajiya na farko suna arewa maso yamma da yammacin tsibirin, kuma yawanci mita uku ne na tarkacen gida da harsashi.[14] Kewaye da yankin da ya kasance Fort Nassau, an ƙaddara waɗannan bayanan daidai da ayyukan Fort Nassau, wanda ake ganin ba ya da ɗanɗano.[12]

An sami wani wurin ajiya da ba kasafai ba a kusa da Castel a G18, wurin da aka tono kawai a yankin. Abubuwan da aka ajiye a wannan yanki yawanci ba su da zurfi kuma a saman wani katafaren dutse. Duk da haka, wannan wuri guda ya samar da binnewa guda uku, duk an tona su a cikin tudun dutse.[12]

G13, wani wurin da ke gefen gabashin tsibirin, ya samar da tarkacen al'adu daga daya daga cikin ramukan shara. Wannan tarkace ya haɗa da ƙusoshi, kayan marmari na ƙarshen Turai da farar farar fata masu kama da juna daga 1810 zuwa 1849, gwangwani na sardine, da gilashin taga, da sauran kayan tarihi. Da yake kusa da barikin sojoji daga mamayar sojoji a ƙarni na goma sha tara da farkon ƙarni na ashirin, nazarin waɗannan yumbu ya nuna cewa da yawa daga cikinsu maye ne wanda ya yi daidai da mamayar.[12] Ba a cika samun ajiya irin wannan ba a kusa da tsibirin.

Wakilin mai zane na dock a Gorée a cikin 1892

Kamar yadda yake da yawancin wuraren binciken kayan tarihi na duniya, tasirin zamani da ayyuka suna shafar rukunin yanar gizon kuma suna haifar da hargitsi a cikin rikodin kayan tarihi ko lalata wuraren da ba da gangan ba.[15] Gwamnatin Turai ta sanya tsauraran dokoki game da amfani da sararin samaniya da ci gaban matsuguni gaba daya a tsibirin. Archaeology yana nuna wannan ci gaba a cikin ƙasa; gine-gine, daidaitawa, sake ginawa, wasu daga cikinsu ana iya danganta su da sauyin da aka samu a cikin masu mulkin Turai a lokacin.[12] Duk da haka, wannan shaidar ci gaba kuma tana nuna sakamakon sakamakon ayyukan yau da kullun, don haka yana da wuyar warwarewa don tantance hadaddun abubuwan zamantakewa da ƙungiyoyi, kamar bawa ko 'yanci ko ɗan Afirka ko Afirka-Turai.[12] Ana iya cire gabaɗaya gabaɗaya: Cinikin Atlantika yana tasiri sosai ga rayuwar waɗanda ke kan Gorée, waɗanda aka gani a cikin kwararar ra'ayoyi, ƙayyadaddun ƙira da tsarin daidaitawa.

Har ila yau, cinikayyar Atlantika ta yi tasiri a fannin ilimin halittar jiki na al'ummar Gorean. Ilimin kimiya na kayan tarihi ya gano ɗimbin shaidu na yawan shigo da barasa a tsibirin. Yawan shigo da barasa a zahiri yana nuna yawan sha wanda aka rubuta tasirinsa a matsayin rikice-rikicen maye, yawanci tsakanin mazaunan sojoji.[15] Dr Ibrahima Thiaw wanda aka ambata a baya shine kuma marubucin Digging on Contested Grounds: Archaeology and the Commemoration of Slavery on Gorée Island.[15] A cikin wannan labarin, Thiaw ya tattauna bambanci tsakanin labaran tarihi da ke cike da bautar da sarƙoƙi da kuma rashin shaidar archaeological don tallafawa waɗannan asusun. Raina Croff, daya daga cikin abokan aikin Thiaw, ta bayyana cewa ita da kanta ba ta taba samun wata shaida ta bauta a tsibirin Gorée ba, duk da haka ta kuma hada da cewa ba za a sami shaidun archaeological kamar sarƙoƙi da sarƙoƙi a tsibirin ba, saboda babu buƙata.[15]

Maison des Esclaves[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ƙofar Babu Komawa a Maison des Esclaves a tsibirin Gorée

Maison des Esclaves, ko Gidan Bayi, an gina shi a cikin 1780-1784 ta Nicolas Pépin. Ko da yake gidan sanannen "Kofar Babu Komawa", wanda aka ce shi ne wuri na ƙarshe da bayin da ake fitarwa zuwa ƙasashen waje suka taɓa ƙasan Afirka har tsawon rayuwarsu, akwai ƙaramin shaida a Maison des Esclaves don ba da shawarar "babban sikelin". Kasuwancin bayi na trans-Atlantic" tattalin arzikin.[15] Bisa kididdigar kididdigar da aka samu daga karni na 18, akasarin bayin Allah sun fada karkashin tsarin bayi na gida, maimakon bayi da za a fitar da su kasashen waje.[1][16] Wataƙila Pépin da magajinsa sun kasance bayi a cikin gida, amma kuma akwai ƴan abubuwan da ke nuna cewa suna da hannu a duk wata sana’ar fitar da bayi. Duk da wannan rashin shaida, Maison des Esclaves ya zama wurin aikin hajji don tunawa da korar ƴan Afirka daga ƙasarsu ta haihuwa, wanda kuma aka fi sani da ƴan Afirka. Wannan ya bambanta da rawar rukunin Rue des Dongeons akan Gorée. A Rue des Dongeons, kamar yadda sunan ya nuna, akwai kasancewar gidajen kurkuku, waɗanda za a iya danganta su a fili tare da tsare bayin da za a fitar da su. Masanin tarihi Ana Lucia Araujo ta ce "ba ainihin wurin da mutane na gaske suka bari a cikin adadin da suke faɗi ba."[17] Akasin haka, UNESCO ta yi iƙirarin cewa "daga ƙarni na 15 zuwa na 19, Goree ita ce cibiyar kasuwancin bayi mafi girma a gabar tekun Afirka."[18]

Bambara Quartier[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A kudu ta tsakiya na Gorée, a cikin kwata na Bambara, ko da yake ba su da yawa a cikin kayan tarihi, ajiyar kuɗi daga wannan yanki ya bambanta da abubuwan da aka haɗa daga sauran tsibirin. Abubuwan da aka haɗa kamar dutsen farar ƙasa, bulo mai ja, harsashi, ko duwatsu a cikin waɗannan ɗimbin mita biyu zuwa uku ba su girme ƙarni na sha takwas ba kuma suna nuna haɓakawa da rushewa akai-akai.[12] Ana iya danganta wannan da ɗimbin matsugunin wannan yanki watakila ta bayin gida da aka fara a ƙarni na sha takwas.[12][14] Quartier Bambara wani yanki ne na keɓancewa, wanda ke nuna bautar cikin gida maimakon fitarwa. Taswirorin wannan matsugunin sun ware layin iyaka wanda a ƙarshe, a tsakiyar karni na sha takwas, an nuna an rage su.[12] An samo shi a tsakiyar tsibirin, Bambara 'yan Bambara ne ke zaune. Mutanen Bambara suna da ra'ayi mara kyau; da aka samu a babban yankin Senegal da Mali, Bambara an san su da kasancewa nagartattun bayi. Faransawa ne suka kawo Goré, mutanen Bambara sun shirya gina hanyoyi, garu da gidaje.

Wadannan gine-gine (Maison des Esclaves, Quartier Bambara, da Rue des Dungeons), da aka yi da dutse ko bulo, sun bambanta da tsarin da mutanen Afirka suka yi da bambaro da laka. Wannan bambanci ya taimaka wajen rarrabuwar kawuna da matsayi tsakanin ’yan Afirka da mazauna Turai kuma ya bi ƙungiyar gama gari cewa masonry ya kasance tasirin Turai. Duk da haka, gina waɗannan gine-ginen gine-ginen da aka fi sani da su bayi ne suka gina su, kuma ba tare da tsare-tsare na bene ba, kamar yadda tsarin birni mai haɗari da kuma kusurwoyi marasa daidaituwa a cikin ɗakunan ya nuna. Binciken sasantawa ya nuna yiwuwar cewa tare da lokaci, matsayin masters' da bayin bayi sun isa su yi aiki da rayuwa tare da juna a tsibirin a rabin na biyu na karni na sha takwas.[12]

Rikici Gorée a matsayin babban wurin ciniki don bayi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mai cinikin bayi na Goré, zanen c. 1797

A cikin 1990s an tafka muhawara kan sahihancin cinikin bayi na Gorée kamar yadda mai rajin kare Boubacar Joseph Ndiaye ya fada. A cikin wata kasida, da aka buga a cikin jaridar Faransa Le Monde,[19] Emmanuel de Roux ya kalubalanci ikirari na Ndiaye da aka maimaita cewa Gorée, a wurin da ake kira "Maison des Esclaves", wani muhimmin ma'ajiyar bayi ne (wanda ya dogara ne akan fassarar ƙarya na baƙi Faransanci. a cikin karni na 18-19 da kuma bayan haka). De Roux ya dogara ne akan ayyukan masu binciken Abdoulaye Camara da Father Joseph-Roger de Benoist.[20][21] A cewar kididdigar tarihi, ba a sayar da bayi sama da 500 a kowace shekara a can ba,[22] wanda hakan ya yi daidai da ma'aunin cinikin bayi a gabar tekun Benin, Guinee da Angola na zamani: jimillar kashi 4-5% (ko kusan 500). 000) na bayi an jigilar su daga Senegal zuwa Amurka, yayin da sauran 11.5 miliyan bayi na Afirka suka fito daga sauran (Yamma) gaɓar Afirka.[23] Bayanin hoto na Ndiaye game da yanayin bayin da ake zargin an ajiye su a “Maison des Esclaves” ba su da goyan bayan kowane takaddun tarihi[24] kuma a cewar De Roux, ƙila sun yi aiki don gudanar da kasuwanci, musamman daga masu yawon buɗe ido Ba-Amurke.[25] Dangane da wadannan zarge-zargen, wasu masu bincike na Senegal da na Turai sun gudanar da wani taron tattaunawa a Sorbonne a cikin Afrilu 1997, mai taken "Gorée dans la traite atlantique : mythes et réalités", wanda aka buga bayanan bayan haka.[26]

Kwanan nan, Hamady Bocoum et Bernard Toulier sun buga labarin “The Fabrication of Heritage: the case of Gorée (Senegal)” (a cikin Faransanci: « La ƙirƙira du Patrimoine : l'exemple de Gorée (Sénégal)»)[27] yana tattara bayanan girman Gorée zuwa wani abin tunawa da tunani na cinikin bayi na transatlantic saboda dalilai na yawon bude ido. Gwamnatin Senegal ce ta jagoranta, wanda aka fara a karkashin shugaba Léopold Sédar Senghor, wanda ya dora wa nadin nasa na musamman Ndiaye alhakin wannan burin. A cikin 2013, ɗan jarida Jean Luc Angrand ya ba da labarin[28] yadda Ndiaye ya fara yaƙin neman zaɓe a tsakanin al'ummomin Amurkawa na Afirka a cikin Amurka, yayin da yake ƙoƙarin yin amfani da sha'awar su na neman nasu gado a Afirka wanda ya taso a cikin 1970s. Wannan sha'awar ta karu bayan tasirin jerin shirye-shiryen TV Roots, wanda aka fi ji a tsakanin masu kallo Ba-Amurke. Don haka Ndiaye ya yi karin gishiri game da mahimmancin Senegal, musamman Gorée, ta hanyar da'awar cewa ba a kai 'yan Afirka da aka bautar da su kasa da miliyan 20 daga can ba.

Ko da yake wasu kafofin watsa labaru da aka rubuta a Turanci sun ba da rahoto game da ƙirƙira tarihin Gorée, musamman John Murphy a cikin Seattle Times[29] da Max Fischer a cikin Washington Post,[30] wasu majiyoyin labarai na Ingilishi, irin su BBC,[31][32] har yanzu suna manne da labarin da aka ƙirƙira na Gorée kamar yadda yake. babbar cibiyar cinikin bayi.

Sanannen mazauna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Latyr Sy, mawaƙin djembe
  • France Gall, mawaƙin Faransa, ya mallaki gida a can
  • Léa Seydoux, an girma a wani yanki a tsibirin

A cikin shahararrun al'adu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tsibirin Gorée shine Ramin Tsayawa don Kafa na 4 na The Amazing Race 6, kuma Gidan Bawan da kansa ya ziyarci yayin Kafa 5.[33][34]

Tsibirin Gorée ya yi fice a cikin wakoki da dama, saboda tarihinsa da ya shafi cinikin bayi. Waƙoƙi masu zuwa suna da mahimmiyar magana game da tsibirin Gorée:

  • Steel Pulse - "Kofar Babu Komawa" akan African Holocaust (2004)
  • Doug E. Fresh- "Afirka"
  • Akon - "Senegal"
  • Burnng Spear - "One Africa" akan Jah Is Real (2008)
  • Alpha Blondy & Solar System - "Goree (Senegal)" akan Dieu (1994)
  • Nuru Kane - "Goree"
  • Sinsemilia - "De l'histoire"
  • Gilberto Gil - "La Lune de Goree", wanda Gilberto Gil da José Carlos Capinam suka hada
  • Mahaifin rap na Faransa Booba (an haife shi Elie Yaffa) ɗan Gorée ne. A cikin waƙarsa "Garde la pêche" ya ambaci tsibirin, yana cewa "Gorée c'est ma terre" (Gorée shine ƙasara/gari na). Har ila yau, a cikin waƙarsa mai suna "0.9", ya ce "À dix ans j'ai vu Gorée, depuis mes larmes sont eternelles" (Lokacin da nake ɗan shekara 10 na ga Gorée, tun lokacin hawaye na ya kasance na har abada."
  • Marcus Miller - "Gorée (Go-ray)"

A cikin 2007 darektan Swiss Pierre-Yves Borgeaud ya yi wani shirin gaskiya mai suna Retour à Gorée (Komawa Gorée).

Mawaƙin gargajiya na Girka avantgarde Iannis Xenakis ya rubuta wani yanki don garaya da gungu mai suna A l`ile de Gorée (1986).

Gallery[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 ""Goree and the Atlantic Slave Trade", Philip Curtin, History Net, accessed 9 July 2008". Archived from the original on 2 April 2016. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
  2. Les Guides Bleus: Afrique de l'Ouest (1958 ed.), p. 123
  3. "21 World Heritage Sites you have probably never heard of". Daily Telegraph.
  4. Araujo, Ana Lucia. Public Memory of Slavery: Victims and Perpetrators in the South Atlantic (Amherst, NY: Cambria Press, 2010)
  5. Araujo, Ana Lucia. Shadows of the Slave Past: Memory, Heritage, and Slavery (New York: Routledge, 2014), 57–65.
  6. For last period, see for example, Guthrie, William (1798). A New Geographical, Historical and Commercial Grammar and Present State of the Several Kingdoms of the World, 2. London: Charles Dilly ... and G.G. and J. Robinson. pp. 819–820.
  7. Template:Cite wikisource
  8. Du Bois, W. E. Burghardt (April 1, 1925). "Worlds of Color". Foreign Affairs. Vol. 3 no. 3. ISSN 0015-7120.
  9. DuBois, W. E. B. (1925). "The Negro Mind Reaches Out". In Locke, Alain LeRoy (ed.). The New Negro: An Interpretation (1927 ed.). Albert and Charles Boni. p. 385. LCCN 25025228. OCLC 639696145. Lay summary.
  10. Cheikh Anta Diop (1994). The Island and the Historical Museum. Publication of the Historical Museum. pp. 22–23.
  11. Cheikh Anta Diop (1994). The Island and the Historical Museum. Publication of the Historical Museum. p. 68.
  12. 12.00 12.01 12.02 12.03 12.04 12.05 12.06 12.07 12.08 12.09 12.10 12.11 Thiaw, Ibrahima (2011). "Slaves without Shackles: An Archaeology of Everyday Life on Gorée Island, Senegal". In Lane, Paul; MacDonald, Kevin C. (eds.). Slavery in Africa: Archaeology and Memory. pp. 147–165. doi:10.5871/bacad/9780197264782.003.0008. ISBN 9780197264782.[permanent dead link]
  13. "Goree Archaeology" Archived 2017-07-24 at the Wayback Machine, Rice University, accessed 8 July 2009
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 Thiaw, Ibrahima (2003). "The Gorée Archaeological Project (GAP): Preliminary results". Nyame Akuma (60): 27–35.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 Thiaw, Ibrahima (2011). "Digging on Contested Grounds: Archaeology and the Commemoration of Slavery on Gorée Island, Senegal". In Okamura, Katsuyuki; Matsuda, Akira (eds.). New Perspectives in Global Public Archaeology. New York: Springer. pp. 127–138. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-0341-8_10. ISBN 978-1-4614-0341-8.
  16. Curtin, Philip D. (1969). The Atlantic slave trade : a census. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press.
  17. Fisher, Max (28 June 2013). "What Obama really saw at the 'Door of No Return,' a disputed memorial to the slave trade". Washington Post. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
  18. "Island of Gorée". UNESCO. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
  19. De Roux, Emmanuel (27 December 1996). "Le mythe de la Maison des esclaves qui résiste à la réalité". Le Monde (in Faransanci). Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  20. de Benoist, Joseph Roger; Camara, abdoulaye (1993). Gorée, Guide de l'île et du Musée historique. Dakar: FAN-Ch.A. Diop.
  21. de Benoist, Joseph-Roger; Camara, Abdoulaye (2003). Histoire de Gorée. Paris: Maisonneuve et Larousse. ISBN 2-7068-1765-8.
  22. Barry, Boubacar (1998). Senegambia and the Atlantic slave trade. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 62, 66. ISBN 0-521-59226-7.
  23. This number should be viewed merely as an average of the estimates that range from 10 to 14 million people, given by researchers. A somewhat lower estimate of 9,566,100 people (who ultimately landed in the Americas) was calculated by Noel Deerr and adopted by Philip D. Curtin (1922–2009) in his book The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census (University of Wisconsin Press, repr. 1972), p. 87 (with tallies). A high end of 15,4 million people shipped from Africa, with 13,392,000 ultimately landed in the Americas, was given by J.E. Inikori in the Journal of African History (17) in 1976.
  24. In fact, Ndiaye probably relied on the unsubstantiated descriptions of his former boss, Pierre André Cariou, the Breton army doctor of the French marine, who wrote his Promenade to Gorée in the 1950s. Cariou himself may have got his background information on Gorée from the Guide du tourisme in 1926, or the publications of BRAU, P. L’île du sortilège ». Bull. Comité d’Études historiques et scientifiques de l’Afrique Occidentale Française, t. XI, n°4, oct.-déc. 1928, tiré à part, p. 63; GAFFIOT, Robert. Gorée, capitale déchue. Paris : L. Fournier, 1933, p. 93.
  25. In the commemorative plaque to Ndiaye, he is thanked for his eloquence and his “efficient contribution to the cultural and touristic development of Senegal” (« contribution efficace au développement culturel et touristique du Sénégal »).
  26. Samb, Djibril (editor) (1997). Gorée et l'esclavage : actes du Séminaire sur "Gorée dans la traite atlantique : mythes et réalités (Gorée, 7-8 avril 1997). Dakar (Senegal): Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, IFAN Ch. A. Diop.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  27. Bocoum, Hamady; Toulier, Bernard (2013). "La fabrication du Patrimoine, l'exemple de Gorée (Sénégal)". In Situ (Revue des Patrimoines). 20: 1–37.
  28. "Petite note sur la fausse "Maison des esclaves de Gorée"". Le Huffington Post. 22 February 2013. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
  29. Murphy, John (July 27, 2004). "Senegal Slave House's past questioned". The Seattle Times.
  30. Fischer, Max (July 1, 2013). "The sincere fiction of Goree Island, Africa's best-known slave trade memorial". The Washington Post.
  31. "I live in a bunker under a cannon". BBC News (in Turanci). Retrieved 2019-06-12.
  32. "Goree: Senegal's slave island" (in Turanci). 2013-06-27. Retrieved 2019-06-12.
  33. "Amazing Race 6, Episode 4". The Daily Nugget. December 8, 2004. Archived from the original on December 31, 2019. Retrieved December 31, 2019.
  34. "Amazing Race 6, Episode 5". The Daily Nugget. December 30, 2004. Archived from the original on December 31, 2019. Retrieved December 31, 2019.

Ci gaba da karatu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Camara, Abdoulaye & Joseph Roger de Benoïst. Histoire de Gorée, Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose, 2003
  • Guillaume Vial, Femmes d'influence. Les signares de Saint-Louis du Sénégal et de Gorée XVIIIe-XIXe siècle. Étude critique d'une identité métisse, Paris: Nouvelles Éditions Maisonneuve & Larose - Hémisphères Éditions, 2019, 381 p.