Harsunan Ekoi

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Harsunan Ekoi
Linguistic classification
Ekoid
Geographic distribution Southeastern Nigeria, northern Cameroon
Linguistic classification Nnijer–Kongo
Subdivisions
  • Ndoe
  • Ekoi
  • Efutop–Ekajuk
Glottolog ekoi1236[1]
{{{mapalt}}}
The Ekoid languages (plus Mbe) shown within Nigeria and Cameroon:

Ekoid–Mbe:

  Mbe
Ekoid:
  Ndoe
(core):
  Efutop


Harsunan Ekoi rukuni ne na yaruka na Bantoid na Kudancin Bantoid da ake magana dasu musamman a kudu maso gabashin Najeriya da kuma yankuna kusa da Cameroon. Suna da alaƙa da harsunan Bantu, hasali ma ba kasafai ake iya bambance su ba. Crabb (1969) [2] ya kasance shi kadai ne rubutaccen abu akan harshen, duk da cewa abin baƙin ciki, shine Sashi na II, wanda zai ƙunshi nazarin nahawu, ba a taɓa buga shi ba. Hakanan Crabb yana nazarin wallafe-wallafen akan Ekoid har zuwa ranar da kuma aka buga shi.

Yaren Mbe na kusa shine dangi mafi kusanci da yaren Ekoid kuma su suka hada reshen Ekoid – Mbe na kudancin Bantoid.[3]

Harsuna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Nazarin rarrabuwar harsuna ya lissafa ire-iren Ekoid tare da sauran yarukan masu zaman kansu. Branching daga Watters ne (1978) da Yoder et al. (2009).

  • Ndoe
  • (ainihin)
    • Ejagham (Ekoi)
    • Efutop – Ekajuk: Efutop, Nde-Nsele-Nta, Abanyom, Nkem-Nkum, Ekajuk - Nnam

Sunaye da wurare (Najeriya)[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Teburin da ke ƙasa akwai jerin sunayen harshe, yawan jama'a, da wurare (a cikin Najeriya kawai) daga Blench (2019).

Language Cluster Dialects Alternate spellings Own name for language Endonym(s) Other names (location-based) Other names for language Exonym(s) Speakers Location(s)
Bakor cluster Bakor
Abanyom Bakor Abanyom, Abanyum Befun, Bofon, Mbofon 12,500 (1986) Cross River State, Ikom LGA, main village Abangkang
Efutop Bakor Ofutop Agbaragba 8,740 (1953), 10,000 (1973 SIL) Cross River State, Ikom LGA
Ekajuk Bakor Akajuk more than 10,000 (Crabb 1965); 30,000 (1986 Asinya) Cross River State, Ogoja LGA, Bansara, Nwang, Ntara 1,2 and 3, and Ebanibim towns
Nde–Nsele–Nta cluster Bakor 10,000 (1973 SIL) Cross River State, Ikom LGA
Nde Bakor Ekamtulufu, Mbenkpe, Udom, Mbofon, Befon 4,000 (1953); est. 12,000 (Asinya 1987)
Nsele Bakor Nselle 1,000 (1953); est. 3,000 (Asinya 1987)
Nta Bakor Atam, Afunatam est. 4,500 (Asinya 1987)
Nkem–Nkum cluster Bakor Cross River State, Ogoja LGA
Nkem Bakor Nkim, Ogoja, Ishibori, Isibiri, Ogboja Nkim Ogoja Ishibori 11,000 (1953); est 18,000 (Asinya 1987)
Nkum Bakor 5,700 (1953); est. 16,500 (Asinya 1987)
Nnam Bakor Ndem 1,230 (1953); est. 3,000 (Asinya 1987) Cross River State, Ikom and Ogoja LGAs
Ejagham cluster Ejagham 5 dialects in Nigeria, 4 in Cameroon Ekoi (Efik name) 80,000 total: 45,000 in Nigeria, 35,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL) Cross River State, Akamkpa, Ikom, Odukpani and Calabar LGAs, and in Cameroon
Bendeghe Ejagham Bindege, Bindiga, Dindiga Mbuma Cross River State, Ikom LGA
Etung North Ejagham Icuatai 13,900 (1963) Cross River State, Ikom LGA
Etung South Ejagham 4,200 (1963) Cross River State, Ikom and Akamkpa LGAs
Ejagham Ejagham Ekwe, Ejagam, Akamkpa Cross River State, Akamkpa LGA and in Cameroon
Ekin Ejagham Qua, Kwa, Aqua Abakpa 900 active adult males (1944–45): bilingual in Efik (Cook 1969b) Cross River State, Odukpani and Calabar LGAs
Ndoe cluster Ndoe 3,000 (1953) Cross River State, Ikom LGA
Ekparabong Ndoe Akparabong Towns above 2,102 and 310, respectively, (1953) Akparabong Town, Bendeghe Affi
Balep Ndoe Anep, Anyeb 619 (1953) Balep and Opu
Mbe Idum, Ikumtale, Odaje Mbe M̀ bè Ketuen, Mbube (Western) 9,874 (1963); 14,300 (1973 SIL); 20-30,000 (2008 est.). 7 villages (Bansan, Benkpe, Egbe, Ikumtak, Idibi, Idum, Odajie) Cross River State, Ogoja LGA

Fasaha[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An sake gina Proto-Ekoid tare da wasula da sautuna masu zuwa: */i e ɛ a ɔ o u/ ; babban, ƙasa, tashi, faɗuwa, da gangara . Sautunan tashi da faɗowa, kodayake, na iya zama haɗuwa.

Ana tsammanin yana da baƙaƙe masu zuwa:

Labial Alveolar Palatal /



</br> Postalveolar
Velar Labiovelar
Hanci m n ɲ ~ ŋ ŋm
Tsayawa /



</br> Ricarfafa
p b t d tʃ dʒ k ɡ kp ɡb
Fricative f v s z ʃ
Rhotic r
Mai kusanci β l j ɣ w

[ɲ] yana faruwa yayin fara kalma da kuma, [ŋ] a tsakiyar ƙarshe.

Nazari[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bugun farko na kayan Ekoid yana cikin Clarke (1848) [4] inda aka lissafa 'yaruka' biyar kuma an ba da gajeren lafazin kowane. Sauran manyan littattafan farko sune Koelle (1854), [5] Thomas (1914) [6] da Johnston (1919-1922). [7] Kodayake Koelle ya ɗibar da samfurinsa a yanki ɗaya, da alama Cust (1883) [8] shi ne farkon wanda ya haɗa su wuri ɗaya kuma ya sanya su cikin rukuni tare da Bantu amma ba a ciki ba. Thomas (1927) [9] shine marubuci na farko da yayi daidai yadda aka tsara Ekoid Bantu, amma ba daidai ba daga Westermann & Bryan (1952) [10] sake maimaita tsufa, wanda bai dace ba. Wannan shima ya yada wata tsohuwar kuskuren kuma ta hada da yarukan Nyang tare da Ekoid. Harsunan Nyang suna da halaye daban daban kuma tabbas suna nesa da Bantu fiye da Ekoid.

Guthrie (1967-1971) [11] bai iya yarda cewa Ekoid ya zama wani ɓangare na Bantu ba. Bayaninsa na farko da ba zai yiwu ba shi ne cewa 'Bantuism' ya samo asali ne daga masu magana da yaren Bantu kasancewar wadanda ke magana da 'Yammacin Sudanic' suna 'shagaltar da su,' a takaice dai, kwatankwacin kamanceceniya, ya kasance mai yawan toshe kalmomin bashi. Daga baya aka canza wannan cikin 'Harsunan Ekoid na iya dan raba asali da wasu daga cikin yarukan yankin na A, amma da alama sun sha wahala sosai' (Guthrie 1971, II: 15). Williamson (1971) [12] a cikin rarrabuwa mai tasiri na Benuwe-Congo ya sanya Ekoid a cikin 'Wide Bantu' ko kuma abin da yanzu za'a kira shi Bantoid, yawancin harsunan da ba su da kyau a tsakanin Bantu da ragowar Benuwe-Congo .

Duk rabe-raben zamani na Ekoid sun dogara ne da Crabb (1969) kuma lokacin da Watters (1981) [13] ya zo don bincika ladabi-Enology na Ekoid, ya yi amfani da wannan tushe, maimakon kayan aikinsa na kansa daga yarukan Ejagham a Kamaru. Matsalar matsalar Crabb ita ce labarinsa na Ekoid wanda ba ya bayyana bambancin sauti da rubutun sauti. Sabon aiki akan Ejagham na Watters (1980, [14] 1981) ya faɗaɗa iliminmu na yarukan Kamaru na Ekoid. Koyaya, wata muhimmiyar takaddar da Asinya (1987) [15] wanda ba a buga shi ba wanda aka kafa shi a cikin sabo a cikin Nijeriya ya yi muhimmin da'awa game da fasahar fasahar Ekoid, wato yawancin harsunan Ekoid suna da tsayi / gajere a wasula. Ekoid ya tayar da sha'awa musamman tsakanin Bantuists saboda yana da tsarin suna wanda yake kusa da Bantu kuma amma ba za'a iya cewa yayi daidai (Watters 1980) ba.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ekoid". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. Crabb, D.W. 1969. Ekoid Bantu Languages of Ogoja. Cambridge University Press
  3. Template:Glotto
  4. Clarke, John 1848. Specimens of dialects: short vocabularies of languages: and notes of countries and customs in Africa. Berwick-upon-Tweed: Daniel Cameron
  5. Koelle, S.W. 1854. Polyglotta Africana. London: Church Missionary Society
  6. Thomas, N.W. 1914. Specimens of languages from Southern Nigeria. London: Harrison & Sons
  7. Johnston, H.H. 1919-22. A comparative study of the Bantu and Semi-Bantu languages. (2 vols.) Oxford: Clarendon Press
  8. Cust, R.N. 1883. The modern languages of Africa. 2 vols. London: Richard Bentley
  9. Thomas, N.W. 1927. The Bantu languages of Nigeria. In: Festschrift Meinhof F. Boas et al. eds. 65-73. Hamburg: Friederichsen & Co.
  10. Westermann, Diedrich & Bryan, M.A. (1970 [1952]). The Languages of West Africa. Oxford: International African Institute / Oxford University Press
  11. Guthrie, Malcolm 1967-71. Comparative Bantu. 4 vols. Farnham: Gregg International Publishers
  12. Williamson, K. 1971. The Benue–Congo languages and Ịjọ. Current Trends in Linguistics, 7. ed. T. Sebeok. 245-306. The Hague: Mouton
  13. Watters, John R. 1981. A phonology and morphology of Ejagham, with notes on dialect variation. Ph.D. thesis. University of California at Los Angeles. xviii, 549 p.
  14. Watters, John R. 1980. The Ejagam noun class system: Ekoid Bantu revisited. In Larry M. Hyman (ed.), Noun classes in the Grassfields Bantu borderland, 99-137. Southern California Occasional Papers in Linguistics, 8. Los Angeles: University of Southern California
  15. Asinya, O.E. 1987. A reconstruction of the Segmental phonology of Bakor (an Ekoid Bantu language). M.A. Linguistics, University of Port Harcourt