Harsunan Najeriya

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Akwai harsuna 500 da ake magana a Najeriya . [1] [2] Harshen kasa shine Turanci , tsohon harshen mulkin mallaka ne na kasar Birtaniya . Kamar yadda aka ruwaito a shekara ta 2003, mutane miliyan 60 sunyi magana da harshen Turanci da na Najeriya a matsayin harshen na biyu. [3] Sadarwa a cikin harshe Ingilishi yafi shahara a yankunan birane na gari fiye da yadda yake a yankunan karkara, saboda mulkin mallaka.

Babban harshe na harshe, a cikin yawan jama'a, Hausa ne (fiye da miliyan 60, ciki har da L2), Yarjejeniyar (fiye da miliyan 40), Igbo (kimanin miliyan 30), Fulfulde (miliyan 15), Ibibio (miliyan 10), Kanuri (8) miliyoyin), Tiv (miliyan 4), da kimanin. Miliyan biyu kowane Edo , Igala , Nupe , Izon da Berom . Bambancin bambancin harshe na Najeriya ya zama mawuyacin yawancin Afirka a duk fadin, kuma ƙasar tana da harsuna daga manyan manyan harsunan Afirka guda uku: Afroasiatic , Nilo-Saharan da Nijar-Congo . Har ila yau Najeriya tana da harsuna da dama da ba a haɗe ba , irin su Centúúm , wanda zai iya wakiltar wata mahimmancin bambanci kafin a yada harshe na yanzu.

Harshen Nijar-Congo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Nijar-Congo ta fi rinjaye a yankunan tsakiya, gabas da kudancin Nijeriya; manyan rassan da aka wakilta a Nijeriya sune Mande , Atlantic , Gur , Kwa , Benue-Congo da Adamawa-OL . Mande yana wakiltar busa da Kyenga a arewa maso yamma. Fulatanci ne guda Atlantic harshe, na Senegambian asalin amma yanzu magana da dabbõbin ni'ima da makiyaya a fadin yankin Sahel da kuma sun fi mayar a cikin jihohin Najeriya, musamman Adamawa .

Ana magana da harsunan Ijoid a fadin Niger Delta kuma sun hada da Iuniw , Kalabari, da kuma sauran 'yan kungiyoyi masu ban mamaki na Defaka . Ana magana da harshen Efik a fadin kudu maso gabashin sashin Najeriya kuma ya haɗa da harsunan Ibibio , Annang , da kuma Efik daidai. Maganin Gur guda guda ne ake magana da ita ita ce Baatunun, a cikin matsanancin Arewa maso yamma.

Ana magana da harshen Adamawa-Ubangi tsakanin tsakiyar Najeriya da Jamhuriyar Afrika ta Tsakiya. Ma'aikatan su na yammaci a Nijeriya su ne harshen Tula-Waja. Kwararren Kwaran suna wakiltar su ne a yankin kudu maso yammaci, wanda ke da alaƙa da harshen Turanci a Benin da Togo.

Ƙayyadewa sauran sauran harsuna yana da rikici; Joseph Greenberg ya rubuta wadanda ba tare da sunaye ba, irin su Yoruba, Igbo, da Ibibio (Efik, Ibibio, da Annang), 'Eastern Kwa ' da wadanda ke da nau'o'in ' Benue-Congo '. Wannan ya sake komawa cikin littafi mai tasiri na 1989 kuma ya nuna a kan taswirar harsuna na 1992, inda dukkanin wadannan aka dauke Benue-Congo . Kwanan nan ra'ayi, duk da haka, ya sake komawa ga bambancin Greenberg. Ya kamata a karanta wallafe-wallafen tare da kulawa da kuma kulawa da kwanan wata. Akwai ƙananan ƙungiyoyin harshe a yankin Neja Confluence, musamman Ukaan, Akpes, Ayere-Ahan da kuma Magoya, wanda ba a taɓa jayayya da shiga cikin waɗannan rukuni ba.

Tsohon Eastern Kwa , watau Daga yammacin Benue-Congo za su hada da Igboid , watau Harshen Turanci daidai, Ukwuani , Ikwerre , Ekpeye da sauransu, Yoruboid, watau Yar'Adua , Itsekiri da Igala , Akokoid (kananan harsuna takwas a Ondo, Edo da Kogi), Edoid ciki har da Edo (wani lokaci ana kiran su) Bini a Jihar Edo , Ibibio-Efik , Idomoid ( Idoma ) da Nupeid ( Nupe ) kuma watakila sun hada da da sauran harsuna da aka ambata a sama. An rarraba harshen Idoma a cikin rukunin Akweya na harsunan Idomoid na gidan Volta-Nijar, wanda ya hada da alago da Alago, Agatu, Etulo da Yala na Benue, Nasarawa da jihohin arewacin Cross Cross.

Kudancin Benue-Congo sun hada da Kainji , Filato (harsuna 46, kamar harshen Gamai ), Jukunoid , Dakoid da Cross River . Baya ga waɗannan, akwai harsunan Bantoid da yawa , wanda shine harsunan nan da nan kakanninmu zuwa Bantu. Wadannan sun hada da harsunan Mambiloid , Ekoid , Bendi , Beboid , Grassfields da Tivoid .

Kasuwanci na rarraba harsunan Niger-Congo a Najeriya ba ta iyakance ne a tsakiyar gabas da tsakiyar kudancin Nigeriya ba, yayin da gudun hijirar ya ba da damar yadawa zuwa ƙasashen Afro-Asia a arewacin Najeriya, da kuma a ko'ina cikin Yammacin Afirka da kasashen waje. Harshen kalmomi kamar "ku" don 'ku' ',' sooso 'don' kawai ',' obia 'don' 'likita' '' ', da dai sauransu. harshe a cikin ƙungiyoyi irin su Santeria a cikin Caribbean da Kudancin Tsakiya ta Tsakiya, da harshen Berbice Dutch a Surinam ya dogara da harshen Ijoid.

Har ma da bambancin harshe da aka ambata a cikin Nijar-Congo a cikin Najeriya yana da iyakancewa, saboda waɗannan harsuna na iya ƙara ƙunshi harsunan yanki wanda bazai zama daidai da juna ba. Kamar yadda irin wa] annan harsuna, musamman wa] anda ke da yawancin masu magana, an daidaita su kuma sun karbi rubutun asalin . Kusan dukkanin harsuna suna bayyana a cikin haɗin Latin lokacin da aka rubuta.

Harsunan Afroasiatic[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Harsunan Afroasia na Najeriya sun raba zuwa Chadic, Semitic da Berber. Daga cikin waɗannan, harsunan Chadic sun fi girma, tare da harsuna 700+. Sauran harsuna na larabci suna wakilci harshen larabci a arewa maso gabas da Berber ta wurin al'umman Abzinawa wadanda suke magana a cikin arewa maso yammaci.

Taswirar da ke nuna mutanen da ke magana da harshen Afroasiatic a Najeriya

Harshen Hausa shi ne mafi yawan sanannun harshen Chadic a Najeriya mampoza; kodayake akwai labarun kididdigar wa] anda ke magana da su, a Nijeriya, wa] anda mutane miliyan 24 ke magana, a Yammacin Afrika, kuma shine harshen na biyu na miliyon 15. Harshen Hausa ya fito ne a matsayin harshen harshen Turanci a dukan faɗin Afirka ta Yamma da Sahel musamman. Ana magana da harshe da farko a tsakanin Musulmai , kuma harshe yana hade da al'adun Islama a Nijeriya da Yammacin Afirka a duk faɗin.

Hausa aka classified a matsayin West Chadic harshe na Chadic ra'ayoyi, wata babbar subfamily na Afroasiatic. A al'adance, mutanen Hausa sun haɗa kai da Fulani bayan kafa Khalifan Sokoto da Fulani Uthman Dan Fodio a karni na 19. Harshen Hausa shi ne harshen hukuma na jihohi da dama a Arewacin Najeriya kuma ana mahimmanci yaren da ake magana da shi a Kano , harshen Yarjejeniya ta Gabas, wanda shine ma'auni iri-iri da ake amfani dashi don dalilai na gwamnati.

Harshen Gabas sun haɗa da wasu harsuna da ake magana a Zaria , da Bauchi ; Harshen Hausa na Yammacin Turai sun hada da Sakkwatanchi da ke Sokoto , Katsinanchi a Katsina Arewanchi a Gobir da Adar , Kebbi da Zamfara . Katsina yana da tsaka-tsaki tsakanin Gabas da Yankin Yammacin Turai. Harshen Hausa na Arewa sun hada da Arewa da Arawa , yayin da Zariya ya kasance wani sashi na harshen kudanci; Barikanchi ne Pidgin da amfani a cikin soja.

Harshen Hausa harshen harshen Chadic ne mai mahimmanci, tare da tsarin tonal da aka rage da kuma launi na Larabci . Sauran harsunan Chadic da aka sani sun hada da Ngas, Goemai, Mwaghavul, Bole , Ngizim , Bade da Bachama. A Gabas ta Nijeriya da kuma zuwa Kamaru sune harshen Chadic na tsakiya, irin su Bura, Higi cluster da Marghi. Wadannan suna da bambanci sosai kuma an bayyana su sosai. Yawancin harsunan Chadic suna da mummunan barazana; Binciken da Bernard Caron yayi na baya-bayan nan a cikin harshen Bauchi ya nuna cewa ko da wasu daga cikin wadanda aka rubuta a shekarun 1970 sun bace. Duk da haka, ba a fahimci harsunan Chadic ba tukuna, sun shaida bayanin kwanan nan na Dyarim.

Hausa, da sauran harsunan Afroasia kamar Bade (wata harshen Chadic da ke yammacin Jihar Yobe), an rubuta tarihi a cikin wani littafin Larabci wanda aka ladafta shi ne ajami , duk da haka, labaran tarihin zamani na yanzu ya zama sanarwa da ake kira boko da aka gabatar da shi. gwamnatin Birtaniya a cikin shekarun 1930.

Harshen Nilo-Saharan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kanuri da Kanembu a Arewa maso gabashin Najeriya suna jihohin harshen Nilosaharan a jihohin Borno, Yobe da kuma wasu jihohi na Jigawa da Bauchi, da Zarma ko Zabarma da Dendi a jihar Kebbi dake arewa maso yamma kusa da iyaka. Ƙasar Nijar.

Language Alternate names Number of Speakers States Spoken in Current Status
Abanyom Abanyum, Befun, Bofon, Mbofon 13,000 Cross River Active
Abon Abong, Abõ, Ba'ban 1,000 Taraba Active
Abua Odual,Abuan 25,000 Rivers Active
Abureni Mini 4,000 Bayelsa Active
Achipa Achipawa 5,000 Kebbi Active
Adim Cross River Active
Aduge 30,000 Anambra Active
Adun Cross River Active
Afade Affade, Afadeh, Afada, Kotoko, Moga Borno, Yobe Active
Afo Plateau Active
Afrikaans Lagos Active
Afrike Afrerikpe 60,000 Cross River Active
Gbo Agbo, Legbo Cross River Active
Ajawa Aja, Ajanci Bauchi Extinct
Akaju-Ndem Akajuk Cross River Active
Akweya-Yachi Benue Active
Alago Arago Plateau Active
Amo Plateau Active
Anaguta Plateau Active
Anang Akwa lbom Active
Andoni Akwa lbom, Rivers Active
Angas Bauchi, Jigawa, Plateau Active
Ankwei Plateau Active
Anyima Cross River Active
Arabic Chadian Arabic also known as Shuwa Arabic Borno by Baggara Arabs Active
Attakar Ataka Kaduna Active
Auyoka Auyokawa, Auyakawa, Awiaka Jigawa Active
Awori Lagos, Ogun Active
Ayu Kaduna Active
Babur Adamawa, Bomo, Taraba, Yobe Active
Bachama Adamawa Active
Bachere Cross River Active
Bada Plateau Active
Bade Yobe Active
Bahumono Cross River Active
Bakulung Taraba Active
Bali Taraba Active
Bambora Bambarawa Bauchi Active
Bambuko Taraba Active
Banda Bandawa Taraba Active
Banka Bankalawa Bauchi Active
Banso Panso Adamawa Active
Bara Barawa Bauchi Active
Barke Bauchi Active
Baruba Barba Niger Active
Bashiri Bashirawa Plateau Active
Basa Kaduna, Kogi, Niger, Plateau Active
Batta Adamawa Active
Baushi Niger Active
Baya Adamawa Active
Bekwarra Cross River Active
Bele (Buli, Belewa) Bauchi Active
Betso (Bete) Taraba Active
Bette Cross River Active
Bilei Adamawa Active
Bille Adamawa Active
Bina (Binawa) Kaduna Active
Bini Edo Active
Birom Plateau Active
Bobua Taraba Active
Boki (Nki) Cross River Active
Bkkos Plateau Active
Boko (Bussawa, Bargawa) Niger Active
Bole (Bolewa) Bauchi, Yobe Active
Botlere Adamawa Active
Boma (Bomawa, Burmano) Bauchi Active
Bomboro Bauchi Active
Buduma Borno, Niger Active
Buji Plateau Active
Buli Bauchi Active
Bunu Kogi Active
Bura Adamawa Active
Burak Bauchi Active
Burma (Burmawa) Plateau Active
Buru Yobe Active
Buta (Butawa) Bauchi Active
Bwall Plateau Active
Bwatiye Adamawa Active
Bwazza Adamawa Active
Challa Plateau Active
Chama (Chamawa Fitilai) Bauchi Active
Chamba Taraba Active
Chamo Bauchi Active
Chibok (Chibbak) Yobe Active
Chinine Borno Active
Chip Plateau Active
Chokobo Plateau Active
Chukkol Taraba Active
Cipu Western Acipa 20,000 Kebbi, Niger Active
Daba Adamawa Active
Dadiya Bauchi Active
Daka Adamawa Active
Dakarkari Niger, Kebbi Active
Danda (Dandawa) Kebbi Active
Dangsa Taraba Active
Daza (Dere, Derewa) Bauchi Active
Degema Rivers Active
Deno (Denawa) Bauchi Active
Dghwede 30,000 Borno Active
Diba Taraba Active
Doemak (Dumuk) Plateau Active
Ouguri Bauchi Active
Duka (Dukawa) Kebbi Active
Duma (Dumawa) Bauchi Active
Ebana (Ebani) Rivers Active
Ebirra lgbirra Edo, Kogi, Ondo Active
Ebu Edo, Kogi Active
Efik Cross River Active
Egbema Rivers Active
Igede (lgede) Egede Benue Active
Eggon Plateau Active
Egun (Gu) Lagos,Ogun Active
Ejagham Cross River Active
Ekajuk Cross River Active
Eket Akwa Ibom Active
Ekoi Cross River Active
Engenni (Ngene) Rivers Active
Epie Rivers Active
Esan (Ishan) Edo Active
Etche Rivers Active
Etolu (Etilo) Benue Active
Etsako Edo Active
Etung Cross River Active
Etuno Edo Active
Palli Adamawa Active
Pulani (Pulbe) Bauchi, Borno, Jigawa , Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi , Niger, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe Active
French Bordering states of Nigeria Active
Fyam (Fyem) Plateau Active
Fyer(Fer) Plateau Active
Ga’anda Adamawa Active
Gade Niger Active
Galambi Bauchi Active
Gamergu Mulgwa , Malgo, Malgwa Borno Active
Qanawuri Plateau Active
Gavako Borno Active
Gbedde Kogi Active
Gengle Taraba Active
Geji Bauchi Active
Gera (Gere, Gerawa) Bauchi Active
Geruma (Gerumawa) Plateau Active
Geruma (Gerumawa) Bauchi Active
Gingwak Bauchi Active
Gira Adamawa Active
Gizigz Adamawa Active
Goernai Plateau Active
Gokana (Kana) Rivers Active
Gombi Adamawa Active
Gornun (Gmun) Taraba Active
Gonia Taraba Active
Gubi (Gubawa) Bauchi Active
Gude Adamawa Active
Gudu Adamawa Active
Gure Kaduna Active
Gurmana Niger Active
Gururntum Bauchi Active
Gusu Plateau Active
Gwa (Gurawa) Adamawa Active
Gwamba Adamawa Active
Gwandara Kaduna, Niger, Plateau Active
Gwari (Gbari) Kaduna, Niger, Plateau Active
Gwom Taraba Active
Gwoza 40,000 Borno Active
Gyem Bauchi Active
Hausa Bauchi, Borno, Jigawa, Kaduna,Kano, Kastina, Kebbi, Niger,Taraba, Sokoto, Zamfara Active
Higi (Hig) Borno, Adamawa Active
Holma Adamawa Active
Hona Adamawa Active
Hyam (Ham, Jaba, Jabba) Kaduna Active
Ibeno Akwa lbom Active
Ibibio Akwa lbom Active
Ichen Adamawa Active
Idoma Benue, Taraba Active
Igalla Kogi Active
lgbo Abia, Anambra, Benue, Delta, Ebonyi,Enugu, Imo, Rivers Active
ljumu Kogi Active
Ikorn Cross River Active
Irigwe Plateau Active
Isoko Delta Active
lsekiri (Itsekiri) Delta Active
lyala (lyalla) Cross River Active
Izere Izarek, Fizere, Fezere, Feserek, Afizarek, Afizare, Afusare, Jari, Jarawa, Jarawan Dutse, Hill Jarawa, Jos-Zarazon. 100,000 Plateau Active
lzondjo) Bayelsa, Delta, Ondo, Rivers Active
Jahuna (Jahunawa) Taraba Active
Jaku Bauchi Active
Jara (Jaar Jarawa Jarawa-Dutse) Bauchi Active
Jere (Jare, Jera, Jera, Jerawa) Bauchi, Plateau Active
Jero Taraba Active
Jibu Adamawa Active
Jidda-Abu Plateau Active
Jimbin (Jimbinawa) Bauchi Active
Jirai Adamawa Active
Jonjo (Jenjo) Taraba Active
Jukun Bauchi, Benue,Taraba, Plateau Active
Kaba(Kabawa) Taraba Active
Kadara Ajuah, Ajure, Adaa, Adara, Azuwa, Ajuwa, Azuwa Kaduna, Niger Active
Kafanchan Kaduna Active
Kagoro Kaduna Active
Kaje (Kache) Kaduna Active
Kajuru (Kajurawa) Kaduna Active
Kaka Adamawa Active
Kamaku (Karnukawa) Kaduna, Kebbi, Niger Active
Kambari Kebbi, Niger Active
Kambu Adamawa Active
Kamo Bauchi Active
Kanakuru (Dera) Adamawa, Borno Active
Kanembu Borno Active
Kanikon Kaduna Active
Kantana Plateau Active
Kanufi Bomo, Kaduna, Adamawa, , Kano, Niger, Jigawa, Plateau, Taraba, Yobe Active
Karekare (Karaikarai) Bauchi, Yobe Active
Karimjo Taraba Active
Kariya Bauchi Active
Katab (Kataf) Kaduna Active
Kenern (Koenoem) Plateau Active
Kenton Taraba Active
Kiballo (Kiwollo) Kaduna Active
Kilba Adamawa Active
Kirfi (Kirfawa) Bauchi Active
Koma Taraba Active
Kona Taraba Active
Koro (Kwaro) Kaduna, Niger Active
Kubi (Kubawa) Bauchi Active
Kudachano (Kudawa) Bauchi Active
Kugama Taraba Active
Kulere (Kaler) Plateau Active
Kunini Taraba Active
Kurama Jigawa, Kaduna, Niger, Plateau Active
Kurdul Adamawa Active
Kushi Bauchi Active
Kuteb Taraba Active
Kutin Taraba Active
Kwalla Plateau Active
Kwami (Kwom) Bauchi Active
Kwanchi Taraba Active
Kwanka (Kwankwa) Bauchi, Plateau Active
Kwaro Plateau Active
Kwato Plateau Active
Kyenga (Kengawa) Sokoto Active
Laaru (Larawa) Niger Active
Lakka Adamawa Active
Lala Adamawa Active
Lama Taraba Active
Lamja Taraba Active
Lau Taraba Active
Ubbo Adamawa Active
Limono Bauchi, Plateau Active
Lopa (Lupa, Lopawa) Niger Active
Longuda (Lunguda) Adamawa, Bauchi Active
Mabo Plateau Active
Mada Kaduna, Plateau Active
Mama Plateau Active
Mambilla Adamawa Active
Manchok Kaduna Active
Mandara Wandala Borno Active
Manga (Mangawa) Yobe Active
Margi Adamawa, Borno, Yobe Active
Matakarn Adamawa Active
Mbembe Cross River, Enugu Active
Mbol Adamawa Active
Mbube Cross River Active
Mbula Adamawa Active
Mbum Taraba Active
Memyang (Meryan) Plateau Active
Miango Plateau Active
Miligili (Migili) Plateau Active
Miya (Miyawa) Bauchi Active
Mobber Borno Active
Montol Plateau Active
Moruwa (Moro’a, Morwa) Kaduna Active
Muchaila Adamawa Active
Mumuye Taraba Active
Mundang Adamawa Active
Munga (Mupang) Plateau Active
Mushere Plateau Active
Mwahavul (Mwaghavul) Plateau Active
Ndoro Taraba Active
Ngamo Bauchi, Yobe Active
Ngizim Yobe Active
Ngweshe (Ndhang.Ngoshe-Ndhang) Adamawa, Borno Active
Ningi (Ningawa) Bauchi Active
Ninzam (Ninzo) Kaduna, Plateau Active
Njayi Adamawa Active
Nkim Cross River Active
Nkum Cross River Active
Nokere (Nakere) Plateau Active
Nunku Kaduna, Plateau Active
Nupe Niger Active
Nyandang Taraba Active
Ododop Cross River Active
Ogori Kwara Active
Okobo (Okkobor) Akwa lbom Active
Okpamheri Edo Active
Olulumo Cross River Active
Oron Akwa lbom Active
Owan Edo Active
Owe Kwara Active
Oworo Kwara Active
Pa’a (Pa’awa Afawa) Bauchi Active
Pai Plateau Active
Panyam Taraba Active
Pero Bauchi Active
Pire Adamawa Active
Pkanzom Taraba Active
Poll Taraba Active
Polchi Habe Bauchi Active
Pongo (Pongu) Niger Active
Potopo Taraba Active
Pyapun (Piapung) Plateau Active
Qua Cross River Active
Rebina (Rebinawa) Bauchi Active
Reshe Kebbi, Niger Active
Rindire (Rendre) Plateau Active
Rishuwa Kaduna Active
Ron Plateau Active
Rubu Niger Active
Rukuba Plateau Active
Rumada Kaduna Active
Rumaya Kaduna Active
Sakbe Taraba Active
Sanga Bauchi Active
Sate Taraba Active
Saya (Sayawa Za’ar) Bauchi Active
Segidi (Sigidawa) Bauchi Active
Shanga (Shangawa) Sokoto Active
Shangawa (Shangau) Plateau Active
Shan-Shan Plateau Active
Shira (Shirawa) Kano Active
Shomo Taraba Active
Shuwa Adamawa, Borno Active
Sikdi Plateau Active
Siri (Sirawa) Bauchi Active
Srubu (Surubu) Kaduna Active
Sukur Adamawa Active
Sura Plateau Active
Tangale Bauchi Active
Tarok Plateau, Taraba Active
Teme Adamawa Active
Tera (Terawa) Bauchi, Bomo Active
Teshena (Teshenawa) Kano Active
Tigon Adamawa Active
Tikar Taraba Active
Tiv Benue, Plateau, Taraba , Nasarawa Active
Tula Bauchi Active
Tur Adamawa Active
Ufia Benue Active
Ukelle Cross River Active
Ukwani (Kwale) Delta Active
Uncinda Kaduna, Kebbi, Niger, Sokoto Active
Uneme (Ineme) Edo Active
Ura (Ula) Niger Active
Urhobo Delta Active
Utonkong Benue Active
Uyanga Cross River Active
Vemgo Adamawa Active
Verre Adamawa Active
Vommi Taraba Active
Wagga Adamawa Active
Waja Bauchi Active
Waka Taraba Active
Warja (Warja) Jigawa Active
Warji Bauchi Active
Wula Adamawa Active
Wurbo Adamawa Active
Wurkun Taraba Active
Yache Cross River Active
Yagba Kwara Active
Yakurr (Yako) Cross River Active
Yalla Benue Active
Yandang Taraba Active
Yergan (Yergum) Plateau Active
Yoruba Kwara, Lagos, Ogun, Ondo, Oyo, Osun, Ekiti, Kogi Active
Yott Taraba Active
Yumu Niger Active
Yungur Adamawa Active
Yuom Plateau Active
Zabara Niger Active
Zaranda Bauchi Active
Zarma Dyerma, Dyarma, Dyabarma, Zabarma, Adzerma, Djerma, Zarbarma, Zerma.Zarmawa Kebbi Active
Zayam (Zeam) Bauchi Active
Zul (Zulawa) Bauchi Active

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. "Nigeria". Ethnologue.  Unknown parameter |access-date= ignored (help)
  2. Blench, Roger (2014). An Atlas Of Nigerian Languages. Oxford: Kay Williamson Educational Foundation. 
  3. "Nigeria". Ethnologue (in English).  Unknown parameter |access-date= ignored (help)

Karin bayani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Blench, Roger (2002) Bincike a kan Maganar Magana a Nijeriya a shekara ta 2001 . Ogmios .
  • Chigudu, Theophilus Tanko (2017); 'Yan asalin Arewa na Arewacin gundumar Najeriya: Yan gudun hijira.
  • Blench, Roger (1998) 'Matsayin Harsunan Tsakiyar Nijeriya', a Brenzinger, M. (ed. ) Harshen hasara a Afirka . Köln: Köppe Verlag, 187-206. shafin intanet
  • Crozier, David & Blench, Roger (1992) Harshen Turanci na Harsunan Harsuna (na biyu) . Dallas: SIL.

Hanyoyin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]