Harsunan Najeriya

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Akwai harsuna 500 da ake magana a Najeriya.[1][2] Harshen kasa shine Turanci, tsohon harshen mulkin mallaka ne na kasar Birtaniya. Kamar yadda aka ruwaito a shekara ta 2003, mutane miliyan 60 sunyi magana da harshen Turanci da na Najeriya a matsayin harshen na biyu.[3] Sadarwa a cikin harshe Ingilishi yafi shahara a yankunan birane na gari fiye da yadda yake a yankunan karkara, saboda mulkin mallaka.

Babban harshe na harshe, a cikin yawan jama'a, Hausa ne (fiye da miliyan 60, ciki har da L2), Yarjejeniyar (fiye da miliyan 40), Igbo (kimanin miliyan 30), Fulfulde (miliyan 15), Ibibio (miliyan 10), Kanuri (8) miliyoyin), Tiv (miliyan 4), da kimanin. Miliyan biyu kowane Edo, Igala, Nupe, Izon da Berom. Bambancin bambancin harshe na Najeriya ya zama mawuyacin yawancin Afirka a duk fadin, kuma ƙasar tana da harsuna daga manyan manyan harsunan Afirka guda uku: Afroasiatic, Nilo-Saharan da Nijar-Congo. Har ila yau Najeriya tana da harsuna da dama da ba a haɗe ba, irin su Centúúm, wanda zai iya wakiltar wata mahimmancin bambanci kafin a yada harshe na yanzu.

Harshen Nijar-Congo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Nijar-Congo ta fi rinjaye a yankunan tsakiya, gabas da kudancin Nijeriya; manyan rassan da aka wakilta a Nijeriya sune Mande, Atlantic, Gur, Kwa, Benue-Congo da Adamawa-OL. Mande yana wakiltar busa da Kyenga a arewa maso yamma. Fulatanci ne guda Atlantic harshe, na Senegambian asalin amma yanzu magana da dabbõbin ni'ima da makiyaya a fadin yankin Sahel da kuma sun fi mayar a cikin jihohin Najeriya, musamman Adamawa.

Ana magana da harsunan Ijoid a fadin Niger Delta kuma sun hada da Iuniw, Kalabari, da kuma sauran 'yan kungiyoyi masu ban mamaki na Defaka. Ana magana da harshen Efik a fadin kudu maso gabashin sashin Najeriya kuma ya haɗa da harsunan Ibibio, Annang, da kuma Efik daidai. Maganin Gur guda guda ne ake magana da ita ita ce Baatunun, a cikin matsanancin Arewa maso yamma.

Ana magana da harshen Adamawa-Ubangi tsakanin tsakiyar Najeriya da Jamhuriyar Afrika ta Tsakiya. Ma'aikatan su na yammaci a Nijeriya su ne harshen Tula-Waja. Kwararren Kwaran suna wakiltar su ne a yankin kudu maso yammaci, wanda ke da alaƙa da harshen Turanci a Benin da Togo.

Ƙayyadewa sauran sauran harsuna yana da rikici; Joseph Greenberg ya rubuta wadanda ba tare da sunaye ba, irin su Yoruba, Igbo, da Ibibio (Efik, Ibibio, da Annang), 'Eastern Kwa ' da wadanda ke da nau'o'in ' Benue-Congo '. Wannan ya sake komawa cikin littafi mai tasiri na 1989 kuma ya nuna a kan taswirar harsuna na 1992, inda dukkanin wadannan aka dauke Benue-Congo. Kwanan nan ra'ayi, duk da haka, ya sake komawa ga bambancin Greenberg. Ya kamata a karanta wallafe-wallafen tare da kulawa da kuma kulawa da kwanan wata. Akwai ƙananan ƙungiyoyin harshe a yankin Neja Confluence, musamman Ukaan, Akpes, Ayere-Ahan da kuma Magoya, wanda ba a taɓa jayayya da shiga cikin waɗannan rukuni ba.

Tsohon Eastern Kwa, watau Daga yammacin Benue-Congo za su hada da Igboid, watau Harshen Turanci daidai, Ukwuani, Ikwerre, Ekpeye da sauransu, Yoruboid, watau Yar'Adua, Itsekiri da Igala, Akokoid (kananan harsuna takwas a Ondo, Edo da Kogi), Edoid ciki har da Edo (wani lokaci ana kiran su) Bini a Jihar Edo, Ibibio-Efik, Idomoid ( Idoma ) da Nupeid ( Nupe ) kuma watakila sun hada da da sauran harsuna da aka ambata a sama. An rarraba harshen Idoma a cikin rukunin Akweya na harsunan Idomoid na gidan Volta-Nijar, wanda ya hada da alago da Alago, Agatu, Etulo da Yala na Benue, Nasarawa da jihohin arewacin Cross Cross.

Kudancin Benue-Congo sun hada da Kainji, Filato (harsuna 46, kamar harshen Gamai ), Jukunoid, Dakoid da Cross River. Baya ga waɗannan, akwai harsunan Bantoid da yawa, wanda shine harsunan nan da nan kakanninmu zuwa Bantu. Wadannan sun hada da harsunan Mambiloid, Ekoid, Bendi, Beboid, Grassfields da Tivoid.

Kasuwanci na rarraba harsunan Niger-Congo a Najeriya ba ta iyakance ne a tsakiyar gabas da tsakiyar kudancin Nigeriya ba, yayin da gudun hijirar ya ba da damar yadawa zuwa ƙasashen Afro-Asia a arewacin Najeriya, da kuma a ko'ina cikin Yammacin Afirka da kasashen waje. Harshen kalmomi kamar "ku" don'ku' ',' sooso 'don' kawai ',' obia 'don' 'likita' '' ', da dai sauransu. harshe a cikin ƙungiyoyi irin su Santeria a cikin Caribbean da Kudancin Tsakiya ta Tsakiya, da harshen Berbice Dutch a Surinam ya dogara da harshen Ijoid.

Har ma da bambancin harshe da aka ambata a cikin Nijar-Congo a cikin Najeriya yana da iyakancewa, saboda waɗannan harsuna na iya ƙara ƙunshi harsunan yanki wanda bazai zama daidai da juna ba. Kamar yadda irin wa] annan harsuna, musamman wa] anda ke da yawancin masu magana, an daidaita su kuma sun karbi rubutun asalin. Kusan dukkanin harsuna suna bayyana a cikin haɗin Latin lokacin da aka rubuta.

Harsunan Afroasiatic[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Harsunan Afroasia na Najeriya sun raba zuwa Chadic, Semitic da Berber. Daga cikin waɗannan, harsunan Chadic sun fi girma, tare da harsuna 700+. Sauran harsuna na larabci suna wakilci harshen larabci a arewa maso gabas da Berber ta wurin al'umman Abzinawa wadanda suke magana a cikin arewa maso yammaci.

Taswirar da ke nuna mutanen da ke magana da harshen Afroasiatic a Najeriya

Harshen Hausa shi ne mafi yawan sanannun harshen Chadic a Najeriya mampoza; kodayake akwai labarun kididdigar wa] anda ke magana da su, a Nijeriya, wa] anda mutane miliyan 24 ke magana, a Yammacin Afrika, kuma shine harshen na biyu na miliyon 15. Harshen Hausa ya fito ne a matsayin harshen harshen Turanci a dukan faɗin Afirka ta Yamma da Sahel musamman. Ana magana da harshe da farko a tsakanin Musulmai, kuma harshe yana hade da al'adun Islama a Nijeriya da Yammacin Afirka a duk faɗin.

Hausa aka classified a matsayin West Chadic harshe na Chadic ra'ayoyi, wata babbar subfamily na Afroasiatic. A al'adance, mutanen Hausa sun haɗa kai da Fulani bayan kafa Khalifan Sokoto da Fulani Uthman Dan Fodio a karni na 19. Harshen Hausa shi ne harshen hukuma na jihohi da dama a Arewacin Najeriya kuma ana mahimmanci yaren da ake magana da shi a Kano, harshen Yarjejeniya ta Gabas, wanda shine ma'auni iri-iri da ake amfani dashi don dalilai na gwamnati.

Harshen Gabas sun haɗa da wasu harsuna da ake magana a Zaria, da Bauchi ; Harshen Hausa na Yammacin Turai sun hada da Sakkwatanchi da ke Sokoto, Katsinanchi a Katsina Arewanchi a Gobir da Adar, Kebbi da Zamfara. Katsina yana da tsaka-tsaki tsakanin Gabas da Yankin Yammacin Turai. Harshen Hausa na Arewa sun hada da Arewa da Arawa, yayin da Zariya ya kasance wani sashi na harshen kudanci; Barikanchi ne Pidgin da amfani a cikin soja.

Harshen Hausa harshen harshen Chadic ne mai mahimmanci, tare da tsarin tonal da aka rage da kuma launi na Larabci. Sauran harsunan Chadic da aka sani sun hada da Ngas, Goemai, Mwaghavul, Bole, Ngizim, Bade da Bachama. A Gabas ta Nijeriya da kuma zuwa Kamaru sune harshen Chadic na tsakiya, irin su Bura, Higi cluster da Marghi. Wadannan suna da bambanci sosai kuma an bayyana su sosai. Yawancin harsunan Chadic suna da mummunan barazana; Binciken da Bernard Caron yayi na baya-bayan nan a cikin harshen Bauchi ya nuna cewa ko da wasu daga cikin wadanda aka rubuta a shekarun 1970 sun bace. Duk da haka, ba a fahimci harsunan Chadic ba tukuna, sun shaida bayanin kwanan nan na Dyarim.

Hausa, da sauran harsunan Afroasia kamar Bade (wata harshen Chadic da ke yammacin Jihar Yobe), an rubuta tarihi a cikin wani littafin Larabci wanda aka ladafta shi ne ajami, duk da haka, labaran tarihin zamani na yanzu ya zama sanarwa da ake kira boko da aka gabatar da shi. gwamnatin Birtaniya a cikin shekarun 1930.

Harshen Nilo-Saharan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kanuri da Kanembu a Arewa maso gabashin Najeriya suna jihohin harshen Nilosaharan a jihohin Borno, Yobe da kuma wasu jihohi na Jigawa da Bauchi, da Zarma ko Zabarma da Dendi a jihar Kebbi dake arewa maso yamma kusa da iyaka. Ƙasar Nijar.

Sunayen harsuna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sunayen harsunan Nijeriya (Blench 2019; Ethnologue 22):[4][5]

Harshe (suna daga Ethnologue) Harshe
(sunan Hausa)
Al'umma
(sunan Hausa)
Sunan kansu
(autonym)
Sunaye Code (ISO) Rukuni
Arabic, Shuwa Shuwa-arab Shuwa Arabe Choa, Chadian Arabic, Shua Arabic, Shuwa, Western Sudanic Arabic shu Semitic, Central, South, Arabic
Tamajaq, Tawallammat Azbinawa, Buzu, Tahoua Tamajeq, Tamajaq, Tamasheq, Tomacheck, Tuareg ttq Berber, Tamasheq, Southern
Boga Boka bvw Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Eastern
Ga'anda Kaandata Ga'ana, Ga'andu, Ganda, Kaandecha, Makwar, Mokar gqa Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Eastern
Hwana Tuftera Fiterya, Hona, Hwona hwo Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Eastern
Jara Jara Jarawa Jera jaf Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Western
Tera Tera Terawa ttr Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Western
Bura-Pabir Babur Baburawa Babir, Babur, Barburr, Bourrah, Bura, Burra, Huve, Huviya, Kwojeffa, Mya Bura, Pabir bwr Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 1
Kibaku Chibbak, Chibbuk, Chibok, Chibuk, Cibak, Cibuk, Kibbaku, Kikuk, Kyibaku ckl Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 1
Kofa Kota kso Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 1
Marghi (Yamma) Putai Marghi West mfl Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 1
Marghi South Marghi Margi margi mfm Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 2
Marghi Central Marghi, Margi mrt Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 2
Nya Huba Chobba, Huba, Kilba hbb Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 2
Nggwahyi Ngwaxi, Ngwohi ngx Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2
Kamwe Kamwǝ Hiji, Vacamwe, “Higgi” (pej.), “Higi” (pej.) hig Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3
Kirya-Konzel myá Kákíryà, myá Kónzə̀l Fali of Kiria, Fali of Kiriya, Fali of Kirya, Fali of Mijilu, Karya, Kirya, Konzal fkk Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3
Hya Ghye, Hwate, Manta, Mukta, Munta, Za hya Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3
Psikye Kamsiki, Kapsiki, Ptsake kvj Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3
Hide Ftour, Hdi, Hedi, Tourou, Tur, Turu, Turu-Hide, Xedi xed Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Lamang
Lamang Gbuhwe, Laamang, Waha hia Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Lamang
Vemgo-Mabas vem Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Lamang
Gvoko Gavoko, Gevoko, Ghboko, Kuvoko, Nggweshe, Ngoshe Sama, Ngoshe-Ndhang, Ngoshi, Ngossi, Ngweshe-Ndaghan ngs Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda
Glavda Galavda, Galvaxdaxa, Gelebda, Glanda, Guelebda glw Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda
Guduf-Gava Afkabiye, Gudupe gdf Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda
Cineni cie Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda
Dghwede Azaghvana, Dehoxde, Hude, Johode, Tghuade, Toghwede, Traude, Wa'a, Zaghvana dgh Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda
Wandala Mandara, Ndara mfi Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Mandara
Mafa Bula, Bulahai, Natakan, “Matakam” (pej.) maf Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5
Sukur Adikimmu Sukur, Gemasakun, Sakul, Sugur syk Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.6
Daba Dabba dbq Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.7
Bata Batta, Bete, Birsa, Bwaatye, Bwatiye, Demsa Bata, Dunu, Eastern Bwatiye, Gboati, Gbwata, Gbwate bta Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8
Bacama Abacama, Bachama, Bashama, Bashamma, Besema, Bwaatye, Bwareba, Bwatiye, Gboare bcy Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8
Fali Fali of Mubi, Fali of Muchella, Vimtim, Yimtim fli Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8
Gude Guɗe Cheke, Goude, Mapodi, Mapuda, Mocigin, Motchekin, Mudaye, Shede, Tchade gde Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8
Gudu Gudo, Gutu gdu Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8
Holma Bali Holma, Da Holmaci hod Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8
Ngwaba Goba, Gombi ngw Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8
Nzanyi Jeng, Jenge, Kobotshi, Njai, Njanyi, Njei, Njeing, Njeny, Nzangi, Zani, Zany nja Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8
Zizilivakan Fali of Jilbu, Jilvu, Zhilvu, Ziliva, Ziziliveken, Àmzírív ziz Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8
Yedina Boudouma, Buduma, Yedana, Yedima, Yidana bdm Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Buduma
Afade Afada, Afadeh, Affade, Kotoko, Mogari aal Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North
Jilbe Zoulbou jie Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1
Hausa Harshen Hausa Hausawa Hausa Abakwariga, Habe, Haoussa, Hausawa, Kado, Mgbakpa hau Chadic, West, A, A.1
Gwandara Kwandara gwn Chadic, West, A, A.1
Kubi Kubanci Kubawa Be, Denawa, Deno, Denwa, Kuba, Kubawa kof Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper
Beele Belanci Belawa / Bellawa Bele, Bellawa, Àbéélé bxq Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper
Bole Bolanci Bolawa / Bolewa Ampika, Bolanchi, Bolanci, Bolawa, Bolewa, Borpika bol Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper
Bure Bubure bvh Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper
Deno Denanci Denawa Be, Denawa, Denwa dbb Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper
Galambu Galambe, Galambi, Galembi glo Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper
Gera Geranci Gerawa Gerawa, Rawam gew Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper
Geruma Gerema, Germa gea Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper
Giiwo Kirifanci Kirifawa Bu Giiwo, Kirfi, Kirifawa, Kirifi kks Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper
Kholok Kode, Koode, Kwoode, Pia, Pitiko, Widala, Wurkum ktc Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper
Maaka Maga, Magha, Maha, Maka mew Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper
Ngamo Gamanci Gamawa Gamawa, Gamo, Ngamawa nbh Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper
Nyam Nyambolo nmi Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper
Karekare Karai Karai, Karai-karai, Karaikarai, Kerekere, Kerrikerri kai Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Karekare
Dera Kanakuru kna Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Dera
Kushi Chong'e, Goji, Kushe kuh Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper
Kutto Kupto, Kúttò kpa Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper
Kwaami Kwamanci Komawa Komawa, Kwam, Kwamanchi, Kwami, Kwom ksq Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper
Pero Filiya, Pipero pip Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper
Piya-Kwonci Ambandi Pia, Pitiko, Piya, Wurkum piy Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper
Tangale Tangle tan Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper
Mwaghavul Mwaghavul Maghavul, Sura sur Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1
Cakfem-Mushere Chakfem, Chokfem cky Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1
Jorto jrt Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1
Kofyar Koffiar kwl Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1
Miship Chip, Cip, Ship mjs Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1
Ngas Angas, Karang, Kerang anc Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1
Pyapun pcw Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2
Goemai Ankwai, Ankwe, Ankwei, Gamai, Kemai ank Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2
Koenoem Kanam kcs Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2
Montol Baltap, Montal, Teel, Tehl mtl Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2
Tal tal Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2
Ywom Gerkanci Gerkawa, Garkawa Garkawa, Gerka, Gerkanchi, Gerkawa, Gurka, Yioum, Yiwom gek Chadic, West, A, A.3, Yiwom
Fyer Fier fie Chadic, West, A, A.4, Fyer
Tambas Tambes, Tembis tdk Chadic, West, A, A.4, Fyer
Mundat mmf Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper
Duhwa Karfa, Kerifa, Nzuhwi kbz Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper
Kulere Akande, Akandi, Kande, Korom Boye, Tof kul Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper
Ron cla Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper
Sha Calanci / Callanci Calawa / Callawa scw Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper
Bade Badanci Gabaden Badanci, Bedde, Bede, Gidgid bde Chadic, West, B, B.1, Bade Proper
Ngizim Ngizimanci Ngizimawa Ngezzim, Ngizmawa ngi Chadic, West, B, B.1, Bade Proper
Duwai Eastern Bade, Evji dbp Chadic, West, B, B.1, Duwai
Ajawa Ajanci Ajawa Aja, Ajanci ajw Chadic, West, B, B.2
Warji Warjanci, Saranci Warjawa, Sarawa Sar, Sarawa, Warja, Warjawa wji Chadic, West, B, B.2
Ciwogai Sago, Tsagu tgd Chadic, West, B, B.2
Diri Diryanci Diryawa Diriya, Dirya, Diryawa dwa Chadic, West, B, B.2
Kariya Kauyanci, Lipkanci Kauyawa, Lipkawa Kariyu, Kauyawa, Lipkawa, Vinahe, Wihe kil Chadic, West, B, B.2
Mburku Burkanci Burkanawa Barke, Barko, Burkanawa, Kariya, Lipkawa, Mburkanci, Wudufu, Wuufu bbt Chadic, West, B, B.2
Miya Miyanci Miyawa Miyanci, Miyawa, Muya, vә́na mίy mkf Chadic, West, B, B.2
Pa'a Afanci, Pa'anci Afawa, Pa'awa Afa, Afanci, Afawa, Fa'awa, Foni, Fucaka, Fuucəka, Pa'anci, Pa'awa, Pala pqa Chadic, West, B, B.2
Siri Siranci Sirawa Sirawa sir Chadic, West, B, B.2
Zumbun Jimbinanci Jimbinawa Jimbin, Jimbinawa jmb Chadic, West, B, B.2
Boghom Bogghom, Boghorom, Bohom, Bokiyim, Borrom, Burma, Burom, Burrum, Burum bux Chadic, West, B, B.3, Boghom
Kir-Balar Larbanci Larbawa (Balar) Kir, Kirr kkr Chadic, West, B, B.3, Boghom
Mangas zns Chadic, West, B, B.3, Boghom
Jimi Bi-Gimu jmi Chadic, West, B, B.3, Eastern
Guruntum-Mbaaru Gurdung, Guruntum grd Chadic, West, B, B.3, Guruntum
Ju juu Chadic, West, B, B.3, Guruntum
Tala tak Chadic, West, B, B.3, Guruntum
Zangwal Twar, Zwangal zah Chadic, West, B, B.3, Guruntum
Geji Gejanci / Gezanci, Kaiyoranci Gejawa / Gezawa, Kaiyorawa Gejawa, Gezawa, Kayauri gji Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper
Luri Lúr ldd Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper
Polci Polci, Palci Palsawa, Zulawa Palchi, Palci, Polchi plj Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper
Saya Sayanci Sayanci, Sayara, Sayawa, Seiyara, Seya, Seyawa, Vigzar, Vikzar, Zaar say Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper
Zari Zariwa zaz Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper
Zeem Chaari zua Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper
Dass Ɓaranci, Zumbulanci / Dumbulanci Ɓarawa, Zumbulawa / Dumbulawa Barawa dot Chadic, West, B, B.3
Fulfulde, Nigerian Fulfulde fuv Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, East Central
Fulfulde, Adamawa Fillanci, Fulatanci Eastern Fulfulde, Fillanci, Fula, Fulani, Fulatanchi, Fulɓe, Fulfulde fub Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Eastern
Fulfulde, Benin-Togo fue Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, West Central
Defaka Afakani, Defaka-Nkooro afn Ijoid, Defaka
Ijo, Southeast Brass Ijo, Brass-Nembe, Ijaw, Nembe-Akassa ijs Ijoid, Ijo, East
Kalabari Kalaḇari Bibi Ịjọ ijn Ijoid, Ijo, Eastern, Northeastern, Eastern
Ibani Bonny, Ubani iby Ijoid, Ijo, Eastern, Northeastern, Eastern
Kirike Kịrịkẹ Okrika okr Ijoid, Ijo, Eastern, Northeastern, Eastern
Nkoroo Nkoro nkx Ijoid, Ijo, Eastern, Northeastern
Izon Central-Western Ijo, Ijaw, Ijo, Izo, Uzo ijc Ijoid, Ijo, West Ijo
Okodia Akita, Okordia okd Ijoid, Ijo, West, Inland Ijo
Biseni Amegi, Buseni, Northeast Central Ijo ije Ijoid, Ijo, West, Inland Ijo
Oruma orr Ijoid, Ijo, West, Inland Ijo
Dirim Daka, Dakka, Dirin, Dirrim dir Bantoid, Northern, Dakoid
Dong Donga doh Bantoid, Northern, Dakoid
Gaa Tiba ttb Bantoid, Northern, Dakoid
Lamja-Dengsa-Tola ldh Bantoid, Northern, Dakoid
Samba Daka Chamba, Chamba Daka, Daka, Dakka, Dekka, Deng, Jama, Sama, Samba, Tchamba, Tikk, Tsamba ccg Bantoid, Northern, Dakoid
Fam fam Bantoid, Northern, Fam
Mbongno Bungnu, Bungun, Bunu, Gbunhu, Kakaba, Kamkam bgu Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Magu-Kamkam-Kila
Mvanip Magu, Mvanlip, Mvano, Mvanon, Mvanöp mcj Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Magu-Kamkam-Kila
Ndunda nuh Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Magu-Kamkam-Kila
Somyev Kila, Somyewe kgt Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Magu-Kamkam-Kila
Mambila, Nigeria Bang, Lagubi, Mabila, Mambere, Mambilla, Nor, Nor Tagbo, Tongbo mzk Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Mambila
Njerep Njerup njr Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Mambila-Konja, Njerup
Ndoola Ndola, Ndoro, Njoyame, Nundoro ndr Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Ndoro
Vute Babute, Bute, Buti, Fute, Mbute, Mbutere, Mfuti, Vutere, Wetere, Wute vut Bantoid, Northern, Mambiloid, Suga-Vute, Vute
Bukwen buz Bantoid, Southern, Beboid
Mashi jms Bantoid, Southern, Beboid
Ekajuk Akajo, Akajuk eka Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid, Bakor
Abanyom Abanyum, Befun, Bofon, Mbofon abm Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid, Bakor
Efutop Agbaragba, Ofutop ofu Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid, Bakor
Nde-Nsele-Nta ndd Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid, Bakor
Nkem-Nkum isi Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid, Bakor
Nnam Ndem nbp Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid, Bakor
Ejagham Ekoi etu Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid
Ndoe nbb Bantoid, Southern, Ekoid
Mbat Ɓadanci Ɓadawa Bada', Badanchi, Badawa, Bat, Garaka, Jar, Jarawan Kogi, Kanna, Mbada, Mbadawa, Plains Jarawa, River Jarawa bau Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian
Mbula-Bwazza mbu Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian
Bille Ɓillanci Bile, Bili, Billanchi, Kunbille bil Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian
Kulung Bakuli, Bakulu, Bakulung, Bambur, Kukulung, Kulu, Kuluno, Wo, Wurkum bbu Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian
Labir Jakanci Jakanci, Jaku, Jakun, Labur jku Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian
Bankal Bankalanci, Baranci, Jaranci Jarawa Bankala, Bankalanci, Baranci, Jaranchi, Jaranci, Jarancin Kasa, Jarawa, Jarawan Kasa, Zhar jjr Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian
Duguri Duguranci Dugurawa Doori, Dugarwa, Duguranchi, Dugurawa, Dukuri dbm Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian
Dulbu dbo Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian
Gwa gwb Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian
Gwak Jaranci, Bankalanci Jarawa, Bankalawa Gwak Bankalawa, Gingwak, Jar, Jaracin Kasa, Jaranchi, Jaranci, Jarancin Kasa, Jarawa, Jarawan Bununu, Jarawan Kasa, Lasjar jgk Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian
Lame Rufanci, Bomberanci Rufawa, Bomberawa bma Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian
Mama Kantana, Kwarra mma Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian
Shiki Gubanci Gubawa Guba, Gubawa, Gubi, Mashiki gua Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian
Damlanci Damlanci Damlawa Bantoid, Southern, Jarawan, Nigerian
Mbe Mbe Ketuen, Western Mbube mfo Bantoid, Southern, Mbe
Otank Itang, Itank, Otang, Otanga, Utanga, Utange, Utank uta Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid
Abon Abong, Abõ, Ba'ban abo Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid
Ambo Timap amb Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid
Batu btu Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid
Bitare Njwande, Yukutare brt Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid
Esimbi Aage, Age, Bogue, Eshimbi, Essimbi, Isimbi, Mburugam, Simpi ags Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid
Evant Avand, Avande, Balegete, Belegete, Evand, Ovand, Ovande, Ovando bzz Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid
Iceve-Maci Icheve, Oceve, Ochebe, Ocheve, Utse, Utser, Utseu bec Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid
Iyive Asumbo, Ndir, Uive, Yiive uiv Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid
Tiv Tiv tiv Bantoid, Southern, Tivoid
Kpati Bati, Dong, Kam koc Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba
Lidzonka Adere, Adiri, Dzodinka add Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe
Limbum Kambu, Wimbum lmp Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe
Yamba Mbem, “Kaka” (pej.) yam Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe
Lamnso' Bansaw, Banso, Banso', Lamnsok, Lamso, Nsaw, Nsho', Nso, Nso', Panso lns Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Ring, East
Nde-Gbite Biti, Bötö ned Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Unclassified
Viti Vötö vit Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields, Unclassified
Fum fum Bantoid, Southern, Wide Grassfields, Narrow Grassfields
Áncá Bunta acb Bantoid, Unclassified
Buru bqw Bantoid, Unclassified
Nshi nsc Bantoid, Unclassified
Bete-Bendi Bette-Bendi, Dama btt Cross River, Bendi
Elege Alege, Alegi, Ugbe, Uge alf Cross River, Bendi
Bekwarra Bekworra, Ebekwara, Yakoro bkv Cross River, Bendi
Bokyi Boki, Nfua, Nki, Okii, Osikom, Osukam, Uki, Vaaneroki bky Cross River, Bendi
Bukpe Ukpe, Ukpe-Bayobiri ukp Cross River, Bendi
Bumaji byp Cross River, Bendi
Obanliku Abanglekuo, Abanliku bzy Cross River, Bendi
Ubang uba Cross River, Bendi
Utugwang-Irungene-Afrike Ebe Cluster, Putukwam afe Cross River, Bendi
Odual Ọḍual Onu Oḍual, Saka odu Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta, Abua-Odual
Abua Abuan abn Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta, Abua-Odual
Kugbo kes Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta, Kugbo
Abureni Mini mgj Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta
O'chi'chi' xoc Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta
Obulom Abuloma obu Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta
Ogbia Ogbinya ogb Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta
Ogbogolo Obogolo ogg Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta
Ogbronuagum Bukuma, Obronuagum ogu Cross River, Delta Cross, Central Delta
Ebughu Oron ebg Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ebughu
Efai Effiat efa Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Efai
Anaang Anaañ Anang, Annang anw Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Efik
Efik Efik Calabar efi Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Efik
Ibibio Ibibio ibb Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Efik
Ukwa ukq Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Efik
Ekit Eket eke Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ekit
Etebi etb Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ekit
Enwan Oron enw Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Enwang-Uda
Uda uda Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Enwang-Uda
Ibino Ibeno, Ibuno ibn Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ibino
Ibuoro ibr Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ibuoro
Ito itw Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ibuoro
Itu Mbon Uzo Itu Mbon Uso, Itu Mbuzo itm Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ibuoro
Nkari nkz Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ibuoro
Iko iki Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Iko
Ilue Idua ilv Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Ilue
Okobo okb Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Okobo
Oro Oron orx Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Oro
Usaghade Isangele, Usakade, Usakedet usk Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo, Usaghade
Eki eki Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo
Idere ide Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo
Obolo Obolo Andone, Andoni, Andonni ann Cross River, Delta Cross, Lower Cross, Obolo
Khana Kana, Ogoni ogo Cross River, Delta Cross, Ogoni, East
Gokana Gokana gkn Cross River, Delta Cross, Ogoni, East
Tee Tai tkq Cross River, Delta Cross, Ogoni, East
Baan Baan-Ogoi, Goi, Ogoi bvj Cross River, Delta Cross, Ogoni, West
Eleme Eleme elm Cross River, Delta Cross, Ogoni, West
Agoi Ibami, Ro Bambami, Wa Bambani, Wagoi ibm Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Agoi-Doko-Iyoniyong
Bakpinka Begbungba, Iyongiyong, Iyoniyong, Uwet bbs Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Agoi-Doko-Iyoniyong
Doko-Uyanga Basanga, Dosanga, Iko, Uyanga uya Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Agoi-Doko-Iyoniyong
Ukpet-Ehom Akpet-Ehom akd Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Akpet
Olulumo-Ikom Lulumo iko Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Ikom
Lokaa Lokạạ Loka, Loke, Loko, Lokǝ, Lokö, Luko, Yakurr, Yakö yaz Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Loko
Lubila Kabila, Kabire, Lubilo, Ofor, Ojor kcc Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Loko
Nkukoli Ekuri, Lokoli, Lokukoli, Nkokolle nbo Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Loko
Legbo Agbo, Gbo, Igbo, Imaban, Itigidi, Leggbo agb Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Mbembe-Legbo, Legbo
Lenyima Anyima, Inyima ldg Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Mbembe-Legbo, Legbo
Leyigha Asiga, Assiga, Ayiga, Ayigha, Yigha ayi Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Mbembe-Legbo, Legbo
Mbembe, Cross River Ekokoma, Ifunubwa, Oderiga, Ofunobwam, Okam, Wakande mfn Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, East-West, Mbembe-Legbo, Mbembe
Oring Koring, Orri, Orrin, Orringorrin org Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Koring-Kukele, Koring
Kukele Bakele, Ukele kez Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Koring-Kukele, Kukele
Uzekwe Ezekwe eze Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Koring-Kukele, Kukele
Agwagwune Agwaguna, Akurakura, Gwune, Okurikan, “Akunakuna” (pej.) yay Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Ubaghara-Kohumono, Kohumono
Hohumono Bahumono, Bhahumono, Ediba, Ekumuru, Humono, Kohumono, Ohumono bcs Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Ubaghara-Kohumono, Kohumono
Umon Amon umm Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Ubaghara-Kohumono, Kohumono
Ubaghara byc Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Central, North-South, Ubaghara-Kohumono, Ubaghara
Kiong Akayon, Akoiyang, Iyoniyong, Okonyong, Okoyong, Äkäyön~ kkm Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Kiong-Korop
Korop Durop, Kurop, Ododop krp Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Kiong-Korop
Odut oda Cross River, Delta Cross, Upper Cross, Kiong-Korop
Akpes Ibaram-Efifa ibe Akpes
Arigidi North Akoko aqg Defoid, Akokoid
Àhàn Ahaan ahn Defoid, Ayere-Ahan
Ayere Iluwu, Mayin nuwu, Oyuwu, Uwu aye Defoid, Ayere-Ahan
Isekiri Iṣekiri Chekiri, Irhobo, Iselema-Otu, Ishekiri, Itsekiri, Iwere, Jekri, Selemo, Shekiri, Warri its Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri
Ulukwumi ulb Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri
Yoruba Yarbanci Èdè Yorùbá Yariba, Yooba, Yorùbá yor Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri
Igala Igala Igara igl Defoid, Yoruboid, Igala
Degema deg Edoid, Delta
Engenni Egene, Ngene enn Edoid, Delta
Epie Epie-Atissa epi Edoid, Delta
Edo Edo Addo, Benin, Bini, Oviedo, Ovioba bin Edoid, North-Central, Edo-Esan-Ora
Emai-Iuleha-Ora Ivbiosakon, Kunibum ema Edoid, North-Central, Edo-Esan-Ora
Esan Anwain, Esa, Isa, Ishan ish Edoid, North-Central, Edo-Esan-Ora
Enwan env Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee
Etsako Afenmai, Etsakor, Iyekhee, Yekhee, “Kukuruku” (pej.) ets Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee
Ghotuo aaa Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee
Igwe igw Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee
Ikpeshi Ekpeshe, Ikpeshe ikp Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee
Ivbie North-Okpela-Arhe atg Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee
Ososo oso Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee
Sasaru sxs Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee
Uneme Ileme, Ineme, Uleme une Edoid, North-Central, Ghotuo-Uneme-Yekhee
Ihievbe ihi Edoid, North-Central
Ehueun Ekpenmen, Ekpimi, Epimi ehu Edoid, Northwestern, Osse
Iyayu Idoani iya Edoid, Northwestern, Osse
Uhami Ishua uha Edoid, Northwestern, Osse
Ukue Ekpenmen, Ekpenmi, Epinmi, Ukpe uku Edoid, Northwestern, Osse
Akuku ayk Edoid, Northwestern, Southern
Idesa ids Edoid, Northwestern, Southern
Okpamheri Opameri opa Edoid, Northwestern, Southern
Okpe okx Edoid, Northwestern, Southern
Oloma olm Edoid, Northwestern, Southern
Aduge adu Edoid, Northwestern
Eruwa Arokwa, Erakwa, Erohwa erh Edoid, Southwestern
Isoko Isoko iso Edoid, Southwestern
Okpe oke Edoid, Southwestern
Urhobo Urhobo Biotu, “Sobo” (pej.) urh Edoid, Southwestern
Uvbie Effurun, Evrie, Uvhria, Uvwie, “Evhro” (pej.) evh Edoid, Southwestern
Eloyi Eloyi Afao, Afo, Afu, Aho, Epe, Keffi afo Idomoid, Akweya, Eloyi
Etulo Eturo, Turumawa, Utur utr Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Etulo
Agatu North Idoma, Ochekwu agc Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma
Alago Alago Arago, Aragu, Argo, Idoma Nokwu ala Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma
Idoma Idoma idu Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma
Igede Egede, Igedde ige Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma
Yala Yala Iyala yba Idomoid, Akweya, Etulo-Idoma, Idoma
Akpa Akweya akf Idomoid, Yatye-Akpa
Yace Ekpari, Iyace, Yache, Yatye ekr Idomoid, Yatye-Akpa
Ebira Ebira Egbira, Egbura, Ibara, Igbarra, Igbira, Igbirra, Katawa, Kotokori, Kwotto igb Nupoid, Ebira-Gade
Gade Gede ged Nupoid, Ebira-Gade
Gbagyi East Gwari, Gbagye, Gwari, Gwari Matai, Ibagyi gbr Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Gbagyi-Gbari
Gbari Gbari Yamma, Gwari Yamma, Nkwa, West Gwari gby Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Gbagyi-Gbari
Asu Abewa, Ebe aum Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Nupe
Gupa-Abawa gpa Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Nupe
Kakanda Adyaktye, Akanda, Hyabe kka Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Nupe
Kami kmi Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Nupe
Kupa kug Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Nupe
Nupe-Nupe-Tako Nupenci Nufawa Nupe Nufawa, Nupeci, Nupenchi nup Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi, Nupe
Dibo Ganaganci Ganagawa Ganagana, Ganagawa, Shitako, Zhitako, Zitako dio Nupoid, Nupe-Gbagyi
Oko-Eni-Osayen Ogori-Magongo, Oko oks Oko
Ukaan AIKA (Ayanran-Ishe-Kakumo-Auga), Anyaran, Auga, Ikan, Kakumo kcf Ukaan
Ekpeye Ekkpahia, Ekpabya, Ekpaffia ekp Igboid, Ekpeye
Ika Ika ikk Igboid, Igbo
Ezaa Ezaa Eza, Ezza eza Igboid, Igbo
Igbo Igbo Ibo ibo Igboid, Igbo
Ikwere Ikwerre Ikwerri ikw Igboid, Igbo
Ikwo Ikwo iqw Igboid, Igbo
Izii Izii Izhi, Izi, Izzi izz Igboid, Igbo
Mgbolizhia Mgbolizhia Mgbo, Ngbo gmz Igboid, Igbo
Ogbah Ọgba Ogba, Olu Ọgba ogc Igboid, Igbo
Ukwuani-Aboh-Ndoni ukw Igboid, Igbo
Hõne juh Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Jukun
Jibu Jibanci Jibawa Jibu Jibanci, Jibawa jib Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Jukun
Jukun Takum Diyi, Jukun, Njikum jbu Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Jukun
Wãpha Wase, Wase Tofa juw Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Jukun
Jiba Bajibaro, Jibe, Jibi, Jukun Kona, Kona juo Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Kororofa
Wannu Abinsi, Awannu, Jukun Abinsi, River Jukun jub Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Kororofa
Wapan Jinkum, Jukon, Juku, Juku Junkun, Jukum, Jukun Wapan, Jukun Wukari, Wakari, Wapã, Wukari juk Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Kororofa
Mbembe, Tigon Akonto, Akwanto, Noale, Tigim, Tigon, Tigong, Tukun nza Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Mbembe
Shoo-Minda-Nye Bandanci Bandawa (Shoo) Bakula bcv Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Unclassified
Como Karim Asom, Bakula, Chomo, Kinzimba, Kirim, Kiyu, Nuadhu, Shomo Karim, Shomoh, Shomong cfg Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Wurbo
Jiru Atak, Bakula, Kir, Wiyap, Zhiru jrr Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Wurbo
Tita Hoai Petel tdq Jukunoid, Central, Jukun-Mbembe-Wurbo, Wurbo
Etkywan Etekwe, Icen, Ichen, Itchen, Kentu, Kyanton, Kyato, Nyidu ich Jukunoid, Central, Kpan-Icen
Kpan Abakan, Hwaso, Hwaye, Ibukwo, Ikpan, Kpanten, Kpwate, Nyatso, Nyonyo, Yorda kpk Jukunoid, Central, Kpan-Icen
Akum Aakuem, Anyar, Oakuem aku Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb
Kapya klo Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb
Kutep Kuteb Ati, Kutev, Mbarike, Zumper, “Jompre” (pej.) kub Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb
Yukuben Ayikiben, Balaabe, Balaaben, Boritsu, Nyikobe, Nyikuben, Oohum, Uhumkhegi, Uhumkiji, Uuhum, Uuhum-Gigi ybl Jukunoid, Yukuben-Kuteb
Bete byf Jukunoid
Amo Timap Amap, Amon, Among, Ba amo Kainji, Eastern, Amo
Gamo-Ningi Butanci (Gamo) bte Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera
Gyem Gyemanci / Gemanci Gyemawa / Gemawa Gema, Gemawa, Gyam, Gyemawa gye Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera
Iguta Anaguta, Naraguta nar Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera
Izora Cokobanci Cokobawa Chokobo, Cokobanci, Cokobawa, Ndazora, Zora cbo Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera
Janji Ajanji, Anafejanzi, Jenji, Tijanji jni Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera
Jere Gusanci (Gusu), Jeriyanci (Azelle), Ipananci / Unupananci / Pananci Gusawa (Gusu), Jeriyawa (Azelle), Ipanawa / Unupanawa Jeere, Jera jer Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera
Kudu-Camo Kudanci Kudawa Kuda-Chamo, Kudawa kov Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera
Lemoro Anemoro, Anowuru, Emoro, Limorro ldj Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera
Lere Gananci Rishuwa (Si), Ganawa (Gana) gnh Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera
Sanga Asanga, Isanga xsn Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera
Shau Lìsháù, Sho sqh Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera
Sheni Shenanci Shaini, Shani, Shenanci scv Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera
Tunzuii Dugusa, Duguza, Itunzu dza Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera
Ziriya Jiriya zir Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Jera
Bina Binanci Binawa Abin, Binawa, Bogana, Ibin, Tibin byj Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru
Dungu Dunjanci Dunjawa Dingi, Dungi, Dunjawa, Dwingi dbv Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru
Kaivi Kaibi kce Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru
Kinuku Kinugu, Kinuka kkd Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru
Kono Konu, Kwono klk Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru
Kurama Akurmi, Akurumi, Azumu, Bagwama, Tikurami krh Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru
Mala Amala, Rumaiya, Rumaya, Tumala ruy Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru
Ruma Bagwama, Rurama, Ruruma, Turama ruz Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru
Shuwa-Zamani Kauru, Kuzamani, Rishuwa ksa Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru
Tugbiri-Niragu Gbiri-Niragu, Gure-Kahugu, Tugbiri grh Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru
Tumi Kitimi, Tutumi kku Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru
Vono Kiballo, Kiwollo kch Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru
Vori Fiti, Skrubu, Srubu, Surubu, Tivori, Zurubu sde Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos, Kauru
Panawa Pananci Panawa Bugel, Bujiye pwb Kainji, Eastern, Northern Jos
Abishi Abisi, Bisi, Piti, Pitti pcn Kainji, Eastern, Piti-Atsam
Atsam Cawai, Cawe, Cawi, Chawai, Chawe, Chawi cch Kainji, Eastern, Piti-Atsam
Basa-Gumna Basa, Basa Kuta, Basa-Kaduna, Bassa-Kaduna, Bassa-Kuta, Gwadara Basa bsl Kainji, Western, Basa
Basa Abacha, Abatsa, Basa-Benue, Bassa, Rubasa, Rubassa, “Bassa-Komo” (pej.), “Bassa-Kwomu” (pej.) bzw Kainji, Western, Basa
Basa-Gurmana Koromba buj Kainji, Western, Basa
Bassa-Kontagora bsr Kainji, Western, Basa
Bauchi Bauci, Baushi, Kushi bsf Kainji, Western, Baushi-Gurmana
Gurmana gvm Kainji, Western, Baushi-Gurmana
C'Lela Cilala, Dakarci Lalawa Lela Cala-Cala, Chilala, Chilela, Dakakari, Dakarkari, Dakkarkari, Kolela, Lalawa dri Kainji, Western, Duka
Damakawa Damakawa Damakawa Tidama'un dam Kainji, Western, Duka
Gwamhi-Wuri Banganci Bangawa, Wurawa, Gwamfawa, Konkanawa Banganci, Bangawa, Lyase, Lyase-Ne bga Kainji, Western, Duka
us-Saare Dukanci Dukawa Western Duka, Western Dukawa, es-Saare, əs-Saare uss Kainji, Western, Duka
ut-Hun Dukanci Dukawa it-Hun Eastern Duka, Eastern Dukawa, Hun-ne, Hune, et-Hun, ət-Hun uth Kainji, Western, Duka
ut-Ma'in Fakanci Fakawa, Gelawa, Zuksun, Kukumawa, Kelawa, Tuduwa, Kuluwa ut-Ma'in Fakai, Fakanchi, Fakanci, Fakkanci, Gelanchi gel Kainji, Western, Duka
Lopa Lopanci Lopawa Djiri, Kirikjir, Lopawa, Lupa, Ollaran lop Kainji, Western, Kainji Lake
Laru Laranci Larawa Laranchi, Larawa, Laro, Sengwe lan Kainji, Western, Kainji Lake
Tsucuba Cuba, Urcibar cbq Kainji, Western, Kainji Lake
Cishingini Kamberci Cishingini Agwara Kambari, Aschingini, Ashaganna, Ashingini, Chisingini, Kambari, Kamberchi, Kamberri, Tsishingini, Yauri, “Maunchi” (pej.), “Mawanchi” (pej.) asg Kainji, Western, Kambari
Baangi Cibaangi bqx Kainji, Western, Kambari
Tsikimba Kamberci Tsikimba Akimba, Auna, Kambari, Kamberchi, Kamberri, Kimba kdl Kainji, Western, Kambari
Tsishingini Kamberci Tsishingini Ashingini, Cishingini, Kambari, Kamberchi, Kamberri, Salka tsw Kainji, Western, Kambari
Tsuvadi Abadi, Avadi, Evadi, Ibeto, Kamberi tvd Kainji, Western, Kambari
Rogo Burogo, Shiyabe, Toshiyabe, Ucanja Kamuku, Urogo, toRogo rod Kainji, Western, Kamuku
Cahungwarya Hungworo, Ingwe, Ingwo, Ngwe, Ngwoi, Nkwoi, Ungwe nat Kainji, Western, Kamuku
Shama-Sambuga Tushama, Ushama sqa Kainji, Western, Kamuku
Acipa, Eastern Acipanci Achipa, Acipanci, Zubazuba acp Kainji, Western, Kamuku
Cicipu Acipanci Achipa, Acipanci, Western Acipa awc Kainji, Western, Kamuku
Fungwa Afungwa, Tufungwa, Ula, Ura ula Kainji, Western, Kamuku
Kamuku 'Yara, Cinda-Regi-Tiyal, Tiyal, Tiyar, Tu'yara, Tucipu cdr Kainji, Western, Kamuku
Pangu Tarin Akwa, Arringeu, Pongo, Pongu png Kainji, Western, Kamuku
Reshe Gunganci Gungawa, Yaurawa Tsureshe Bareshe, Gunga, Gunganchi, Gunganci, Gungawa, Tsureja, Yaurawa res Kainji, Western, Reshe
Alumu-Tesu Alumu, Arum-Cesu, Arum-Chessu, Arum-Tesu aab Plateau, Alumic
Ayu Aya ayu Plateau, Ayu
Berom Afango, Berum, Birom, Gbang, Kibbo, Kibbun, Kibo, Kibyen, Lêm Berom, “Shosho” (pej.) bom Plateau, Beromic
Iten Iten Aten, Eten, Etien, Ganawuri, Niten, Ten, “Jal” (pej.) etx Plateau, Beromic
Shall-Zwall sha Plateau, Beromic
Cara Chara, Fachara, Fakara, Nfachara, Pakara, Tariya, Tera, Teriya, Terri cfd Plateau, Central, North-Central
Ibaas Ibaas Aficen, Biken, Cen, Chen, Forom, Icen, Icen FiForon, Icen Ibaas, Ichen cen Plateau, Central, South-Central
Izere Izere Afizare, Afizarek, Afizere, Afudelek, Afusare, Feserek, Fezere, Fizere, Hill Jarawa, Izarek, Izer, Jarawa, Jarawan Dutse, Jari, Jos-Zarazon izr Plateau, Central, South-Central
Firan Faran, Foron, Kwakwi, Yes Firan fir Plateau, Central, South-Central
Ganang Gashish gne Plateau, Central, South-Central
Jju Jju Kache, Kaje, Kajji kaj Plateau, Central, South-Central
Rigwe Rigwe Aregwe, Idafan, Iregwe, Irigwe, Kwal, Kwan, Kwoll, Miango, Miyango, Nkarigwe, Nnerigwe, Nyango, Yirigwe iri Plateau, Central, South-Central
Tyap Katab, Kataf kcg Plateau, Central, South-Central
Ahwai nfd Plateau, Central, West-Central
Adara Kadara kad Plateau, Northern
Ajiya Ajuli, Idon, Idong, Misiwa idc Plateau, Northern
Doka dbi Plateau, Northern
Iku-Gora-Ankwa Ekhwa, Iku ikv Plateau, Northern
Ikulu Ankulu, Ikolu, Kulu ikl Plateau, Northern
Kuturmi khj Plateau, Northern
Bo-Rukul Mabo-Barkul, Mabo-Barukul, “Kaleri” (pej.) mae Plateau, Southeastern
Horom hoe Plateau, Southeastern
Pyam Genanci Genawa Pyam Fem, Fyam, Fyem, Genawa, Gyem, Gyema, Paiem, Pem, Pyem pym Plateau, Southeastern
Lijili Lijili Jili, Koro Lafia, Koro of Lafia, Ligili, Megili, Migili, Mijili mgi Plateau, Southern
Tanjijili Jijili, Koro, Koro Funtu of Kafin Koro, Koro Funtu of Minna, Koro Funtu of Shakoyi, Ujijili uji Plateau, Southern
Pe Dalong, Pai pai Plateau, Tarokoid
Sur Tapshinanci Tapshinawa Dishili, Myet, Nsur, Suru, Tapshin, Tapshinawa tdl Plateau, Tarokoid
Tarok iTárók Appa, Taroh, Yergam, Yergem, Yergum yer Plateau, Tarokoid
Yangkam Basharanci Basharawa Bashar, Basharawa, Bashiri, Yankam bsx Plateau, Tarokoid
Cori Chori cry Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Hyamic
Gyong Agoma, Gong, Gwong, Kagoma, Kwong kdm Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Hyamic
Hyam Ham, Hyamhum, Jabba, Jeba jab Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Hyamic
Shamang Samang, Samban xsh Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Hyamic
Zhire Kenyi zhi Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Hyamic
Ashe Ishe Ala, Koro Makama, Koron Ache, Koron Ala ahs Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Koro
Duya Adong, Idun, Jaba Duya, Jaba Lunga, Lungu, Ungu ldb Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Koro
Koro Wachi Agere, Begbere-Ejar, Koro Agwe, Koro Makama, Koro Myamya, Miamia, Miamiya bqv Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Koro
Nyankpa Nyenkpa, Yasgua, Yeskwa yes Plateau, Western, Northwestern, Koro
Bu Ibut, Jida, Jida-Abu, Jidda-Abu, Nakare jid Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A
Kamantan Angan, Kamanton kci Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A
Kanufi Karshi kni Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A
Kuce Kuche Bace, Bache, Che, Inchazi, Rukuba, Sale ruk Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A
Mada Mada Madda, Yidda mda Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A
Nikyob-Nindem Kaningdom-Nindem, Kaningdon-Nindem, Kaningkom-Nindem, Kaningkon-Nindem, Kaninkom-Nindem, Kaninkon-Nindem, Ninkyob-Nindem kdp Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A
Ninzo Akiza, Amar Tita, Ancha, Fadan Wate, Gbhu, Gbhu D Amar Randfa, Hate, Incha, Kwasu, Ninzam, Nunzo nin Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A
Numana Arak, Inmwen, Nimana, Numana-Nunku-Gbantu-Numbu nbr Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A
Nungu Lindiri, Rendre, Rindiri, Rindre rin Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A
Vaghat-Ya-Bijim-Legeri Vwhat bij Plateau, Western, Southwestern, A
Ake Aike, Akye, Kapon aik Plateau, Western, Southwestern, B
Eggon Egon, Hill Mada, Mada Dutse, Mada Eggon, Mo Egon ego Plateau, Western, Southwestern, B
Hasha Yashi ybj Plateau, Western, Southwestern, B
Sambe xab Plateau, Western, Southwestern, B
Toro Turkwam tdv Plateau
Fali of Baissa fah Unclassified
Ija-Zuba Koro Afiki, Koro Ija, Koro Zuba vki Unclassified
Gun Egun, Gugbe, Gun-Alada, Gun-Gbe, Seto-Gbe guw Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja
Kam Nyingwom, Nyiwom, Yimwom kdx Adamawa, Kam
Kwa Baa, Kwah kwb Adamawa, Kwa
Peere Kotofo, Kotopo, Kotpojo, Koutin, Kutin, Kutine, Kutinn, Pare, Patapori, Peer, Pere, Potopo, Potopore pfe Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Kutin
Koma Kuma kmy Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Vere-Gimme, Vere
Verre Kobo, Mom Jango, Vere, Were ver Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Vere-Gimme, Vere
Nyong Chukkol, Daganyonga, Mubako, Mumbake, Nyoking, Nyongnepa, Peti, Teteka, Yapeli muo Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Leko
Samba Leko Chamba Leko, Lego, Leko, Lekon, Ndi, Samba, Samba Leeko, Suntai ndi Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Leko
Wom Pere, Pereba, Perema wom Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Leko
Gengle Momu, Wegele, Yagele geg Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye
Kumba Isaro, Sate, Yofo ksm Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye
Mumuye Yoro mzm Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye
Pangseng pgs Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye
Rang rax Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye
Teme Tema tdo Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye
Waka wav Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye
Yendang Kuseki, Nya Korok, Nya Yendang, Nyandang, Yadang, Yandang, Yendam, Yundum ynq Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Yandang
Bali Abaali, Maya Bibaali, Ekpali, Ibaali bcn Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Yandang
Kpasham 'Balo, Kpasam, Maya, Nyisam, Passam pbn Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Yandang
Kugama Kugamma, Wegam, Yamale, Yamalo kow Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Yandang
Yotti Wonkorok, Yoti yot Adamawa, Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Yandang
Laka Godogodo, Lakka, Lao Habe, Lau lak Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Unclassified
Burak Buurak bys Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen
Dza Ngwa Idza E Idza, Janjo, Jen, Jenjo jen Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen
Kyak Bambuka, Nyakyak bka Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen
Leelau Bakula, Lelau, Lelo, Munga, Munga Lelau ldk Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen
Loo Lo, Loh, Shungo, Shunhu ldo Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen
Mághdì Tala, Widala gmd Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen
Mak Leemak, Lemak, Panya, Panyam, Zo pbl Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen
Mingang Doso Doso, Munga Doso, Ngwai Mungàn mko Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen
Moo Gomu, Gwom, Gwomo, Gwomu, Ngwaa Móò, Yáá Mòò gwg Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen
Tha Kapanci Kapawa Joole Manga, Kapawa thy Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Jen
Longuda Languda, Longura, Nunguda, Nungura, Nunguraba lnu Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Longuda
Kamo Kamu, Ma, Nubama, Nyima kcq Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Awak
Awak Awok, Yebu awo Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Awak
Dikaka Mwona Mwona (Bwilim) cfa Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Cham-Mona
Tso Cibbo, Cuyi Tsó, Kitta, Lotsu-Piri, Pire, Piri, Tsóbó ldp Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Cham-Mona
Dadiya Daadiya, Dadia, Loodiya dbd Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Dadiya
Bangwinji Bangjinge Bangunji bsj Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Tula
Tula Kotule, Kutule tul Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Tula
Waja Nyan Wiyau, Wiyaa, Wuya wja Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Waja, Tula
Kaan Kan, Libbo, Libo ldl Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Yungur, Libo
Mboi Gena, Mboire, Mboyi moi Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Yungur, Mboi
Bena Ɓə́ná-Yungur Binna, Buna, Ebina, Ebuna, Gbinna, Purra, Yangeru, Yongor, Yungur, “Lala” (pej.) yun Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Yungur, Yungur-Roba
Lala-Roba Gworam lla Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Yungur, Yungur-Roba
Voro Bena, Buna, Ebina, Ebuna, Woro, Yungur vor Adamawa, Waja-Jen, Yungur, Yungur-Roba
Gbaya, Northwest Baya gya Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Northwest
Baatonum Borganci Borgawa Baatonun, Baatonun-Kwara, Barba, Bargu, Bariba, Batonnum, Batonu, Berba, Bogung, Borgawa, Borgu, Burgu, Zana bba Gur, Bariba
Bisã Busanci Busawa Bisã Bariba, Bisayã, Busa, Busa-Bisã, Busano, Bussanchi, Bussawa bqp Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Busa
Bokobaru Busanci Busawa Zogben Bariba, Busa-Bokobaru, Bussanchi, Bussawa bus Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Busa
Boko Bo'o, Bokonya bqc Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Busa
Shanga Shanganci / Shonganci Shangawa / Shongawa Shangawa, Shonga, Shongawa sho Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Kyanga
Kyanga Kyanganci Kyangawa Kyanga Canga, Changa, Kenga, Kyangawa, Kyenga, Kã, Tienga, Tyanga, Tyenga tye Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Kyanga
Sorko Sarkanci Sarkawa Corogama, Jenaama Bozo, Jenama, Nononke, Sarkanci, Sarkawa, Sorogama, “Boso” (pej.), “Bozo” (pej.) bze Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Boso, Jenaama
Kanuri kau Saharan, Western, Kanuri
Kanuri, Yerwa Kanuri, Yerwa Kanuri Bornu, Central Kanuri, Kanouri, Kanoury, “Beriberi” (pej.) knc Saharan, Western, Kanuri
Tarjumo Old Kanembu txj Saharan, Western, Kanuri
Kanuri, Manga Kanouri, Kanoury, Manga kby Saharan, Western, Kanuri
Tedaga Teda tuq Saharan, Western, Tebu
Dendi Dandanci Dandawa Dandawa, Songhay ddn Songhai, Southern
Zarma Adzerma, Djerma, Dyabarma, Dyarma, Dyerma, Zabarma, Zarbarma, Zarma sanni, Zarmaciine, Zerma dje Songhai, Southern
English Turanci Turawa eng Indo-European, Germanic, West, English
Pidgin, Nigerian Naijá Anglo-Nigerian Pidgin, Broken English, Brokin, Brokun, Nigerian Creole English, Nigerian Pidgin English, Pidgin pcm Creole, English based, Atlantic, Krio
Centúúm Cen Tuum, Jalaa cet Language isolate
Lufu ldq Unclassified
Mawa wma Unclassified
Barikanchi Barikanci bxo Pidgin, Hausa based
Gibanawa Gembananci / Gimbananci Gembanawa / Gimbanawa Gembanawa, Gimbanawa, Jega gib Pidgin, Hausa based
Nigerian Sign Language Harshen bebaye na ƙasar Nijeriya NSL nsi Sign language
Hausa Sign Language Harshen bebaye na ƙasar Hausa Maganar Hannu hsl Sign language

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. "Nigeria". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2017-07-14. 
  2. Blench, Roger (2014). An Atlas Of Nigerian Languages. Oxford: Kay Williamson Educational Foundation. 
  3. "Nigeria". Ethnologue (in English). Retrieved 2018-05-10. 
  4. Rahoton Ethnologue na Harsunan Nijeriya
  5. Blench, Roger (2019). Atlas na Harsunan Nijeriya, ed. IV (sabuntawa da gyara edition of Crozier & Blench 1992).

Karin bayani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Blench, Roger (2002) Bincike a kan Maganar Magana a Nijeriya a shekara ta 2001. Ogmios.
  • Chigudu, Theophilus Tanko (2017); 'Yan asalin Arewa na Arewacin gundumar Najeriya: Yan gudun hijira.
  • Blench, Roger (1998) 'Matsayin Harsunan Tsakiyar Nijeriya', a Brenzinger, M. (ed. ) Harshen hasara a Afirka. Köln: Köppe Verlag, 187-206. shafin intanet
  • Crozier, David & Blench, Roger (1992) Harshen Turanci na Harsunan Harsuna (na biyu). Dallas: SIL.

Hanyoyin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]