Adamawa

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Wikidata.svgJihar Adamawa
Mandara Mountains from Yola.jpg
Bayanai
Farawa 27 ga Augusta, 1991
Suna a harshen gida Adamawa State
Yaren hukuma Turanci
Nahiya Afirka
Ƙasa Najeriya
Babban birni Yola
Office held by head of government (en) Fassara gwamnan jihar Adamawa
Majalisar zartarwa executive council of Adamawa State (en) Fassara
Gangar majalisa Adamawa State House of Assembly (en) Fassara
Kasancewa a yanki na lokaci UTC+01:00
Sun raba iyaka da Taraba state, Jihar Gombe da Jihar Borno
Wanda yake bi Jihar Gongola
Lambar aika saƙo 640001
Shafin yanar gizo adamawa.gov.ng
Country calling code (en) Fassara +234
Wuri
NigeriaAdamawa.png
 9°20′N 12°30′E / 9.33°N 12.5°E / 9.33; 12.5
Ƴantacciyar ƙasaNajeriya

Jihar Adamawa (Fula: Leydi Adamaawa) jiha ce dake a shiyyar arewa maso gabas na siyasar Najeriya, Gombe (jiha) da Borno daga arewa maso yamma, Gombe zuwa yamma. a yayin da ta hada iyaka da kasar Kamaru daga gabas. Jihar ta samo asalin sunanta ne daga tarihinta na Masarautar Adamawa, tare da tsohuwar babban birnin masarautar watau Yola wanda take matsayin babban birnin Jihar Adamawa a yau. Jihar ta kasance daga cikin mafi rabe-rabe tare da harsuna na asalin garin daban daban fiye da guda 100 - an kafa Jihar a 1991 a sa'annin da aka raba tsohuwar Jihar Gongola don samar da Jihar Adamawa da Taraba.[1]

Acikin jihohi 36 na Najeriya, Jihar Adamawa tafi kowacce girma ta fuskar fadin kasa, amma itace ta 13 a jerin jihohi masu karancin yawan jama'a tare da kimanin mutum miliyan 4.25 danagane da kiyasin shekara ta 2016.[2] Dangane da yanayin kasa, Jihar ta kunshi tuddai da tsaunuka (kamarsu Atlantika, Mandara, da kuma tudun Shebshi) da kuma tsaunin Adamawa Plateau tare da kogi zagaye da tsaunukan.

Jihar da ake kira da Adamawa ta a yau ta kadance gida ga yaruka daban daban kamar su Bwatiye (Bachama), Bali, Bata (Gbwata), Gudu, Mbula-Bwazza, da kuma Nungurab (Lunguda) daga yankin tsakiyar garin; harshen Kamwe daga tsakiyar da arewacin garin; yaren Jibu daga can kudancin garin; harshen Kilba, Marghi, Waga, da Wula daga arewa; sai kuma Mumuye daga arewa; da kuma Fulani daga kowannne sashi na garin mafi akasari a matsayin makiyaya. Akwai rabe-raben addini a jihar Adamawa inda musulmai mabiya sunnah suke da kaso 55% na yawan mutanen jihar, kaso 30% kiristoci (yawancinsu mabiya kiristanci na Lutheran, EYN, ECWA, da Pentecostal), inda sauran kashi 15% na mutanen jihar suna riko ga addinan gargajiya.[3][4]

Daga farkon karni na 1800, Mayakan Fulani na musulunci sun mamaye yankin jihar Adamawa ta yau inda suka kafa Masarautar Adamawa a karkashi Halifancin Sokoto. Shekaru 90 bayan haka, dakaru daga Daular Kasar Jamus da Burtaniya sun ci Masarautar Adamawa da yaki, inda suka rarraba yankin a tsakaninsu. An hade sashin da Turawa suke mulka (wacce ta mamaye yammacin Jihar Adamawa a yau) acikin yankin mulkin mallaka na Turai, kafin ta samu 'yancin kai kuma ta zamo Najeriya a shekarar alif 1960. Inda sashin da Jamus ke mulka ta zamo German Kamerun kafin sojojin hadin kai farmaki kuma suka mamaye Kamerun a lokacin gwagwarmayar Kamaru (Kamerun campaign) a lokacin Yakin Duniya ta daya. Bayan yakin, yankin gabashin Adamawa ya kasance daga cikin yankin arewacin Kamaru a karkashin mulkin Turawan Kamaru har zuwa 1961, a lokacin da yarjejeniya ta hade yankin da Najeriya. Tun asali, yankin Jihar Adamawa ta kasance daga cikin Yankin Arewa bayan samun 'yanci, har zuwa 1967 lokacin da aka tsaga yankin kuma ta zamo daga cikin yankin Jihar Arewa ta Gabas. Bayan an raba Jihar Arewa ta Gabas a 1976, an samar da Jihar Gongola a ranar 3 ga watan Februarun 1976 tare da sauran sabbin jihohi 10. Shekaru 15 bayan an mayar da yankin jiha, an raba Gongola, yayinda kudancin jihar ta zamo Taraba, arewacin jihar kuma ta zamo Jihar Adamawa.

A matsayinta na jiha da ta dogara akan noma, tattalin arzikin Jihar Adamawa sun ta'allaka ne akan noma da kiwo, kamar noman Auduga, Gyaɗa, dawa, Rogo, Gero da doya. Shekaru da dama bayan rikicin Boko Haram, ya kawo cikas ga cigaba a jihar.[5] Adamawa tana na goma a fuskar cigaban al'umma, amma tun da rikici ya fara a shekara ta 2016, an sake tsarin cigaban.[6][7]

Labarin kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Jihar Adamawa na daga cikin jihohi mafi girma a Najeriya kuma ta mamaye kusan fadin 36,917sqkm. ihar ta hada iyaka da Borno daga arewa maso yamma, Gombe (jiha) daga yamma, Taraba daga kudu maso yamma, a yayin da ta hada iyaka da kasar Kamaru daga gabas.[8] Damshi da yanayin zafi/sanyi na Jihar Adamawa na farawa ne a watan Nuwamba, inda garin na da zafi sosai musamman a lokacin zafi. Lokacin sanyi na farawa ne daga watan Decemba zuwa watan Febreru na kowacce shekara.[9]

Ta fuskar yanayin kasa, Adamawa kasa ce ta manyan tsaunuka zagaye da koramu a gefensu - kaman rafin Benue, Gongola da Yedsarem. Koramun tsaunin Kamaru, Tsaunin Mandara[10] da Tsaunin Adamawa ne suka hadu suka samar da yanayin kasar Jihar Adamawa.

Tattalin arziki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mafi akasarin mutanen Adamawa manoma ne kamar yadda yankunan tsirrai na kasar guda biyu suka nuna, yankin Sub-Sudan da Northern Guinea Savannah.[11] Amfanin gonarsu na siyarwa sun hada da auduga da gyaɗa a yayin da kayan amfani na cin yau da kullum sune masara, doya, rogo, gero, dawa da shinkafa.

Mutanen kauyuka dake zaune a gabar rafi suna aikin kamun kifi a yayin da Fulanin kauyukan sun kasance makiyaya. Jihar na da hanyoyi na titi da suka hade kowanne yanki na jihar.

Habaka da cigaban yankuna da dama na jihar na da alaka da lokacin Turawan mulkin mallaka a sa'ilin da turawan Jamus suka mulki yankin Arewaci da Kudancin Kamaru daga Dikwa daga arewa zuwa Victoria (Limbe) akan gabar Atlantik a karni na 19. An mika wannan yankuna zuwa ga Burtaniya a matsayin yarjejeniyar United Nations Trust Territories bayan Yakin Duniya ta Daya, tare da sanya hannu a yarjejeniyar Treaty of Versailles. Bayan jayayya mai karfi, an mika Arewacin Kamaru zuwa Najeriya inda ta zamo Gundumar Mulkin Sardauna, sannan kuma Kudancin Kamerun ta hade da yankin harshen Faransanci na Kamaru.[12][13]

Addinai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Musulmai sunyi rinjaye ta fuskar yawa a Jihar Adamawa, tare da matsakaicin yawa na kiristoci. Jihar Adamawa na daya daga cikin yankunan da aka fara Jihadin addinin musulunci tun zamanin Daular Masarautar Musulunci na Sokoto a karni na 1800. Har iyau, akwai Sarki dake jagorantar jihar Adamawa na lokacin wanda ake kira da Lamido, wanda ya fito daga tsatson sarakuna Musulmai wanda suka yake yankin kuma suka mamaye ta tun kafin a hade Kudanci da Arewacin Najeriya a 1914 lokacin mulkin mallaka na turawa. Atiku Abubakar ya kasance Waziri ga sarkin Adamawa. Akwai helikwata na manyan cocin kirista na Church of the Brethren in Nigeria (EYN Church) wacce ke da cibiya a Mubi a yankin arewacin jihar, da kuma cocin Lutheran Church of Christ in Nigeria (LCCN Church) wacce ke da cibiya a Numan dake yankin kudancin jihar.[14] Mishanari kasar Amurka suka kafa Cocin Brethren na Najeriya (EYN church) a karamar hukumar Garkida Gombi a jihar a watan Mayun 1923.[15] Shi kuma cocin "Lutheran Church of Christ in Nigeria (LCCN Church)", mishanarin kasar Jamus suka kafa ta a Numan a 1913.[16]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kafin zamanta jiha, Adamawa ta kasance karkashin mulkin Masarautar Sokoto wacce ta hada da akasarin arewacin Kamaru. Ana yiwa shugabanninsu lakabi da Sarki ko (Lamido da harshen Fillanci).

Kalmar "Adamawa" ta samo asali ne da asalin ne daga wanda ya kafa masarautar Adamawa watau Modibo Adama, shugaban yankin na Jaruman Fulani a karkashin jagorancin Usman dan Fodio Sarkin Daular Sokoto a 1804. Modibo Adama ya fito ne daga yankin Gurin (wani dan kauye a yau) sannan a 1806, an bashi koriyar tuta don ya jagoranci jihadi na musulunci a kasar sa. Bayan 'yan shekaru kadan, Adama ya mamaye kasashe da harsuna da dama na yankin. A cikin shekarar alif 1838, ya mayar da Ribadu babban birninsa, sannan a 1839, Joboliwo ta zamo babban birnin yankin. A shekarar 1841 ne ya kafa birnin Yola daga bisani ya rasu a 1848. Bayan turawa sun mamaye yankin (daga fari turawan Jamus, daga bisani kuma na Burtaniya), shugabannin sun cigaba da mulki a matsayin sarakuna sannan tsatsonsu sun cigaba da gadon kujerar mulkin.

An samu labarin barkewar cutar kyanda daga wani sansanin almajirai a watan Junairun 2015.[17]

Sarakunan Adamawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sarakunan Adamawa sun hada da:

  • Modibbo Adama bin Hassan, 1809–1848
  • Lawalu ben Adama, 1848–1872 (dandan magabacin sarki)
  • Sanda ben Adama, 1872–1890 (dan uwan magabacin sarki)
  • Zubayru bin Adama, 1890–1901 (dan uwan magabacin sarki)
  • Bobbo Ahmadu ben Adama, 1901–1909 (dan uwan magabacin sarki)
  • Iya ben Sanda, 1909–1910 (dandan bin Adama)
  • Muhammadu Abba, 1910–1924 (dandan Ahmadu bin Adama)
  • Muhammadu Bello ben Ahmadu ben Hamidu bin Adamu, 1924–1928
  • Mustafa ben Muhammadu Abba, 1928–1946 (dandan Muhammadu Abba)
  • Ahmadu ben Muhammadu Bello, 1946–1953
  • Aliyu Mustafa, 1953–2010
  • Muhammadu Barkindo Aliyu Musdafa, 2011–har zuwa yau

Rikicin Boko Haram[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Jihar Adamawa ta samu illa sosai daga kungiyar Boko Haram. A cikin watan Janairun shekara ta 2012, Boko Haram sun kai hari a Gombi, Yola da Adamawa. Zuwa shekara ta 2014, Jihar ta zamo gida ga sansani 'yan gudun hijira akalla mutum 35,000 wanda suka gudo daga yankunan da Boko Haram ta mamaye kaman su Mubi, Madagali, Askira Uba, Bama da Gwoza na jihohin Adamawa, Borno, da Yobe. A shekara ta 2014, an kiyasta 'yan gudun hijira akalla mutum 400,000.[18] An kai wani mummunan hari a garin Chakawa a shekara ta 2014. Kunar bakin wake (na bam) ya kashe akalla mutum 30 a shekara ta 2015.[19] Hare-hare bam sau biyu a Madagali a cikin shekara ta 2016 ya jawo rasa rayukan mutum 50. Mubi itace yankin da tafi kowacce matsalolin Boko Haram a Jihar Adamawa. A sa'ilin da aka kai mata munanan hari a shekara ta 2012, 2014, 2017 da kuma 2018.

Kungiyoyin tabbatar da wanzuwar zaman lafiya a yankin sun hada da "Adamawa Peace Initiative (API)" wata kungiya na 'yan kasuwa, malaman addini da kuma jagororin al'umma - kuma Kungiyar Musulman Jihar Adamawa. Kungiyar United States Agency for International Development ta dauki alhakin taimakawa wajen cigaban al'umman yankin.[18]

A ranaku 21 zuwa 22 ga watan Febrerun 2020, kungiyar Boko Haram ta kai hari a gidaje da cocuka a yankin Garkida, inda suka kashe sojoji uku kuma suka rauna ta mutane (farar hula) da dama.[20]

Ilimi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Makarantun gaba da sakandare a Adamawa sun hada da:

Wuraren Bude Idanu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kananan Hukumomi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Jhar Amadamawa na da kananan hukumomi kamar haka:

Mountainous landscape of the state

Harsuna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A kasa an jero ire-iren harsunan Adamawa dangane da kananan hukumomin da suka mamaye:

LGA Languages
Demsa fulfulde; Bali; Bata; Bille; Mbula-Bwazza; Waka
Fufore fulfulde;
Ganye Fulfulde, Gaa; Koma; Mumuye; Peere; Chamba Daka
Girei fulfulde
Gombi fulfulde ; Bura-Pabir; Ga'anda; Hwana; Lala-Roba; Mboi; Ngwaba; Nya Huba
Guduniya Ngwaba
Guyuk Bacama; Bena; Dera; Ga'anda; Longuda; Voro
Hong Boga; Nggwahyi; Ngwaba; Nya Huba; Mafa, Kamwe
Jada Fulfulde, Chamba ,Igbo
Lamurde Fulfulde, Kwa; Kyak; Bacama; Dadiya; Dikaka; Dza; Jiba; Tso
Madagali Fulfulde; Marghi ;Mafa
Maiha Fulfulde,Igbo
Mayo Belwa Fulfulde,Igbo
Michika Kamwe, Gvoko; Hide; Hya; Kamwe; Lamang; Marghi Central; Mafa; Marghi South; Putai; Vemgo-Mabas; Waja
Mubi Fulfulde, Kamwe Daba; Ga'anda; Mafa; Gude; Kirya-Konzel; Marghi Central; Marghi South; Nya Huba
Mubi North Fali, Fulfulde ; Kamwe Hya; Zizilivakan
Mubi South Gude,Igbo
Numan Bachama; Bali; Dza; Kpasham; Kwa; Mbula-Bwazza; Mumuye; Waka; Kaan
Shelleng Kaan; Hwana; Mbula-Bwazza,Igbo
Song Bata; Bena; Ga'anda; Gudu; Hwana; Kaan; Kofa; Mboi; Mbula-Bwazza; Voro,Igbo
Toungo Jibu,Igbo
Yola Fulfulde, Igbo
Yola North fulfulde,Igbo
Yola South Fulfulde, Vere,

Gwamnati[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gwamanan Jihar Adamawa ke da alhakin zartarwa da gudanarwa a jihar, a Majalisar Dokoki ta Jihar Adamawa, dake Birnin Yola.

Sanannun Mutane a Adamawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]


Wurare da yankuna a Afirka ta Yamma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Tsibirin Adamawa, wanda ya fara daga Najeriya, ya ratsa Kamaru, ya ƙare a Jamhuriyar Afirka ta Tsakiya

Wasu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Yarukan Adamawa, dangin harsunan da ake magana dasu a yankin da ke sama
  • hotan wani mutum mai aiki sufuri a Adamawa
    Adamawa (shanu), nau'in shanu na Afirka

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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