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Masarautar Adamawa

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Masarautar Adamawa

Wuri
Map
 9°09′N 10°00′E / 9.15°N 10°E / 9.15; 10

Babban birni Yola
Bayanan tarihi
Ƙirƙira 1809
Rushewa 29 ga Yuli, 1903
Taswira dake nuni da cewa akwai masarautar Adamawa tuntuni

Masarautar Adamawa (German; French: Adamaoua) jihar gargajiya ce da ke Fombina, yankin da yanzu ya dace da yan kunan jihar Adamawa da jihar Taraba a Kasar Najeriya, kuma a baya ma a lardunan Arewa uku na Kamaru (Far North, North, da Adamawa), gami da minorananan sassa na Chadi da Jamhuriyar Afirka ta Tsakiya. Modibo Adama, kwamandan Sheikh Usman dan Fodio, mutumin da ya fara jihadin Fulani a shekara ta 1809 ne ya kafa ta. An motsa babban birnin sau da yawa har sai da ta zauna a Yola, Nijeriya a gefen Kogin Benuwai a Nijeriya a kusa da shekara ta 1841. A lokacin mutuwar Adama masarautar sa ta game wasu sassan Najeriya ta zamani da kuma Arewacin Kamaru. Yana daga cikin fasaha a zamanin Khalifanci na Sakkwato, kuma dole ne ta jinjina wa shugabannin da ke Sakkwato.

Tarihin farko[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Fula ta fara zama a yankin a cikin karni na 14. [1] Masarautar Adamawa karni na goma sha tara ta kasance a kudu da Tafkin Chadi, da kuma gabashin kasar Hausa, a tsakanin lattoci 6 da 11 na Arewacin, da kuma masu tsawon 10 da 14 na Gabas. Iyakokin waje suna da wuyar daidaitawa dai-dai, saboda yana da wahala a bambance tsakanin mutanen da Fulanin suka yiwa mulkinsu, da kuma wadanda kawai suka afkawa don bayi, ba tare da kafa wata hanyar alaƙa ta gudanarwa ba. Dangane da wasu ƙididdiga, a ƙarshen ƙarni na 19, bayi sun kasance kusan kashi 50% na yawan Masarautar Adamawa da ke Fulɓe, inda ake kiransu jeyaɓe (jeyado ɗaya). Dangane da yankin da ke karkashin mulkin Fulani, masarautar ta shimfida daga yankunan kudu da jihar Adamawa kusa da Tibati, a Kudu, zuwa Diamare, a arewa, daga gangaren Bamenda-Adamawa-Mandara Highlands a yamma, zuwa masarautar Baya, Laka, Mundang da kasar Musgum ta gabas. Masu gudanarwa na Burtaniya na farko da suka kawo rahoto daga Yola, sun sanya yankin na Adamawa tsakanin murabba'in kilomita 35,000 zuwa 40,000 ko tsakanin kilomita 90,650 da 103,600. Sakamakon yarjejeniyoyin Turai a cikin shekara ta 1893 da shekara ta 1894, ana iya samun wasu sassan Masarauta a yau a Chadi, Jamhuriyar Afirka ta Tsakiya, Najeriya da Kamaru, waɗanda suka riƙe kusan kashi uku cikin huɗu na jimlar yankin Masarautar.

Tsawon yawancin ƙasar yana kusan 2,000 feet (610 m) sama da matakin teku. Yankin Adamawa da kansa duk da haka, ana kiran shi Lesdi Hossere ta Fulbe, ya tashi zuwa sama da 4,000 feet (1,200 m), kuma ya samar da maɓuɓɓugar ruwa, daga inda rafukan ruwa ke kwarara zuwa cikin kogin Benuwai, da kuma cikin tafkin Tafkin Chadi. Babban tsaunuka tsakanin 5,000 da 7,000 ft ko tsakanin mita 1,525 zuwa 2,150 sama da matakin teku, ana samunsu zuwa yankin iyakar yamma na masarautar tare da wasu yankuna na Kasar Najeriya da Kamaru, wadannan sune sassan yankin Kamaru-Bamenda-Adamawa-Mandara masu tsaunuka wadanda suke da tsayi kusan 13,350 feet (4,070 m) sama da matakin teku kusa da bakin teku kuma a hankali yana raguwa arewa, zuwa kusan 4,000 feet (1,200 m) kusa da Yola, babban birin masarautar. Arewacin Yola, waɗannan tsaunuka na tsaunuka suna ci gaba da tsaunukan Mandara sama da 6,000 feet (1,800 m), kafin daga baya a zagaye Balma, zuwa cikin tafkin chad. A kudancin yankunan da masarautu ne halin bakin ciki da gandun daji na m Leaved Savannah Woodland ko gona da ciyayi da irin. Kasar ta zama ƙara yawan filayen buɗe ciyawa zuwa arewa. Ciyawar wani abu ne mai matukar tasiri ga mazaunin Fulani a Adamawa, kuma a lokacin jihadi, hakan bai ba da wata babbar matsala ba ga fadada ikon soja bisa doki da doki.

Farkon zuwan Fulbe zuwa Adamawa ya fito ne daga kasar Bornu, amma kokarin da Kurt Strümpell, mai kula da mulkin mallaka na Jamus a Garoua (a shekara ta 1906-1910), don sake gina hanyoyin yin hijira daga al'adun gargajiya, ya nuna cewa Fulani da yawa sun shigo Adamawa, ta hanyar kasar Hausa, da kuma kamar kwarin Benue. Waɗannan ƙaura sun koma rukuni ɗaya na dangi ɗaya ko ƙananan kabilu, kuma lambobin sun bambanta sosai, dangane da dalilan ƙaura. Wasu sun yi tafiyar tazara kaɗan, yayin da wasu suka yi haka, a kan tazara mai nisa a cikin ƙarnoni. Manyan dangin Fulani, da suka shigo Adamawa, su ne Mbewe ko Beweji, Ngara'en ko FeroBe, WollarBe, Yillaga, Ba'en, da Kiri'en. Kowane rukuni na da'awar suna da halaye na musamman, amma na kowa ga Fulanin, su ne siffofinsu na zahiri: launin fata mai kyau, hancin ruwa, leɓɓaɓɓen lebe, madaidaicin gashi, da yarensu na Fulfulde, wanda ke nuna su daga yawan mutanen Sudan. mutanen da ke kusa da su.

Sarakuna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sarakunan masarautar Adamawa, wadanda suka dauki taken "Baban-Lamido" sune kamar haka:[2]

Fara Endarshe Sarauta
1809 1847 Modibo Adama bi Ardo Hasana (bc1771 - d. 1848)
1847 Hamidu bi Adama Regent (dc1872)
1847 1872 Muhammadu Lawal bi Adama (bc1797 - d. 1872)
1872 1890 Umaru Sanda bi Adama (a. 1890)
1890 8 Satumba 1901 Zubayru bi Adama (a. 1903)
8 Satumba 1901 1909 Baba Ahmadu bi Adama (a. 1916)
1909 1910 Muhammad Yarima Iya bi Sanda
1910 23 ga Agusta 1924 Muhammad Abba bi Baba Ahmadu (a. 1924)
1924 1928 Muhammad Bello "Mai Gari" bi Ahmadu "Boboa" (d. 1928)
1928 1946 Muhammad Mustafa bi Muhammad Abba (b. 1900 - d. 1946)
1946 Yuni 1953 Yarima Ahmadu bi Muhammad Bello
26 Yuli 1953 13 Maris 2010 Aliyu Mustafa bi Muhammad Mustafa (b. 1922 - d. 2010)
18 Maris 2010 Muhammadu Barkindo Aliyu Musdafa (b. 1944)

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Canby, Courtlandt. The Encyclopedia of Historic Places. (New York: Facts of File Publicantions, 1984) p. 7
  2. "Traditional States of Nigeria". WorldStatesmen.org. Archived from the original on 26 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-10.
  • Passarge, Adamaua, (Berlin, 1895)
  • Adamawa . Encyclopædia Britannica akan layi. 28 ga Agusta, 2005.
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