Hausawa

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Hausawa
Hausa harpist.jpg
Jimlar yawan jama'a
40,000,000
Yankuna masu yawan jama'a
Kamerun (en) Fassara, Togo, Benin, Burkina faso, Kameru, Ghana, Najeriya, Nijar, Sudan da Cadi

Hausawa al'umma ce dake zaune a arewa maso yammacin tarayyar Nijeriya da kudu maso yammacin jamhuriyyar Nijar. Al'umma ce mai dimbin yawa, sun bazu a cikin kasashen Afirka da kasashen Larabawa kuma a al'adance masu matukar hazaka, akalla akwai sama da mutane miliyan hamsin wadanda harshen Hausa shi ne asalin yarensu. A tarihi kabilar Hausawa na tattare a salasalar birane. Hausawa dai sun sami kafa daularsu ne tun daga shekarun 1300's, sa'adda suka sami nasarori da dauloli kamar su daular Mali, Songhai, Borno da kuma Fulani, a karni na 19 Hausawa suna amfani da Doki ne domin yin sifiri da balaguro.[1] Mutane kimanin sama da miliyan 50 ne ke magana da yaren hausa a Najeriya, Nijar, Arewacin Gana da kuma wasu al’uma daga yankin Kaolack a senigal har zuwa khartum dake ƙasar sudan, Asalin inda zuciyar hausawa take shine garin Kano, Katsina da Sokoto.[2] Asalin hausawa maguzawa ne, a ƙarƙashin mulkin sarakunan Haɓe, wanda suke yin bori da tsbbace-tsubbace, zuwan Shehu Usman Ɗan Fodio ne yasa ya jadddada addinin ƙasar hausa, ta hanyar yaƙar maguzawa da sarakuannasu na haɓe a Gobir, Zazzau da wasu yankunan ƙasar hausa. Wanda wannan jihadin ne yasa Usman Ɗan Fodio ya kafa Daular Khalifanci na Hausa Fulani a ƙasar hausa, kuma da yawan hausawa suka karba musulunci a ƙasar hausa. Hakan yasa masarautun ƙasar hausa sun kasance a ƙungiyar Tuta ɗaya na Usman Ɗan Fodio.[3] Hausawa suna kiran al’adansu da al’adan gargajiya, wacce sukeyi duk shekara, ko a talabijin ko Bidiyo, ko kuma aikace cikin al’amuran yau da kullum.[4] Na daga cikin rubutun hausawa, suna yin rubutu ne asali da Ajami, rubutu ne da haruffan larabci amman a luggar hausa, kuma suna rubutawa ne a fallen takarda.[5]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A farko-farkon karni na 1900, a sa'adda kabilar Hausa ke yunkurin kawar da mulkin Aringizo na Fulani, sai Turawan Mulkin Mallaka na Birtaniya suka mamaye arewancin Nijeriya, da kuma kafa manufofin mulkin bayan gida, a bisa karkashen mulkin Birtaniya,'yan mulkin mallaka sai suka marawa Fulani baya na cigaba da manufofin Aringizon siyasarsu, har yanzu dai mulkin gamin gambiza tsakanin Hausawa da Fulani shi ne yayi kane-kane a arewacin Nijeriya. Kodayake, Hausawa na farko-farko maharba ne, amma da zuwan Addinin Musulunci da kuma karbarsa da hannu bibbiyu ya sanya labari ya sha bambam. Daura Kasace wacce a kasani mai dadewa da tarihi a kasar Hausawa.A ƙabilun Fulani majiɓinta hausawa akwai Sulluɓawa, Mallawa Yolawa, Danejawa, Dambazawa da Modibawa. bahaushe yakan ce “ Bahaushe mai ban haushi. Kaso mutum ka rasa abinda zaka bashi”.[6] Miles a cikin littafin shi ya kawo ma'aunan da Hausawa suke la'akari da shi a hankalce wajen gane cikakken bahaushe, suna duba wadannan abubuwan kamar haka

  • Addini
  • Garin Haihuwa
  • Ancestral
  • Jama’a
  • Ƙasa
  • Ƙabila
  • Birni Ko Gari
  • Launin Fata .[7]

Bayajidda[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayajidda: Sunanshi Abu Yazidu. ya auri sarauniyar Daurama na wannan lokacin, sun haifi yara biyu. yaronsu mai suna Bawo ya Haifa Bakwai na Halas, sune Daurawa, Kanawa, Gobirawa, Ranawa, Zazzagawa, Katsinawa da kuma Birmawa, sannan kuma ya haifa yaran Banza guda Bakwai sune.[8]

Hausa sun cakuɗe da wasu yare, ta yanda suke da ƙabilu kamar su:

  • Hausa Fulani
  • Hausa Kanuri,
  • Hausa Buzu .[9]
  • Hausa Beri-Beri.[10]

Hausa: musulunci yana da matuƙar muhimmanci ds tasiri a wajen Hausa, ta yanda hakan Hausawa suke kallon duk wanda bahaushe ne amma ba musulmi ba kamar ba bahaushe bane. [11][9]

Fatauci, Ci rani da almajiranci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hausawa sun shahara a fannin kasuwanci da safarar haaja zuwa wurare masu nisa. Kuma sunyi shahara ne wajen kutsa kai zuwa wasu ƙasashe, domin yaɗa addini ko neman aiki. Kusan ma ace afirka tsawonta da faɗinta babu inda basu buga ba. Tun ƙarni na goma sha ɗaya (11) hausawa ke hulɗa da ƙasashen larabawa. Suna ƙetara hamadar rairayi ta sahara, suna zuwa Maghrib (watau maroko da Aljeriya da Tunis) da lubayya ko Turabulus (watau Libiya). Kuma suna ƙetara chadi zuwa Sudan da Masar da Ƙasar Makka (Saudi Arabiya). Suna kai musu fatu, da ƙiraga da bayi, su kuma suna sayo tufafi da makamai. Wajen kudu da yamma kuwa, hausawa suna kutsa kai cikin ƙasar yarbawa, da Gwanja, da Dogomba, da AShanti a Ghana, a nan babban abin safarar su  shine Goro da Gishiri. Su kuma sukan kai musu kanwa.[12]

Bauta da Baranci a wurin bahaushe ba munanan abubuwa bane, musamman abinda ya shafi koyan sana’a, bawa yana fansar kansa ne ta hanyar sana’a kuma mai koyan sana’a yana yin barance ne a gidan mai koya masa ne. Irin wannan almajirancin ana kiransa  bauta. Duk mai wata sana’a. Ko dan kasuwa, ko malami, yana alfaharin ace ga wasu sun koya a wurinsa har su n ƙasaita, kuma sun fishi.[13]

Hausawa a ƙarni na 16 (1500)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hausawa a ƙarni na 19 (1800)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hausawa a ƙarni na na 20 (1900)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hausawa a ƙarni na na 21 (2000)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kasar Hausa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Asalin kasafin Hausa tana yankin Afrika ta yamma, tsakanin hamadar sahara da kuma tekun atalantika, daga kudu da arewa, daga yamma da gabas kuma iyakar kwara. Ƙasar Hausa na iyakan layi na 15N zuwa 18N na arewa. Tana kuma tsakanin layi na (8E) da goma sha biyu (12W) a gabas[14] A bisa bayanin shaihu Mahdi Adamu,ƙasar Hausa ta asali ta faro ne  tundaga lalle da Asodu, A can arewa maso gabas da agadas. Daga nan ne Gobirawa suka taso, da kaɗan-kaɗan har suka zo inda suke a yau a Nijeriya. A yanzu kuwa, hausa tana yaɗuwa ne. Tana ƙoƙarin komawa har zuwa gidanta na jiya ƙarshen iyakar ƙasar hausa a kudu kuwa shine, Yawuri, Zariya da inda Bauchi Tayi iyaka da kano. Gurin gabas (watau birom) itace iyakar ƙasar hausa daga gabas. A yamma kuwa bakin ta Filigue. Ƙasar hausa ita ce inda ba a buƙatar naɗa sarkin hausawa watau wannan bayani ya ware duk wasu zango zango, inda ake magana da hausa[15] Daura a ƙarni na 12, masrautar Daura tana sarautar fiye da garuruwa sittin.

Raba Nijar da Najeriya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ƴardaji da Yekuwa karo na farko an raba su a dalilin mulkin mallaka na Faransa da turawan Birtaniya, inda yekuwa ta faɗa ɓangaren Nijar a ƙarƙashin mulkin mallakan faransa, inda kuma dukkanin Daura, Ɓaure da kuma Zango suka faɗa Najeriya ƙarƙashin mulkin mallakan turawan ingila.[16] Turawa sun zo Ƙasar Hausa sun zo ƙasar hausa ne a ƙarshen ƙarni na 17.[17] A shekarar 1906 zuwa 1908, Kaptin Tilho da kuma Majo O’shee’ sune suka saka turaka 148 a matsayin shaida akan inda Najeriya ta tsaya zuwa inda Nijar ta fara.[18] Turaka 63 suna da tsawon ƙafa 15, wanda aka turke a cikin ƙasa, abisa nisan ƙafa 4-5.[18] A tsakanin turaka na 93 da 94 aka samar da iyakan Nijar da Najeriya, wanda ya raba ƴardaji dake Najeriya da yekuwa dake Nijar.[19]

Harshe[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Harshen Hausa shi ne mafi girma da kuma mafi sanayyar harshe a nahiyar Afirka, harshen hausa ya aro wasu kalmomi daga wasu harsuna musamman Larabci kana kuma harshen na tafiya tare da yanayin mu na zamani bisa al'adar cudeni-in cudeka. Harshen Hausa dai ya zama harshen yau da kullum ga miliyoyin jama'a da ba Hausawa bane a nahiyar Afirka.

Mutane[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

sune suka fi kowane ƙabila yawa a Afrika maso yamma.[20]

Hausa Bakwai sune

  • Daurawa,
  • Kanawa,
  • Gobirawa,
  • Ranawa,
  • Zazzagawa,
  • Katsinawa
  • Birmawa.[8]

Zaria: yawancin mutanen dake zaria ba asalin tsatsan hausawa bane a mahanga ta tarihi, yawancinsu mutane ne ƴan asalin ƙabilar fulani, da kuma mutanen da sukayi hijira zuwa zaria.[21]

Country Population
Côte d'Ivoire 1,035,000[22]
Benin 1,028,000[23]
Sudan 500,000[24]
Cameroon 386,000[25]
Chad 287,000[26]
Ghana 281,000[27]
Central African Republic 33,000[28]
Eritrea 30,000[29]
Equatorial Guinea 26,000[30]
Togo 21,000[31]
Congo 12,000[32]
Gabon 12,000[33]
Algeria 11,000[34]
Gambia 10,000[35]

Maza[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mata[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Addini[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawancin Hausawa yan Sunna ne, suna bin mazhabin Malikiyya, wanda shine mazhabin da'aka basu tin a jihadin Usman Dan Fodiyo, Musulunci ya kasan ce a kasar Hausa ti kimanin karni na 11th, wanda akan iya bada tarihin Wali Muhammad dan Masani (d.1667) da kuma Wali Muhammad dan Marna (d. 1655) na jihar Katsina, wanda masu fatauci suke yada addinin zuwa garuruwan Hausawa, amman a karni 11, yawan cin Hausawa na wannan lokacin Maguzawa ne.

A farkon karni na 19th ne aka yi jihadi domin jaddada addinin musulunci a kasar Hausa, inda aka yaka sarkin Gobir mai suna Yunfa, sannan aka kafa daular musulunci ta farko a garin Sokoto a shekarar 1804.[36] Hausa tun taka rawan gani sosai wajen yada musulunci a cikin kasar Hausa, da kuma Afirka ta Yamma, suna kiran sarakunan su da wakilai na Musulunci, amman sarkin Sakkwato shine Sarkin Musulmi.[37] Karatun Alƙur’ani yana da matuƙar muhimmanci a ƙasar haujsa, wanda tunda ada da yanzu sukeyi.[38]

Mafi akasarin hausawa musulmai ne, sabili da haka galibin al’dunsu da suka shafi aure da haifuwa da mutuwa, duka sun ta’allaƙa ne da wannan addini. Sai ɗan abinda ba a rasawa na daga al’adunsu na gargajiya, musamman wajen maguzawa.[39] musulunci yana da matuƙar muhimmanci da tasiri a wajen Hausawa, ta yanda hakan Hausawa suke kallon duk wanda bahaushe ne amma ba musulmi ba kamar ba bahaushe bane.[40][41] Aikin Hajji Yana ɗaya daga cikin Rukunnan Musulunci guda biyar Hausawa suna zuwa aikin Hajji sosai zuwa makka, musamman ma mutanen Kano, Sokoto, da Katsina, Hausawa su kance Alhaji suna nufin wanda yaje Makkah ya yi Aikin Hajji, Jam’in sa shine Alhazai, mace kuma Hajiya.[42] Hakan ya samo asali ne tin a karni na 19 a kasar Hausa, amman a karni na 21, kalman Alhaji da Hajiya yana daukan ma'anar mutum mai kudi, koda ko bai taba zuwa aikin Hajji ba.

Al'adu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ginshikokin al'adun Hausawa na da mutukar jarunta, kwarewa da sanayya fiye da sauran al'ummar dake kewayenta. Bugu da kari, akwai cincirindon al'ummar Hausawa a manyan biranen yammacin Afirka da arewacin Afirka da kuma yankunan cinikayyar al'ummar Hausawa da kuma yankunan da Hausawa suka jima suna bi a hanyar ta zuwa aikin Hajji. Akwai kuma rubutattun adabi masu zurfi da kasidodi da kuma rubuce-rubuce a rubutun ajami da aka buga tun kafin zuwan Turawa 'yan mulkin mallaka na Birtaniya. Har ila yau, kuma wani tsarin rubutu a ajami da aka kirkiro tun kafin zuwan Turawa, da ba kasafai ake amfani da shi ba yanzu.[43][44]

Hausawa mutane ne masu tsananin riƙon al’adunsu na gargajiya, musamman wajan tufafi, da abinci, da al’amuran da suka shafi aure. Ko haifuwa, ko mutuwa, da sha’anin mu’amala  tsakanin dangi da abokai da shuwagabanni da sauransu da kuma ala’amuran sana’a ko kasuwanci ko neman ilimi.[39]

Tun daga zuwan turawa har zuwa yau, hausawa suna cikin alummomin da basu saki tufafin su na gargajiya sun ari na baƙi ba. Yawanci adon namiji a hausa baya wuce babban riga, da wando musamman tsala. Da takalmin fata ko ƙafa ciki da hula ƙube ko ɗankwara, ko dara. Idan kuma basarake ne ko malami ko dattijo, yakan sa rawani. Adon yamma kuwa, zane ne, da gytton yafawa, watau gyale da kallabi, da ƴan kunne da dutsan wuya watau sarƙa.[45] Mai Gari: A ƙasar Hausa shugaban ƙauye ko unguwa shi ake kira da Mai-gari.[46]

Auran Hausawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Aure ya rabu kashi-kashi. Akwai auren soyayya, da auren dole/tilas da auren zumunta, da auren sadaka, da auren ɗiban wuta, da auren dangana-sanda, da auren gayya, da auren ɗiban haushi ko ɗiban takaici, da ɗiban tsiwa ko kece raini, da kashin ƙwarnafi, da sauran ire-irensu.[47] Aure: Asalin al’adar hausawa a aure sune kwana Bakwai ne a shagali, kwana ukun farko za ayi ne a gidan Amarya. Sauran kwanakin kuma a gidan ango.[48][49]

  • Auren soyayya

shi aure na soyayya aure ne wanda saurayi ke ganin budurwa yace yana santa da aure,itakuma sai ta amince masa, iyayenta ma su yarda da maganar, kana sai azo ayi niyyar daurin aure[47]

  • Auren dole/Tilas

A nan saurayi ya kan ga yariya ne yace yana sonta da aure, amma ita bata amince masa ba. Iyayenta kuma su zaratar da hukunci, watau ko suna so, ko suna ƙi. Har ma akan bada yarinya ga wanda yake sa’an mahaifinta ne. Ko kuma sa’an kakanta, alhali kuma bata so, tana da wanda takw so, kuma akan nemawa saurayi budurwa ba tare da  yana so ba, saboda wata alaƙa ko yarjejeniya da yake tsakanin iyayensu.[47]

  • Auren zumunta

Wannan aure ne wanda ake nema wa yaro ko yarinya daga cikin dagin uwa ko dangi na uba ba tare da an shawarci yaron ko yarinyar ba. Irin wannan auren, ana yinsa don ƙara danƙon zumunta tsakanin ƴan uwa.[47]

  • Auren Sadaka

Shi auren sadaka aure ne da ake bayar da yarinya ga wani, saboda neman tubarriki, kamar irin sadakar da ake ba malamai, almajiransu, musamman idaan yarinya ta girma bata samu mashinshini da wuri ba. Ana yin auren sadaka don gudun kada ta jawo wa iyayenta abin kunya wani lokaci kuma idan mutum bai sami haihuwa da wuri ba, yakanyi alƙawarin  cewa, zai bada ita sadaka in ya samu, yakan ba wani, yace in ya sami Ana yin auren sadaka don gudun kada ta jawo wa iyayenta abin kunya wani lokaci kuma idan mutum bai sami haihuwa da wuri ba, yakanyi alƙawarin cewa, zai bada ita sadaka in ya samu, yakan ba wani, yace in ya sami ƴa’ har ta rayu zai sadaka da ita.[47]

  • Auren kashe wuta

Wannan auren yana kasancewa bayan miji ya saki mace saki uku, alhali kuwa matan tana son  mijinta, shima yana son ta, dole sai ta auri wani mutum, kafin ta samu damar komawa zuwa ga mijinta na farko. To, auren nan da tayi, da ƙudurin cewa zata dawo wurin mijinta na da, wannan shine auren ɗiban wuta ko kashe wuta.[47]

  • Auren dangane sanda

: Mutum ya kan auri matar dake zaune a gidan kanta. Sai ya zamana baza ta iya tasowa tazo gidansa ba, saboda waɗansu dalilai. Hakazalika shima ba zai iya zuwa gidanta ya zauna ba. Sai dai ya riƙa zuwa cen gidanta yana kwana. Irin wannan aure, dalilin da yasa ake kiransa dangana-sanda, saboda mai gida yana dangana sandarsa a bakin ƙofar ɗakinta ne, sannan ya shiga ya kwana. [50]

  • Auren gayya

Idan matar mutum ta fita, alhali kuwa yana sonta, ya dai sake ta ne don ta addabe shi, to sai yayi sauri yayi wani aure kafi ya sake ta, ko kafin ta gama idda. Ba don komai zai yi wannan auren ba sai don kawai ya fanshe haushinsa, ko kuma don kada matar ta rigashi yin wani aure.[50]

  • Auren diban haushi

: ana kuma kiransa auren ɗiban takaici, ko auren tsiwa, ko na kece raini da kashin ƙwarnafi. Idan matar mutum ta dame shi da fitina, yakan takanas ya auri wata mace mai kyau ko dukiya ko asali ko addini, fiye da wacce take gidansa, ko wacce ya saki, ana yin wannan auren do kawai fanshe haushi ko ɗebe takaici ko don a gusar da wulaƙanci da raini da kuma tsiwa na ba gaira ba dalili. [50]

Mu'amala[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hakazalika wajen mu’amala da iyaye ko dangi ko abokai, ko shuwagabanni ko maƙwapta ko wanin wadannan. Galibinsu na musulunci ne haka kuma sha’anonuwan sana’a da harkar kasuwanci da kuma neman ilimi, duk a jikin musulunci suka rataya.[51] karamci da girmama baƙo yana ɗaya daga cikin al’ada da addinin Hausawa, kuma shine alfaharin Hausawa girmama baƙo.[52] Bahaushe ya kanyi Karin magana yace “ Baƙon ka Annabinka”. ma'ana ka girmama shi matukar girmamawa.

Ranar Sallah[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Neman aure[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Matakan neman aure sune kyautar da yaro ko iyayensa sukan kai gidansu yarinyar da yaro yake so ya nema. Sabili da haka yakan ba diyar wani abu taɓawa. Ko mkuma ya kai kyautar wurin iyayenta, ko wasu waɗanda suke da dangantaka da ita, yadda zata gane cewa ana sonta. Ko kuma akwai wani abu mai muhimmanci gidansu, kamar kayan na gani ina so bayan waɗannan ake ƙunshewa a ba wata tsohuwa ko wani mutum, ya kai daga nan kuma sai a bashi dama ya ruƙa zuwa yana magana da yarinyan a gidansu, ko gidan wani ɗan uwanta makusanci, inda ba a yadda za ayi wata munaƙisha  ko wani abu na ashhsa ba. A nan ne yake zuwa shi ko kuma tare da abokansa su zauna su tattauna tare da yarinyar.[53]

Sadaki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

kuɗi ne wanda mace take ayyanawa a bisa ƙa’idar aure. Kuɗin da ake iya bayarwa a matsyin sadaki, ya tashi tun daga zumbar goma, watau sule da taro ko kwabo goma sha biyar, har zuwa abinda ya ninninka wannan. A wannan kuɗin yau  lissafi ya kama daga kwabo goma sha biyu da rabi.[54]

Waliyyay[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

waliyyan aure sune dangi na ma’auran nan biyu, akasari iyaye ne ko WALIYYAN AURE: waliyyan aure sune dangi na ma’auran nan biyu, akasari iyaye ne ko ƴa’ƴa ko ƙanne, waɗanda suke wakiltar sashen yaro da sashen yarinya wajen ɗaurin aure. Baz a ɗaura aure ba sai da su.[54]

Shaidu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ba a daurin aure a sakaye. Dole sai mutane sun shaida. To, mutanen da suke halartar wajen ɗaurin aure, sune shaidu. Lokacin da za ayi fatiha an faɗa a kunnensu sun saurara ko sunji sun shaida cewa, an bada wance ga wane.[54]

Goro da Kudin daurin Aure[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Goro da kuɗi, waɗanda ake rabawa a wajen ɗaurin auren ana baiwa dukkan waɗnda suka halarta ɗaurin auren ne.  Ana bayar da kuɗin zaure,  da kuɗin liman, da kuɗin tauba, sai da kakanni. Kuma ana fitar da kuɗin maroƙa da na ƙattan gari. Ana raba kuɗin ne yayin da aka taru za a shafa fatiha. Akan aikawa kan aikawa ƴanuwa da masoya, da kuma abokan arziƙi za a ɗaura auren wane da wance a gidan wane. Saboda haka ana gayyatarsu ran kaza a watan kaza da lokaci kaza.[55]

Lefe[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tufafi ne kayan shafe-shafe, da takalma, da sauran kayayyakin adon mata, sun ɗan kunne, da sarƙar wuya, da tsakin lefe, a haɗa a sa a cikin lefe, ko fantimoti. Ko kwalla ko akwati, a ba wasu mata sukai gidansu yarimya. Wani lokacin kuma akan tara lefe da yawa na masu so daban daban a ajiya har sa’ar da aka tabbatar da wanda aka ajiye har sa’ar da aka tabbatar da wanda aka ga ya dace ya aureta sa’annan a mayarwa sauran nasu, a basu hakuri da zarar yaji an tabbatar masa sai ya aika da neman sa ranan biki.[56]

Zaman lalle[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Amarya takan yi ƴan kwanaki biyu ko fiye da haka tana cikin lalle, ana kaita gida-gida ana yi mata gargaɗi, a ja kunnenta kuma a riƙa koya mata waɗansu abubuwa na addini da yadda ake zamantakewan rayuwa. Kuma ƴanuwa suna yi mata hidima don ganin damarsu da kuma son ransu, kafin ta koma zuwa gidansu ko gidan wani.[57]

Jere[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wasu daga cikin makusantan amarya, sune zasu ɗauki ɗawainiyar gyara ɗakin amarya,  suyi jere, da kafin gado, da ƙawace ɗaki, da yin wasu al’adu kamar kafi (Tsari) ko kuma addu’o’i na gargajiya, saboda fatan samun zaman lafiya da kuma kare kai. A rannan ne akan ja kunnen amarya da barin wasu munanan ɗabi’u da yin kyawawansu da dai nisantar aikata abinda zai kawo rashin jituwa a tsakaninsu[58]

Budan kai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wani ɗan bulaguro ne wanda amarya take yi zuwa gidansu, bayan kwana hudu, ko biyu, ko kuma ma mako ɗaya, saboda azo ayi mata jeren ɗaki, takanyi wannan ƴar ƙaura don a sami damar yi mata wasu ƴan gyare-gyare, kamar su kitso, da aski da shirye shiryen zama da mijinta.[59]

Aure[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Aure na da alaƙa ce ta haliccin zaman tare tskanin namiji da kuma mace. Ana yinsa ne saboda abinda aka haifa ya samu asali, da mutunci da kiwon iyaye. Kuma shine maganin zina da “ƴaƴa marasa iyaye”. Aure muhimmin abu ne ga al’umma. Sabili da haka akwai hanyoyi ayyanannu na tabbatar dashi.[60][61]

Sayen baki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayan ƴanmata sun watse, sai abokan ango su zo don a sayi bakin amarya, sabida baza ta yi musu magana ba sai an biya. Kuma a nan ne samari sukanyi ta wasa ƙwaƙwalwa da sauran magana kala-kala. Sayen baki yakan kasance da daddare ne, a inda ake sakewa ana darawa da kuma nishaɗi.[62]

Tarewa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Daga nan kuma sai shirya tarewarta a gidan miji. A ranar tarewa, sai ƴanuwan miji mata su zo gidansu amarya suna neman a basu matarsu, har su bada wani kuɗi na sayen amaryar, sannan a naɗa wata yarinya amaryar boko, bayan tsofaffi mata sun kai amarya ta gaskiya gidan mijinta. Sai a sa wata yarinya ta zama kamar itace amarya. Har a kaita gidan miji ana ta waƙe-waƙe na addini ko na batsa, saboda gudun wata makida ko makirci ko maƙarƙashiya wanda yakan faru daga wasu.[62]

Haihuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Daga zarar iyaye su tabbatar da samuwan ciki, sukan fara shirye-shirye saboda zuwan jaririn, uba yakan fara siyan itatuwa da tukunya domin wankan jariri da mahaifiyarsa. Yawancin lokuta akan samu tsohuwar mace wacce aka fi sani da Unguwar Zoma wacce take kula da lafiyar jariri da mahaifiyarsa, ta hanyar gyaran cibiyan jaririn da kuma tabattar da cewa mahaifiyar tayi wanka da ruwan zafi na aƙalla kwana bakwai kamar yadda al'ada ya tanadar.[63] Sinadaran yin wanka sun ƙunshi:

  • Ruwan zafi
  • Ganyuen dalbejiya
  • Cheɗiya
  • Runhu.[63]

Bayan kwanaki kamar uku da haihuwa, uban jaririn yakan siyo nama "yawanci kan shanu kokuma kan rago" wanda ake yiwa mahaifiyar yaro farfesu dashi sannan a rabawa sauran ƴanuwa da maƙwapta. Sannan akan yi kunu yawanci kunun kanwa wanda mahaifiyar yaron zata rika sha domin samun isasshen nono da zata baiwa yaro.A lokacin da jaririn ya kai watanni bakwai, ana fara bashi abinci mai ruwa ruwa da nono har ya kai shekara 2 zuwa 2 ½.[63]

Suna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ɗan da aka haifa Namiji ko Mace, ana raɗa masa suna ne bayan kwanaki bakwai da haihuwa a bisa al’ada. A wannan lokacin uban jaririn zai sayo rago da goro wanda za a rabawa baƙi da aka gayyata wajen taron raɗin sunan.[54] A ranar raɗin sunan akan gyara gida, ayi shara, a tsaftace gida sosai, ayi shimfiɗu a ƙofar gidan saboda baƙi masu zuwa taron sunan. Gabanin a soma walima, akan kira malami na unguwa ya yanka ragon da aka siyo domin raɗin sunan ayi kiran sallah cikin kunnen yaron tare da sanar dashi sunansa bayan kiran sallan.[54]

Wasu daga cikin sunayen da ake baiwa yaro a ƙasar hausa:

s/n Maza Mata
Isa Aisha
Musa Khadija
Yusuf Amina

[54]

Kaciya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Akan yi kachiya ga yara maza a bisa al'ada lokacin da suka kai shekaru 8-9 da haihuwa. Kuma akan bari sai lokacin hunturu saboda ƙananun ciwo da zasu iya yin lahani ga kachiyar sunyi ƙaranci a wannan lokacin. Yawanci iyaye sukan bar alamarin kaciyar a matsayin sirri ga yaran saboda gudun kar yaran su samu firgici gabanin lokacin da za'ayi musu kaciyan.[64]

Dangantaka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dangantaka a kasar hausa ya kunshi en uwa daga dangin guda biyu wata uwa da uba. Wasu daga cikin

  •  Kaka
  • Uba
  • Uwa
  • Baba
  • Kawu
  • Goggo
  • Inna
  • Ɗan uwa
  • Ƴar uwa
  • Wa
  •  Ƙane
  • Ya [65]
  • Ƙanwa
  • Jika – Jikanya
  • Tattaɓa kunne
  • Ɗan uba – ƴar uba
  • Agola
  • Uwar Gida, Amarya, Ango
  • Mowa (matar da miji yafi so)
  • Bora (matar da miji bai so sosai
  • Suruki – suruka
  • Ƴaya
  • Iya[66]

Ilimi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Asali garin Katsina sune cibiyar addinini musulunci a kasar Hausa, amman zuwa Shehu Usman Dan Fodio yasa vibiyar karatun addinini Musulunci ya tashi daga Katsina ya koma Daular Sokoto, a karkashin jagorancin Shehu Usman Dan Fodio da mukarraban sa.[67] Hausawa suna kiran al’adansu da al’adan gargajiya, wacce sukeyi duk shekara, ko a talabijin ko Bidiyo, ko kuma aikace cikin al’amuran yau da kullum.[68] Na daga cikin rubutun hausawa, suna yin rubutu ne asali da “ajami”, rubutu ne da haruffan larabci amman a luggar hausa, kuma suna rubutawa ne a fallen takarda.[5]

Muhammadiyya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Boko[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Arziki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Noma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Noma na ɗaya daga cikin ƙusar tattalin arzuƙi a ƙasar hausa kusan duk inda mutum ya duba a wannan hanya da yabi, babu daji, daga gona sai saura kuma ana noma iri biyu ne na abinci da na kasuwa. Ga kuma gero ga dawa, ga masara, ga wake, ga gyaɗa, ga auduga, ga sauran abubuwan masarufi, kamar su gwaza da dankali. Bugu da ƙari, galibi bishiyoyin da akak bari ko aka dasa a cikin gonakin na amfani ne. Misalin tsamiya da kuka, da ɗorawa, da sauran ire-irensu. Tun daga katsina har kano. Bacin haka kuma mafi yawancin hausawa suna kiwon dabbobi, kamar awaki, da tumaki, da shanu, da kaji, da agwagi. Kiwon a wurinsu kamar asusu ne. Mutum na riƙe da “ƴan dabbobi, duk sa ar da wata buƙata ta samu a sayar dasu abiya buƙatar[69] Sana'ar noma ita ce babbar sana'ar Hausawa, sabo da ingancin noma; Hausawa ke wa sana'ar noma kirari da cewa, "na duke tsohon ciniki kowa ya zo duniya kai ya tarar", akwai kuma wasu sana'o'in kamar su sha'anin jima watau harkar fatu, rini, sa'a da kira, fannonin dake mutukar samun cigaba a harkokin sana'o'in Hausawa. Hausawa dai sun jima da shahara wajen harkar fatauci kana kuma masu arziki na taka rawa a sha'anin yau da kullum, tare da masu mulki da masa.[70]

Rini[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mulkin Sarauta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kasashen da Hausawa suka yadu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hausawa sun yadu a kasashe da yawa a cikin Afirka da kasashen Larabawa sune wadannan :-[71]

Ire-Iren 'Yaren Hausa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hausa language niger.png
Afro asiatic peoples nigeria.png

Yaren Hausa yana da ire-ire da yawa gabashin Hausa su ne :-

Gabashin Hausa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Kanawa
  • Kataguwa
  • Hadejawa
  • Gumelawa
  • Katsinawa

Yammacin Hausa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Daurawa wato saarkin daura
  • Daurawa
Sarautar sokoto
  • Sakkwatawa
  • Katsinawa
  • Kurfayawa
  • Gobirawa
  • Adarawa
  • Kebbawa
  • Zamfarawa

Arewacin Hausa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Arewa
  • Arawa

Hausa ajami wanda suka fita daga kasashen Hausa suka shiga kasashen Larabawa shekaru aru-aru harma sun isa kasashen Turai kuma sunada sarkin Hausawan Turai nafarko wato Sarki Sirajo Jan Kado:-

Al'ada[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hausawa suna da al'adu daban daban, kaman hawan sallah, hawan daba, bikin kamin kifi a Argungun, kalankuwa da wasanni irin su dambe dadai sauransu.

Aure[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Aure a ƙasar hausa baya yiwuwa har sai miji ya biya sadaki, mafi ƙanƙanchin sadaki shine ¼ na Dinari.[72] Akwai matakai wanda lallai sai an cika su sannan aure ya tabbata:

1-    Yardan juna tsakanin miji da mata

2-    Yarda da ɗawainiyar mata daga ɓangaren miji

3-    Nema ma matan wajen zama (muhalli)

4-    Yi mata kayan sawa (tufafi)

5-    Waliyyin mata

6-    Shaidu.[72]

Ya kasance gabanin zuwan musulunci, mazaje suna auren mata iya yawan da suke so, amma musulunci ya taƙaita zuwa mata 4 kaɗai kuma ba ƙwarƙwara.[72]

Tufafi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Abinci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

cusama hausawa cin taliya ta hanyar fina finan su dalilin fadin haka kuma shine duk fim dinsu sai kaga sun nuna irin abincin su wanda mu bama yin haka kuma abincin mu da kuma abin shan mu sun hada da, Tuwon dawa. Tuwon masara. Tuwon shinkafa. Alkubus. Dambu. Wasa Ko wani kasa da irin abincin su da take ci amma duk da haka manyan kasa she na duniya sukan tallata abincin su ta hanyar fina finan su a siyasan ce da kuma zahiran ce kasar chana da kuma italiya sun yi nasarar Wasa. Sinasir. Waina wato masa. Fankasau. Alale. Da dai sauran su abin sha kuma sun hada da, Koko da kosai. Kunun kanwa. Kunun shinkafa. Kunun tsamiya. Kunun zaki. Kunun Acca. Da dai sauran su.[73][74][75].

Galibin abincin hausawa kuwa, ana yinsa ne da gero ko dawa ne. Sai kuma sauran abubuwan haɗawa, da kayan marmari, kamar irin su wake da shinkafa da alkama. Da makamantansu[39]

Addini[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawancin Hausawa musulmai ne, wanda yawan su yakai kashi 90 cikin 100 na duka yawan Hausawan duniya, akwai kiristoci da kuma maguzawa, amman basu kai kashi 15 ba cikin 100 na yawan Hausawa ba.

Shahararrun Hausawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Duba nan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bibiliyo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Adamu, Yusuf Muhammad., Jibril, Umar Faruk. Hausa home videos : technology, economy and society. Adamu, Abdalla Uba, 1956-, Kano, Nigeria: Center for Hausa Cultural Studies. 2004. ISBN 978-36906-0-4.OCLC 61158034
  • Abubakar Aliyu Mohammed. Cultural Torism. ISBN:978-978-087-937-2
  • Madauci, Ibrahim. (1968). Hausa customs. Isa, Yahaya., Daura, Bello. [Zaria]: Northern Nigerian Pub. Co. ISBN 978-169-097-6. OCLC 489903061.
  • Bivins, Mary Wren. Telling Stories, Making Histories: Women, Words, and Islam in Nineteenth-Century Hausaland and the Sokoto Caliphate (Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Heinemann, 2007) (Social History of Africa).
  • Being and becoming Hausa: interdisciplinary perspectives. African social studies series. Anne Haour, Benedetta Rossi (eds.). Leiden ; Boston: Brill. 2010. ISBN 9789004185425.CS1 maint: others (link)
  • Salamone, Frank A. (2010). The Hausa of Nigeria. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. ISBN 9780761847243.
  • Robinson, David, Muslim Societies in African History(Cambridge, 2004)
  • Hamman, Mahmoud, 1950- (2007). The Middle Benue region and the Sokoto Jihad, 1812-1869 : the impact of the establishment of the Emirate of Muri. Kaduna: Arewa House, Ahmadu Bello University. ISBN 978-125-085-2. OCLC 238787986.
  • Asma'u, Nana, 1793-1865. (1999). The collected works of Nana Asma'u, daughter of Usman dan Fodiyo, (1793-1864). Boyd, Jean., Mack, Beverly B. (Beverly Blow), 1952- (Nigerian ed ed.). Ibadan, Nigeria: Sam Bookman Publishers. ISBN 978-2165-84-0. OCLC 316802318.
  • Miles, William F. S. (1994). Hausaland divided : colonialism and independence in Nigeria and Niger. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-7010-3. OCLC 624196914.
  • Tarihi, Hukumar Binciken. (1996). Danwaire : gwanki sha bara. Hukumar Binciken Tarihi da Kyautata Al'adu ta Jihar Katsina. Katsina: [Dab'in Lamp?]. ISBN 978-2105-93-7. OCLC 59226530.
  • Kabir, Hajara Muhammad,. Northern women development. [Nigeria]. ISBN 978-978-906-469-4. OCLC 890820657.
  • Bobboyi, H., Yakubu, Mahmood.The Sokoto Caliphate : history and legacies, 1804-2004. (1st ed ed.). Kaduna, Nigeria: Arewa House. 2006. ISBN 978-135-166-7. OCLC 156890366.
  • Alhassan, Habib. (1980–1982). Zaman hausawa. Zarruk̳, Rabi'u Muhammad. Lagos: Islamic Publications Bureau. ISBN 978-2470-25-2. OCLC 702639483.CS1 maint: date format (link)
  • Miles, William F. S. (1994). Hausaland divided : colonialism and independence in Nigeria and Niger. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-7010-3. OCLC 624196914.
  • ·Warfare in the Sokoto Caliphate : historical and sociological perspectivesISBN0-521-21069-0OCLC2371710
  • ·Ahmed, Umaru Balarabe,. The Hausa World of Rudolf Prietze being the complete collection of the Scholar in the Hausa and German originals and the English versions. Volume 2. Zaria. ISBN 978-125-653-2. OCLC 992986877.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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  2. Furniss, Graham. (1996). Poetry, prose and popular culture in Hausa. International African Institute. Edinburgh.p.1
  3. Furniss, Graham. (1996). Poetry, prose and popular culture in Hausa. International African Institute. Edinburgh.p.2
  4. Furniss, Graham. (1996). Poetry, prose and popular culture in Hausa. International African Institute. Edinburgh.p.11
  5. 5.0 5.1 Furniss, Graham. (1996). Poetry, prose and popular culture in Hausa. International African Institute. Edinburgh.p.12
  6. Miles, William F. S. (1994). Hausaland divided : colonialism and independence in Nigeria and Niger.p.42.
  7. Miles, William F. S. (1994). Hausaland divided : colonialism and independence in Nigeria and Niger.p.48
  8. 8.0 8.1 Miles, William F. S. (1994). Hausaland divided : colonialism and independence in Nigeria and Niger.p.45
  9. 9.0 9.1 Miles, William F. S. (1994). Hausaland divided : colonialism and independence in Nigeria and Niger.p.46
  10. Miles, William F. S. (1994). Hausaland divided : colonialism and independence in Nigeria and Niger.p.410-22
  11. Paden,1973.p.378-380)
  12. Alhassan, Habib. (1980–1982). Zaman hausawa. Zarruk̳, Rabi'u Muhammad. Lagos: Islamic Publications Bureau p.4-5. ISBN 978-2470-25-2.CS1 maint: date format (link)
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  49. Dimokiraɗiyya.(p276)
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