Abubakar Tafawa Balewa

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Alhaji Ranka shi dade na asali
Abubakar Tafawa Balewa
KBE
Balewa.jpg
Haihuwa December 1912
Bauchi, Arewacin Najeriya, British Nigeria
Mutuwa 15 January 1966 (aged 53)
a Lagos, Nigeria
Sababin mutuwa Kisan Gilla
Makwanci Bauchi
Dan kasan Najeriya
Makaranta
Karaga 30 August 1957-15 January 1966
Gada daga Kaddamarwa
Magaji Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi as matsayin Mulkin soja
Jam'iyyar siyasa Northern People's Congress
kabarin abubakar tafawa balewa kenan

Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa (Disamba 1912 - 15 Janairu 1966) KBE, An haifi Tafawa Balewa a garin Tafawa Balewa dake jihar Bauchi a Arewa maso Gabashin Najeriya a shekara ta 1912.[1] ɗan siyasan Nijeriya ne wanda ya kasance Firayim Minista na farko, kuma na karshe a Nijeriya .

Haihuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An haifi Abubakar Tafawa Balewa a watan Disamba na shekarar 1912 a cikin jihar Bauchi, a cikin Arewacin Najeriya . Mahaifin Balewa, Yakubu Dan Zala, dan asalin Gere ne, kuma mahaifiyarsa Fatima Inna ta fito ne daga Gere kuma Fulani . Mahaifinsa ya yi aiki a gidan hakimin Lere, wani yanki ne da ke cikin Masarautar Bauchi. [2]

Farkon Rayuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Abubakar Tafawa Balewa an haife shi a karshen shekara ta 1912 a garin Bauchi. Mahaifinsa Yakubu Dan Zala mutumin Gere ne[3] mahaifiyarsa Fatima Inna itama tanada dangi daga Gere da kuma Fulani.[3]

Abubakar Tabawa Balewa
Tabawa Balewa
Mariyagi Abubakar Tabawa Balewa

Yafara karatunsa a makarantar allo a garin Bauchi kuma kamar sauran abokansa na wannan lokacin, shima yaje makarantar Kwalejin Barewa domin ci gaba da karatunsa da gamawar sa ne yasami sakamakon zama malamin makaranta. Ya dawo garin Bauchi yafara karantarwa a Bauchi Middle School.

A shekara ta alif dubu daya da dari tara da arba'in da hudu (1944), tare da wasu tsirarun malamai 'yan'arewa aka zabe su suyi karatu a kasar waje na shekara daya a jami'ar Landon (University of London)'s (Institute of Education) fannin karatun malunta, wanda ayanzu itace bangaren University College London. Bayan dawo warsa Nigeria, yazama jami'i mai binciken makarantun na gwamnatin turawan mulkin mallaka, bayan nan ne yatsunduma cikin siyasa.

A shekara ta alif dubu daya da dari tara da arba'in da shida (1946), an zabeshi zuwa majalisar arewacin Najeriya, sannan yaje ta Lagos a alif dubu daya da dari tara da arba'in da bakwai(1947). A matsayin sa na Dan majalisa, yazamanto mai Neman 'yancin Nijeriya tareda Alhaji Ahmadu Bello, wanda shine keda sarautar Sardaunan Sokoto, ya kirkiri jam'iyyar yan arewa (NPC).

Karatu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Balewa ya fara karatun sa ne a wata makarantar Kuranic da ke cikin garin Bauchi; lokacin da masu kula da mulkin mallaka na kudu suka fara yunkurowa don neman ilimin yamma a yankin Arewa, Balewa yana cikin yaran da aka tura makarantar firamare ta Tafawa Balewa, bayan makarantar Koran. Bayan haka, ya ci gaba zuwa makarantar lardin Bauchi. [4] Kamar sauran tsaransa, ya yi karatu a Kwalejin Barewa, wacce a lokacin ake kira Kwalejin Katsina, inda ya kasance dalibi mai lamba 145. Ahmadu Rabah, wanda daga baya aka sani da Ahmadu Bello, ya kasance dalibi ne mai lamba 87 kuma ya girme shi da shekaru biyu, yayin da Abubakar Imam ya kasance shekara daya a gabansa. [5] Kwalejin ta kasance kilomita da yawa daga Bauchi kuma ba ta kusa da tashar jirgin ƙasa ko wasu hanyoyin jigilar jama'a. A lokacin hutu, wanda ya kasance sau biyu a shekara, Balewa ya taka zuwa gida, tafiyar sama da kilomita 400. Ya yi tafiyar tsawon kilomita 40 a rana, kafin ya samu wurin hutawa a wani kauye da ke kusa. Gabaɗaya, tafiyar ta ɗauki kwanaki 10. [4]

Kwalejin Katsina tana da malamai na Britishasar Burtaniya, waɗanda da yawa daga cikinsu sun yi karatu a manyan makarantun Biritaniya sannan sun je Cambridge ko Oxford. An koyar da ɗalibai cikin Turanci, kuma magana ta kasance wani muhimmin ɓangare na koyo ga ɗalibai. Baya ga ƙwarewar Ingilishi, makarantar ta kasance filin horo don malamai da za a tura su zuwa makarantun lardi da na tsakiya a cikin Lardunan Arewacin Najeriya . [6]

Balewa ya kammala karatunsa na shekara biyar a shekarar 1933 sannan ya dawo Bauchi ya koyar a makarantar Midil ta Bauchi. Ya koyar a makarantar sannan ya zama babban malamin makaranta. A shekarar 1941, ya hadu da wani matashi Aminu Kano, wanda aka tura shi makarantar a matsayin malami. Bayan tashin hankalin dalibi, bincike kan korafin daliban ya tuhumi shugaban makarantar, kuma a 1941 aka zabi Balewa a matsayin sabon shugaban. [7] A shekarar 1944, aka zabi Balewa da wasu malamai masu ilimi a lardunan Arewa don yin karatu a kasashen waje a Kwalejin Ilimi ta Jami'ar London, wanda a yau ya zama wani bangare na Kwalejin Jami'ar London . Bayan dawowarsa Najeriya, ya zama mai duba makarantu don mulkin mallaka sannan daga baya ya shiga siyasa.

Siyasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An zabe shi a 1946 zuwa Majalisar Dokokin Arewa, da kuma Majalisar Dokoki a 1947. A matsayinsa na dan majalisa, ya kasance mai rajin kare hakkin Arewacin Najeriya . Ya goyi bayan nuna shakku da Arewa ta yi don ta samu 'yancin kai, bisa la’akari da rashin yarda cewa yankunan arewa da kudu ba su daidaita. A Majalisar Arewa, ya nemi karin matsayi da nauyi a cikin Gwamnatin Native ga mambobin masarautar masu ilimi. [8]

Tare da Alhaji Sir Ahmadu Bello, wanda ke rike da sarautar Sardaunan Sakkwato, sun gabatar da shawarar sauya kungiyar al'adu, Jamiyyar Mutanen Arewa, wacce ke nufin Northern People's Congress (NPC) a Turanci, don zama dandalin siyasa don amfani a matsayin dandalin yakin neman zabe yayin zabukan shekarar 1951. An zabi Balewa a matsayin mataimakin shugaban sabuwar jam'iyyar sannan daga baya ya yi murabus daga mukaminsa na shugaban makarantar Middle School ta Bauchi. NPC ta sami yawan kuri'un ga Majalisar Dokokin yankin a 1951.

Balewa yana cikin sabbin ‘yan majalisar a Kaduna. A karkashin sabon kundin tsarin mulki, kundin tsarin mulkin Macpherson na 1951, an aiwatar da tsarin kwalejin zabe inda aka zabi wasu ‘yan majalisun yankin zuwa Majalisar Wakilai ta Tarayya a Legas, kuma a tsakanin‘ yan majalisar tarayya, mambobi uku daga kowane yanki za a nada ministocin tarayya tare da fayil. Balewa yana cikin wadanda aka zaba zuwa Legas kuma tare da Kashim Ibrahim da Muhammadu Ribadu an zabi su zama ministoci.

Balewa ya shiga gwamnati a 1952 a matsayin Ministan Ayyuka, sannan daga baya ya zama Ministan Sufuri a lokacin da Najeriya ke tafiya zuwa ga mulkin kai. A lokacin da yake aiki a ma'aikatar sufuri, dukkan bangarorin Ruwa da na Jirgin Ruwa sun zama na kamfani kuma an tsara yadda za a yi gada a kan Neja kuma an tsara tsare-tsaren Dam na Kainji.

A 1957, NPC ta sami yawan kuri’u a Majalisar Wakilai ta Tarayya kuma Balewa ya zama Babban Minista kuma ya nada Firayim Minista. A wani bangare na shirye-shiryensa na hada kan kasar zuwa yunkurin neman ‘yancin kai a shekarar 1960, ya kafa gwamnatin hadaka tsakanin NPC da Majalisar Kasa ta Najeriya da Kamaru (NCNC), karkashin jagorancin Nnamdi Azikiwe sannan kuma ta gayyaci kungiyar Action Group (AG ), an kirkiro majalisar zartarwar 1957 a matsayin dukkanin majalisar zartarwa ta jam’iyya. Kodayake, Awolowo, shugaban AG kuma firaminista na yankin Yamma ya nuna shakku kan shirin, [9] kwamitin zartarwa na kasa na jam'iyyar Action Group ya amince da Gwamnatin Kasa kuma Ayo Rosiji da Samuel Akintola ne jam'iyyar ta tsayar. A wannan lokacin, Balewa ya haɓaka kyakkyawar dangantaka da KO Mbadiwe daga NCNC da Akintola daga AG. [10]

Firimiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Balewa ya ci gaba da rike mukamin Firayim Ministan Najeriya lokacin da Najeriya ta samu 'yancin kai a shekarar 1960, sannan aka sake zabarsa a 1964.

President John F. Kennedy tare da Abubakar Tafawa Balewa

Kafin samun 'yancin kan Najeriya, taron tsarin mulki a shekarar 1954 ya amince da tsarin siyasa na yanki don kasar, tare da baiwa dukkan yankuna babban ' yanci na siyasa. Yankunan nan uku sun kasance daga ƙungiyoyin al'adu daban-daban. Firayim ministocin da wasu mashahuran shugabannin yankuna daga baya sun ɗauki wata manufa ta jagorantar yankunansu game da cin amanar siyasa daga wasu shugabannin yankin. Daga baya, wannan yanayin na siyasa ya rinjayi gwamnatin Balewa. Wa'adin mulkinsa ya kasance mai rikici, tare da bangarancin yanki koyaushe yana yiwa gwamnatinsa barazana.

Koyaya, a matsayin Firayim Minista na Najeriya, ya taka muhimmiyar rawa a cikin mulkin mallakar asalin thean asalin nahiyar. Ya kasance muhimmin jagora wajen kafa Kungiyar Hadin Kan Afirka da kuma samar da kyakkyawar dangantaka tare da kasashen Afirka masu magana da Faransanci . Ya kuma kasance mai ba da gudummawa wajen tattaunawa tsakanin Moise Tshombe da hukumomin Kwango yayin Rikicin Kwango na 1960-1964. Ya jagoranci zanga-zangar adawa da kisan gillar Sharpeville na 1960 sannan kuma ya shiga kawance da ministocin kungiyar kasashen Commonwealth wadanda ke son Afirka ta Kudu ta fice daga kungiyar ta Commonwealth a 1961. Koyaya, tuhumar cin amanar kasa da yanke masa hukunci kan daya daga cikin shugabannin yankin na yamma, Obafemi Awolowo, ya haifar da zanga-zanga da la'anta daga yawancin magoya bayan sa. Zaben 1965 a yankin daga baya ya haifar da mummunar zanga-zanga. Ba da daɗewa ba rikici da rikice-rikice sun kasance daidai da abin da ake ganin cin amanar siyasa ce da kuma sakamakon zaɓen da ya wuce kima ga abokan adawar Yammacin Awolowo.

A matsayinsa na Firayim Ministan Najeriya, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, daga 1960 zuwa 1961, ya ninka Najeriya a matsayin mai kula da Harkokin Kasashen Waje. A cikin 1961, gwamnatin Balewa ta kirkiro wani mukamin minista na harkokin kasashen waje da na dangantakar Commonwealth don nuna goyon baya ga Jaja Wachuku wanda ya zama, daga 1961 zuwa 1965, Ministan farko na Harkokin Wajen Najeriya da Tarayyar Kasashen, wanda daga baya ake kira Harkokin Waje.

Juyin mulki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An kifar da shi kuma aka kashe shi a wani juyin mulkin soja a ranar 15 ga Janairun 1966, kamar yadda aka yi wa wasu shugabannin da yawa, ciki har da tsohon abokin sa Sir Ahmadu Bello . Yanayin mutuwarsa har yanzu ba a warware su ba. An gano gawarsa ne a bakin hanya kusa da Legas kwanaki shida bayan an tsige shi daga mukaminsa. An binne Balewa a garin Bauchi . Labarin kisan nasa ya haifar da mummunan tarzoma a duk fadin Arewacin Najeriya kuma daga karshe ya haifar da mummunan tashin hankali na juyin juya halin watan Yulin 1966. [11]

A yanzu haka an saka hotonsa a matsayin girmamawa da kuma ado a kudin Najeriya na farko Naira biyar, An saka ma jami’ar Bauchi sunan shi domin karrama Abubakar Tafawa Balewa.

Mutuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A shekarar ta 1966, wasu sojoji suka yi kokarin juyin mulki inda anan ne aka sace shi kafin daga bisani aka kashe marigayin Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa.[12][13]

Mutum-mutumin Tafawa Balewa a Owerri Jihar Imo

Wallafa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 1934, Tafawa Balewa ya rubuta littafi mai suna Shaihu Umar, wani littafin labari game da Musulmi mai tsoron Allah saboda roƙon inganta tallan adabin Hausa da Rupert East, shugaban Ofishin Fassara mulkin mallaka ya yi. An rubuta shi a cikin tsarin rubutun gida, [14] fitaccen jarumin, Shaihu Umar, ya ba da labarin abubuwan da suka faru a tarihin rayuwarsa. Abubuwan da suka faru da jigogi a cikin littafin sun shafi cinikin bayi, dangin dangi da jigogin Musulunci na miƙa wuya ga yardar Allah.

Rayuwan shi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An bayyana Tafawa Balewa a matsayin mai karamci da iya sarrafa kai. A lokacin rasuwarsa, manyan kadarorinsa sun hada da gidansa a cikin Bauchi da gonar hekta 50 inda yake huta lokacin da yake son shakatawa. Gidan gonar yana kan hanyar zuwa ƙauyen Tafawa Balewa mai nisan mil tara a wajen garin Bauchi; Shawarwari da yawa na hukuma yayin da suke ofishi an ɗauke su a gonar. Tafawa Balewa ya auri mata huɗu waɗanda suka haifa masa yara goma sha tara.

Girmamawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A watan Janairun 1960, Sarauniya Elizabeth II ta yi wa Abubakar Tafawa Balewa fada a matsayin Babban Kwamandan Birtaniyya na Daular Ingila .[ana buƙatar hujja] An ba shi digirin girmamawa daga Jami'ar Sheffield a cikin Mayu 1960. Hakanan an ba shi digirin girmamawa na dokoki daga Jami'ar New York a watan Yulin 1961.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Duba nan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. https://www.bbc.com/hausa/mobile/news/2010/09/100922_tafawabalewa_history
  2. Nigeria; Federal Department of Information (1982). Nigerian heroes (in Turanci). Lagos: Federal Dept. of Information. OCLC 18561384.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Kperogi, Farooq (22 Jan 2016). "Gere: Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa's Real Ethnic Group". Daily Trust. Retrieved September 5, 2016.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Nigeria; Federal Department of Information (1982). Nigerian heroes (in Turanci). Lagos: Federal Dept. of Information. OCLC 18561384.
  5. Sani., Umar, Muhammad (2006). Islam and colonialism : intellectual responses of Muslims of Northern Nigeria to British colonial rule. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 900413946X. OCLC 62554253.
  6. Nigeria; Federal Department of Information (1982). Nigerian heroes (in Turanci). Lagos: Federal Dept. of Information. OCLC 18561384.
  7. Nigeria; Federal Department of Information (1982). Nigerian heroes (in Turanci). Lagos: Federal Dept. of Information. OCLC 18561384.
  8. Nigeria; Federal Department of Information (1982). Nigerian heroes (in Turanci). Lagos: Federal Dept. of Information. OCLC 18561384.
  9. A., Joseph, Richard (6 February 2014). Democracy and prebendal politics in Nigeria : the rise and fall of the Second Republic. Cambridge. p. 34. ISBN 9781107633537. OCLC 864086426.
  10. Nigeria; Federal Department of Information (1982). Nigerian heroes (in Turanci). Lagos: Federal Dept. of Information. OCLC 18561384.
  11. Sani., Umar, Muhammad (2006). Islam and colonialism : intellectual responses of Muslims of Northern Nigeria to British colonial rule. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 900413946X. OCLC 62554253.
  12. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Abubakar-Tafawa-Balewa
  13. https://www.bbc.com/hausa/multimedia/2016/01/160115_tafawa_balewa_picture
  14. Sani., Umar, Muhammad (2006). Islam and colonialism : intellectual responses of Muslims of Northern Nigeria to British colonial rule. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 900413946X. OCLC 62554253.