Abubakar Tafawa Balewa

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Abubakar Tafawa Balewa
Balewa.jpg
1. Firayim Minista na Nigeria

1 Oktoba 1960 - 15 ga Janairu, 1966
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Rayuwa
Haihuwa Bauchi, 1912
ƙasa Najeriya
Harshen uwa Hausa
Mutuwa Lagos, 15 ga Janairu, 1966
Makwanci Bauchi
Yanayin mutuwa kisan kai
Karatu
Makaranta University of London (en) Fassara
Harsuna Turanci
Hausa
Pidgin na Najeriya
Sana'a
Sana'a ɗan siyasa, Mai wanzar da zaman lafiya da marubuci
Kyaututtuka
Imani
Addini Musulunci
Jam'iyar siyasa Northern People's Congress (en) Fassara

Rayuwar farko[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An haifi Abubakar Tafawa Balewa a watan Disambar shekarar 1912 a jihar Bauchi a wancan zamanin, a yankin Arewacin Najeriya . Mahaifin Balewa, Yakubu Dan Zala, dan asalin Gere ne, kuma mahaifiyarsa Fatima Inna yar Gere ce kuma asalin Fulani ce. [1] Mahaifinsa yana aiki a gidan hakimin Lere, gundumar cikin masarautar Bauchi .

Ilimi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Balewa ya fara karatunsa ne a makarantar Alkur’ani da ke Bauchi; lokacin da masu mulkin mallaka na kudu suka fara yunƙurin ilimantar da mutanen yankin Arewa, Balewa yana cikin yaran da aka tura makarantar Elementary ta Tafawa Balewa, bayan kammala karatun Alqur’ani. Daga nan ya wuce Makarantar Lardin Bauchi. Kamar sauran mutanen zamaninsa, ya yi karatu a Kwalejin Barewa wadda a lokacin ake kira Katsina College, inda ya kasance dalibi mai lamba 145. Ahmadu Rabah, wanda daga baya aka fi sani da Ahmadu Bello, dalibi ne mai lamba 87, kuma yana da shekara biyu a sama, yayin da Abubakar Imam ke gabansa shekara guda. Kwalejin dai na da tazarar kilomita da dama daga Bauchi kuma ba ta kusa da tashar jirgin kasa ko kuma zirga-zirgar jama'a. Lokacin hutu, wanda shine sau biyu a shekara, Balewa ya yi tattaki zuwa gida, tafiyar fiye da kilomita 400. Ya yi tafiyar kilomita 40 a rana, kafin ya samu wurin hutawa a wani kauye da ke kusa. Gabaɗaya tafiyar ta ɗauki kwanaki 10. [2]

Kwalejin Katsina na da malamai ‘yan kasar Birtaniya, wadanda da yawansu sun yi karatu a manyan makarantun Burtaniya sannan suka halarci Cambridge ko Oxford. An koyar da dalibai da Turanci, kuma magana wani muhimmin bangare ne na koyo ga daliban. Baya ga kwarewa a harshen Ingilishi, makarantar ta kasance filin horas da malamai da za a tura zuwa makarantun larduna da na tsakiya a cikin Lardunan Arewacin Najeriya .

Balewa ya yi karatunsa na shekara biyar a shekarar 1933 ya koma Bauchi inda ya koyar a makarantar Middle School. Yayi koyarwa a makarantar kuma ya tashi ya zama babban malamin makaranta. A shekarar 1941, ya sami sabani da wani matashi Aminu Kano, wanda aka tura shi makarantar a matsayin malami. Bayan tashin hankalin dalibai, binciken korafe-korafen daliban ya tuhumi shugaban makarantar, kuma a shekarar 1941 aka zabi Balewa a matsayin sabon shugaban makarantar. A cikin 1944, Balewa da wasu malamai masu ilimi a Lardunan Arewa aka zaɓi su yi karatu a ƙasashen waje a Cibiyar Ilimi ta Jami'ar London, wadda a yau ta zama wani ɓangare na Kwalejin Jami'ar London . Bayan ya dawo Najeriya ya zama Sufeto na Makarantu na gwamnatin mulkin mallaka sannan ya shiga siyasa.

Ayyukan siyasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An zabe shi a 1946 zuwa Majalisar Dokoki ta Arewa, da Majalisar Dokoki a 1947. A matsayinsa na dan majalisa, ya kasance mai fafutukar kare hakkin Arewacin Najeriya . Ya goyi bayan jinkirin da Arewa ta samu na samun 'yancin kai,bisa ƙin yarda da cewa yankunan arewa da na kudu ba daidai suke ba. A Majalisar Arewa, ya nemi karin matsayi da nauyi a cikin Gwamnatin Native ga membobin masarautu masu ilimi.

Tare da Alhaji Sir Ahmadu Bello, wanda ke rike da sarautar Sardaunan Sakkwato, sun ba da shawarar sauya Gungiyar al'adu, Jam'iyyar Mutanen Arewa, wanda ke nufin Majalisar Jama'ar Arewa (NPC) a Turanci, ta zama dandalin siyasa don amfani. a matsayin dandalin kamfen yayin zaɓen 1951. An zabi Balewa mataimakin shugaban sabuwar jam'iyyar sannan daga baya ya yi murabus daga mukaminsa na shugaban makarantar sakandaren Bauchi.NPC ta sami rinjayen kuri'u ga Majalisar Dokokin yankin a 1951.

Balewa yana cikin sabbin 'yan majalisar a Kaduna. A karkashin sabon kundin tsarin mulki,Tsarin Macpherson na 1951, an aiwatar da tsarin kwalejin zaɓen inda aka zaɓi wasu 'yan majalisun yankin zuwa Majalisar Wakilai ta Tarayya a Legas, kuma a tsakanin' yan majalisar tarayya, membobi uku daga kowane yanki za a nada ministocin tarayya tare da fayil. Balewa yana cikin wadanda aka mika wa Legas kuma tare da Kashim Ibrahim da Muhammadu Ribadu aka ba su mukamin ministoci.

Balewa ya shiga gwamnati ne a shekarar 1952 a matsayin Ministan Ayyuka,daga baya ya zama Ministan Sufuri a lokacin da Najeriya ke tafiya zuwa ga mulkin kai. A lokacin da yake aiki a ma'aikatar sufuri, dukkan sassan ruwa da na jirgin kasa an canza su zuwa kamfanoni kuma an tsara tsare -tsaren gadar kan Nijar kuma an tsara shirye -shiryen Dam din Kainji.

A shekarar 1957, NPC ta lashe kuri'u masu yawa a Majalisar Wakilai ta Tarayya kuma Balewa ya zama Babban Minista kuma ya nada Fira Minista. A wani bangare na shirinsa na hada kan kasar zuwa yunkurin samun 'yancin kai a shekarar 1960, ya kafa gwamnatin hadaka tsakanin NPC da National Council of Nigeria da Cameroons (NCNC), karkashin jagorancin Nnamdi Azikiwe sannan kuma ya gayyaci Action Group (AG) ), an kafa majalisar ministocin 1957 a matsayin dukkan majalisar ministoci. Kodayake, Awolowo, shugaban AG kuma firaministan yankin Yammacin ya nuna shakku kan shirin, kwamitin zartarwa na kasa na jam'iyyar Action Group ya amince da Gwamnatin Kasa kuma Ayo Rosiji da Samuel Akintola sun zabi jam'iyyar. A cikin wannan lokacin, Balewa ya kulla kyakkyawar alaƙa da KO Mbadiwe daga NCNC da Akintola daga AG.

Fira Minista[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Balewa a Fadar White House tare da Shugaba Kennedy, 1961

Balewa ya ci gaba da rike mukamin Firaministan Najeriya lokacin da Najeriya ta samu 'yancin kai a 1960, sannan aka sake zaban sa 1964.

Kafin samun 'yancin kan Najeriya, taron tsarin mulki a shekarar 1954 ya amince da tsarin siyasar yankin na kasar, tare da baiwa dukkan yankuna ' yanci na siyasa. Yankuna ukun sannan sun ƙunshi ƙungiyoyin al'adu daban -daban. Shugabannin farko da wasu fitattun jagororin yankuna daga baya sun ɗauki manufar jagorantar yankunansu game da cin zarafin siyasa daga wasu shugabannin yankin. Daga baya, wannan yanayin siyasa ya yi tasiri ga gwamnatin Balewa. Wa'adin mulkinsa ya kasance mai cike da rudani, inda bangaranci na yanki ke yiwa gwamnatinsa barazana.

Duk da haka, a matsayinsa na Fira Minista na Najeriya, ya taka muhimmiyar rawa a mulkin 'yan asalin nahiyar. Ya kasance jagora mai mahimmanci wajen kafa Ƙungiyar Hadin Kan Afirka da ƙirƙirar alaƙar haɗin gwiwa tare da ƙasashen Afirka masu magana da Faransanci . Ya kuma kasance mai taimakawa wajen tattaunawa tsakanin Moise Tshombe da hukumomin Kongo yayin Rikicin Kongo na 1960 -zuwa 1964. Ya jagoranci zanga -zangar adawa da kisan Sharpeville na 1960 sannan kuma ya shiga kawance da ministocin Commonwealth wadanda ke son Afirka ta Kudu ta bar Commonwealth a 1961. Duk da haka, tuhumar cin amanar kasa da kuma hukunta daya daga cikin shugabannin yankin yammacin, Obafemi Awolowo, ya haifar da zanga -zanga da yin Allah wadai daga dimbin magoya bayansa. Zaben 1965 a yankin daga baya ya haifar da munanan zanga -zanga. Ba da daɗewa ba tarzoma da tashe-tashen hankula sun yi daidai da abin da ake ganin ɓarna ce ta siyasa da kuma sakamakon zaɓe mai ƙarfi ga abokan hamayyar Awolowo na yamma.

A matsayin sa Fira Ministan Najeriya, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, daga 1960 zuwa 1961, ya ninka matsayin mai ba da shawara kan Harkokin Waje na Najeriya. A shekarar 1961, gwamnatin Balewa ta kirkiri mukamin minista mai kula da harkokin kasashen waje da hulda da kasashen Commonwealth don fifita Jaja Wachuku wanda ya zama, daga 1961 zuwa 1965, Ministan Harkokin Waje na Najeriya da hulda da Kasashen Commonwealth, wanda daga baya ake kira Harkokin Waje.

Juyin Mulki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An yi masa juyin mulki kuma an kashe shi a wani juyin mulkin soja a ranar 15 ga watan Janairun 1966, da sauran shugabanni da dama, ciki har da tsohon abokin tafiyarsa Sir Ahmadu Bello . Yanayin mutuwarsa har yanzu ba a warware su ba. An gano gawarsa a gefen titi kusa da Legas kwanaki shida bayan an kore shi daga mukaminsa. An binne Balewa a Bauchi . Labarin kashe shi ya tayar da tarzoma a cikin Arewacin Najeriya kuma a ƙarshe ya haifar da juyin mulki na jini na Yuli 1966.

A yau, hotonsa yana ƙawata Bayanin Naira 5. An sakawa Jami'ar Abubakar Tafawa Balewa da ke Bauchi suna don girmama shi.

Balewa's Shaihu Umar[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A shekara ta 1934, Balewa ya rubuta Shaihu Umar, wani labari game da Musulmin kirki don amsa buƙatun inganta adabin Hausa daga Rupert East, shugaban Ofishin Fassara na mulkin mallaka. An rubuta shi a cikin tsarin adabi, [3] jarumi, Shaihu Umar, yana ba da labarin abubuwan da suka faru a tarihin rayuwarsa. Abubuwan da suka faru da jigogi a cikin sabon labari sun shafi cinikin bayi, alaƙar dangi da jigogin Musulunci na miƙa kai ga nufin Allah. [3]

An shirya Shaihu Umar a matsayin wasan kwaikwayo a shekarun 1970.

An fara buga Shaihu Umar a shekarar 1955.

Darajoji[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mutum -mutumin Tafawa Balewa a Owerri Jihar Imo

A watan Janairun 1960, Mai Martaba Sarauniya Elizabeth ta II ta nada Abubakar Tafawa Balewa a matsayin Kwamandan Daular Masarautar Burtaniya . An ba shi lambar girmamawa ta girmamawa daga Jami'ar Sheffield a watan Mayu 1960. An kuma ba shi lambar girmamawa ta dokokin dokoki daga Jami'ar New York a watan Yuli 1961.

Rayuwar mutum[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An bayyana Balewa a matsayin mai tawali'u kuma marasa son kai. A rasuwarsa, manyan kadarorinsa sun haɗa da gidansa da ke Bauchi da gona mai kadada 50 inda ya yi hutu lokacin da yake son shakatawa. Gidan gonar yana kan hanyar zuwa kauyen Tafawa Balewa kimanin mil tara a wajen Bauchi; an yanke shawara da yawa a hukumance yayin da suke ofis a gona. Balewa ya auri mata hudu da dasuka haifa masa yara goma sha tara.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Jamhuriyyar Najeriya ta farko
  • Abubakar Tafawa Balewa

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :0
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :1
  3. 3.0 3.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :3
  • Kalu Ezekiel;
  • James S. Olson, Robert S. Shadle; Kundin Tarihi na Masarautar Burtaniya, Greenwood Press, 1996
  • BIC Ijomah, The Enigma of Nigerian Nationalism, Gidan Buga Jami’ar Jihar Edo, 1996, 
  • Alh. Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa ya kai ziyara Amurka a 25-28 ga Yuli 1961, YouTube.