Zazzau

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Globe icon.svgZazzau
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Wuri
 11°04′N 7°42′E / 11.07°N 7.7°E / 11.07; 7.7
Ƴantacciyar ƙasaNajeriya
Jerin jihohi a NijeriyaJihar Kaduna
Sarauniya Amina a Zazzau

Zazzau Zariya, Kaduna a Nijeriya, Zazzau, wanda aka fi sani da Masarautar Zazzau, daular gargajiya ce da ke da hedikwata a cikin garin Zariya, Jihar Kaduna, Najeriya . Sarkin Zazzau na yanzu shi ne Alhaji Ahmed Nuhu Bamalli wanda ya gaji tsohon sarki, marigayi Alhaji Shehu Idris.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sabon Sarkin Zazzau Ambasada Ahmad Nuhu Bammali

Babban tushe mafi mahimmanci ga farkon tarihin Zazzau shine tarihin da aka ƙirƙira a farkon ƙarni na 20 daga al'adun baka. Yana ba da labarin gargajiya ne na kafuwar masarautun kasar Hausa daga jarumin al'adu Bayajidda, kuma ya ba da jerin sunayen masu mulki tare da tsawon lokacin da suka yi sarauta. Dangane da wannan tarihin, ance asalin masarautar hausa ko Habe ta fara ne tun daga karni na 11, wanda Sarki Gunguma ya kafa. [1] Wannan majiyar kuma tana sanya ta zama ɗayan jihohin Bakwai bakwai na Bakwai. Mafi shaharar sarautar Zazzau ita ce Sarauniya (ko kuma gimbiya) Amina, wacce ta yi mulki ko dai a tsakiyar karni na 15 ko tsakiyar 16, kuma Muhammed Bello ne ya riƙe ta, masanin tarihin Hausa na ƙarni na 19 kuma Sarkin Musulmi na biyu. shine farkon wanda ya kafa daula a tsakanin hausawa. [2]

Zazzau ta kasance wurin tattara bayi don kai su kasuwannin arewacin Kano da Katsina, inda ake musayar su da gishiri tare da ‘yan kasuwar da ke jigilar su zuwa arewacin Sahara . [3] Dangane da tarihi a cikin littafin, an gabatar da addinin musulunci ga masarautar a wajajen 1456, amma ga alama ya bazu a hankali, kuma tsafin arna ya ci gaba har zuwa lokacin da Fulani suka ci 1808. A wasu lokuta a tarihinta, Zazzau ya kasance yana karkashin kasashe makwabta irin su Songhai, Bornu da Kwararafa .[4]

Masarautan fulani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A watan Disamba 1808 aka kame masarautar a yakin Fulani. [5] Sarkin Hausawan ya tsere zuwa Abuja, inda ya kafa jihar da a yanzu ake kira Masarautar Suleja, ta ci gaba da samun 'yancin kai da lakabin "Sarkin Zazzau". Hakimin masarautar Zazzau na zamani shima yana amfani da laƙabin "Sarkin Zazzau" ko "Sarkin Zariya".Bayan da jihadi, da al'adar irin wannan amma pastoral ko nomadic Fulani auratayya tare da mafi zaunar a harabar manoma, da kuma mutane na masarautar yau ake kullum da aka sani a matsayin Hausa-Fulani . Gwamnatin masarautar ta Zariya ta bambanta da sauran masarautun da aka kirkira a wannan lokaci ta yadda ofisoshin ba su da gado, amma ana nada su ne bisa cancanta ko cancanta. [6]

Jihadin Shehu Usman Dan Fodio[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kasar Hausa ta kama daga kewayen Gobir har ya zuwa gefen kasar Bauchi wanda a da can ake kira da kasar Gobir, wanda kuma a ke kira da tsantsan kasar Hausa (sune kasar Gobir da Zamfara da Kebbi da Katsina da Daura da Rano da Ningi da Kano wanda daga baya aka samu kasar Sakkwato) ta fada cikin wani irin nau’in hatsin baran addini, watau na hada bori da addinin Musulunci. A cikin wannan hali da ake ciki na bori, Allah Subhanahu Wata’ala ya karfafa zuciyar Mujaddidi Shehu Usman bn Fodio da tsaida sunna, kuma ya karfafa shi da samun nasara wajen fahimtar da jama’arsa. Shehu Usman Mujaddidi ya soma kiran jama’a a mahaifarsa Degel.

Sai dai kamar yadda bayanai a cikin littattafan tarihi suka nuna cewar, Mujeddadi Shehu Usmanu shi kansa bai fita zuwa yake-yake ba sai a wuri daya, watau kasar Gobir da kuma yadda Sakkwato ta samu asali. Littattafan tarihi sun kara bayanin haihuwarsa, cewar an haife shi a watan Safar shekarar 1168 hijiran Manzon Allah, Muhammadu tsira da amincin Allah su tabbata a gare shi. Allah madaukakin Sarki ya kaddara samun Mujaddadi cikin Jama’an Annabi wanda ya kara tsaida addinin Allah da kafafunsa a zukatan Jama’a bayan karkata ta zo masu (kamar a wannan zamani inda kungiyar Izalatu Bidi’a wa ikamatussunna ta bayyana mana a yau). Yadda al’amari ya kasance kuwa shi ne, inda aka samu ya yi kokarin kau da ire-iren wadannan shirkoki da bidi’o’i, duk da wasu sai kara harman kunno kai suke yi.

Shehu Usmanu bai gaza ba musamman bisa taimakon Allah ta wajen kokartawa har sai da addinin Allah ya daidaitu a zukatan jama’arsa. Lallai Shehu Usmanu ya amsa sunansa Mujaddidi kwarai da gaske. Domin ya tsai da sunna amma kash! mabiyansa sun bijiro da salon son mulki da barna wadda ya fi na baya. Abin ya kai sun kauce wa shari’ar Muslinci, na kamanta shi da manzon Allah Muhammadu tsira da amincin Allah su tabbata a gare shi; ko kuma mai da shi abin ro}o da bautatawa. Haka kuma Fulani sun karkata a kan duk wanda bai karatu wajen Shehu ba to karkatacce ne, ko da kuwa a ina ya sami ilminsa. Za mu iya samun wa]annan bayanai a wurare da dama da kuma nazarin manufofinsu a zahiri. Amma wasu rubuce-rubucensu na da wuyar samu, musamman yadda su ka farga da cewar jama’a na fahimtar barnarsu ta nazarce-nazarce a kan rubuce-rubucensu da kuma nau’in ayyukansu a zahiri.

A cikin littattafai da ayyuka wasunsu kuwa nada sauyi domin ba a mai da hankali a kansu ba ballantana A Dakatar da su, kuma an mai da su tamkar addinin Allah. Daga cikin wadannan ayyuka da littafai akwai ziyarar kabari da ire-iren shirkoki da bidi’o’in da ke wakana a wuraren, sai littafin Tarihin Fulani na Wazirin Sakkwato, wanda ya rubuta da harsunan Larabci da Hausa. A cikin nazartan littafin zamu iya fahimta barna tun daga shafi na 8 zuwa shafi na 20 a cikinta. Misali ya yi bayani kamar haka,”Bushara Da Shehu Usmanu, Allah shi Yarda Da Shi:”Hakika bushara an yi da Shehu, Allah shi yarda da shi, tun gabanin samuwatai, ta abku kamar yadda shi kansa ya ambata cikin littafinsa wanda yake maganar gabanin samuwatai, ta abku kamar yadda shi kansa ya ambata cikin littafinsa wanda yake maganar dangantakarsa zuwa ga Annabi, tsira da amincin Allah su tabbata gare shi, inda ya ce: “Hakika Annabi tsira da amincin Allah su tabbata gare shi an yo bushara da shi tun gabanin zakuwatai. Ni kuma na gode ma Allah an yi bushra da ni.” Haka kuma zancansa ga dangantakarsa zuwa ga Mahadi. Ya ce: “Hakika Mahadi amincin Allah ya tabbata bisa gare shi, an yo bushara da samu nai. Ni kuma nai godiya ga Allah an yo bushara da ni...” sauran al’amurra kamar yin masa salati bayan anbaton sunansa kamar yadda ake wa ma’aiki Allah tsira da amincin Allah su tabbata a gare shi, da nau’in tsarkakansa kamar na Manzon Allah (S.A.W) watau cewar shi Ma’asumi ne, duba shafi na 9 sakin layi na }arke, da dai sauransu. Kamar yadda tarihi ya nuna Shehu Usmanu ya }aurace wa jama’ansa zuwa Gujuba a dalilin irin yadda suka juya wa al’amarin da’awarsa ya zuwa neman abin duniya.

A cikin wannan littafin ya yi bayanai na irin mu’ujizozin da Shehu Usmanu Mujaddidi yake da su, wa]anda sun kamanceceniya da na Manzon Allah tsira da amincin Allah su tabbata a gare shi, ko kuma Mahadi amincin Allah ya tabbata a gare shi. A takaice zantukan na nuni da cewar shi ma aiko shi aka yi kamar yadda aka aiko sauran Annabawa. Wannan ya nuna karara cewar lallai dole su dauka cewar duk wanda bai kataru wajen Shehu Usmanu ba to shi kafiri ne.

Rikicin Hausa da Fulani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gidan sarauta na Sarkin Zazzau

Tarihi ya nuna cewar lokacin da Shehu Dan Fodio ya taso da da'awarsa a kasar Hausa ya na mai kokarin jaddada addinin Musulunci ne IN DA ya ga suna da rauni. Lallai bai kalli kasar Zazzau ba, domin shi kansa yasan kasa ce wadda ta tara masanan addinin Musulinci wuri guda, wanda har gobe masu riko da sunna ne. A wancan lokaci yana fama da }asashen Gobir ta dauri ne. Watau Gobir masomar jihadi, sai dai dalibansa sun fadada jihadin ya zuwa Katsina da Kano da Daura, sai kuma sashen Yarbawa watau Ilorin don bayar da kariya ga Shehu Usmanu a dalilin rashin goyon baya da ba su ba Shehu Usmanu ba. A karshen al’amari, wa]annan sarakuna ba su amince ba a dalilin yanayin ko dai mabiyansa ko kuma yadda suke gudanar da wa’azozinsu, wadanda suka soma nuna alamun son mulki fiye da bayyana da’awar Shehu. Shehu Usmanu ya goyi bayan daukan matakin jihadi kan wa]annnan kasashe bisa shawarar almajiransa da sunan kauce wa kai gudunmuwarsu ga kasar Gobir. Duk da Shehu ya soma ya}ar kasar Gobir a matsayin sulan yake-yaken jihadin Mujaddidi.

Bayani ya nuna a ciki littafin Muhammad Bello “Infakul mansur” wanda yake ]a ne ga Shehu Usmanu, cewar a watan Yuni 1804 Shehu Usman ya aika wa Sarakunan kasar Katsina da Daura da Kano kuma Zazzau takarda kunshe da bayanin yadda ta kasance tsakaninsa da Sarkin Gobir Yumfa. Sarakunan Katsina da na Kano sai suka yaga takardan Shehu Mujaddadi. Amma Sarkin Zazzau na wannan lokaci Malam Isyaku Jatau bai yaga tasa ba, sai ya kira Malaman kasarsa ya yi masu bayanin takardan Shehu cikin sigar ilmi da hikima ya fahimtar ko gamsar da jama’arsa manufa na Shehu Usmanu. Wa]annan masanan malamai na kasar Zazzau sun gamsu da wannan takarda kuma suka amince da wannan manufa ta Shehu Usmanu. Ba da wani jinkiri ba sarkin Zazzau ya amince da manufar Shehu kuma ya nada wata tawaga wanda ke dauke da sakon sarki na amincewarsa da ya ci gaba da gwagwarmaya tare da irin tasa gudummuwar. Ganin yadda Sarki Isyaku Jatau ya amince da manufarsa Shehu ya kara masa kwarin gwaiwar kaddamar da jihadinsa, kuma ya amince da tutar kasar Zazzau a matsayin tutar Ahlil Sunna. Irin wannan akida har gobe yana nan ga malaman Zage zagi wadanda ba su saka wata dagawa ko nuna shahara kan ilmin addinin Allah ba. Malamai ne wadanda basa hada wani abu da abin bautarsu, ko shigar da wani al’amari ko saka sauran bidi’o’i da suka kunno kai a wannan zamani cikin addinin Muslinci. A wajajen }arshen jihadin Shehu Mujaddadi kuma daidai shugowar Turawa Arewacin kasar nan (1806), Allah ya yi wa Sarkin Zazzau Malam Isyaku Jatau rasuwa, kuma ]ansa Malam Muhammadu Makau (Makka) ya amshi ragamar mulki.

A daidai hawan karagan mulkin kasar Zazzau, Sarki Muhammadu Makau ya fuskanci kalubale a wajen masu sha’awar mulkin kasar na wancan zamani (1807). Watau Malaman dake cikin kasar (wadanda suke kiran kansu Fillato Borno) dake zaune a wannan kasa. Wannan ya faru ne bayan dan wani lokaci ka]an kuma bayan cin kasar Kano wanda ya kawo karken sarautar Sarkin Kano Alwali (Malam Al-wali), inda daga nan maya}an Mujaddadi suka nausa ya zuwa kasar Bauchi har ya zuwa kanem watau }asar Borno a yau. Amma game da Sarki Alwali, cikin martabawa da kuma tausayawa Sarkin Zazzau Muhammadu Makau ya nemi ya sauki Sarkin Kano Alwali a }asarsa. A sakamakon irin karamci na mutanan Zazzau wanda sukan dauki al’amurra cikin sauki tare da ganin sun saka adalci a rayuwarsu (wannan hali yana nan tare da su har gobe), ya kawo tunanin Fillato Borno da suke cikin }asar Zazzau na kauda Sarkin Zazzau Muhammadu Makau; ta yi masa bore bayan sun kai }azafinsa ga Shehu cewar ya koma cikin shirka, don ganin cewar Sarki Alwali ya bijire wa takardan Shehu Mujaddidi kuma Sarki Muhammadu Makau ya kuduri niyyar saukarsa; duk da bayanin da Sarki Muhammadu Makau ya yi masu cewar kira ya kamata ai masa, ba a kore shi ko kashe shi ba. Wanda ya jagoranci kai wannan }ara shi ne Sarkin Zazzau Yamusa, domin a da can sun kasance manyan Al}alai a }asar Zazzau. A cikin tafiyar da wannan bore a kwai Malam Mu’sa wanda ]alibin Shehu Usmanu ne kuma an ha]o shi da Yamusa ne don ya zo ya tabbatar da gaskiyan zancan Malam Yamusa. Amma a }arke ya juyar da tafiyar ta zamo tasa kuma ya ]are karagar mulki. Wannan bore ya faru a daidai lokacin bukin }aramar Sallah, wato watan Shawwal 1807.

A lokacin da Sarkin Zazzau Malam Muhammadu Makau ya fita ya zuwa Sallar Idi. Wa]annan masu bore sun rufe {ofar Gari suka hana shi komawa cikinta. A dalilin haka Sarki Muhammadu Makau sai bai ja da su ba, domin a tunaninsa jama’arsa ne kuma bai da bukatar ya}ar }asarsa, amma sai ya juya akalar dokinsa ya nausa cikin }asashen Nufawa da sauran }abilu don bu]e wata daula daban. Kafin barinsa }asar Zazzau ya yi dakace a bayan gari inda ya tattara jama’ansa. Wannan wuri a yau shi ake kira da Dakace (Dakacen Sarki). Ya cimma nasarar yin hakan wajen kafa wuri (wanda a yau ya zama masarauta biyu wa]anda ake kiransu da sunayen }anninsa a halin yanzu wato Sule-ja ( Sulaimanu- sza) da Abu-ja ( Abubakar- sza). Kuma wannan wuri a yau ya zama zucciyar }asar baki daya. Tarihi ya nuna cewar daga baya ya yi yunkurin fadada sabuwar daularsa ta wajen yakar ko kwatar wasu bangarori na kasar Zazzau duk da a lokacin tsufa ta kama shi sai ya umurci danuwasa Sulaimanu Ja da ya koma ya rike sabuwar daularsa gudun kar ta kubuce masu baki daya; inda ya sa shi a matsayin wakilinsa. Bayan rasuwar Sarki Muhammadu Makau sai Malam Sulaimanu ya zama sabon sarki. Wannan wuri daga baya an raba shi biyu inda wadannan }anni na Sarkin Zazzau Muhammadu Makau suka mai da su wuraren masarautunsu kuma aka sanya wa wuraren sunayensu. Dalilin raba wa ‘yan-uwasa wannan wuri zai ta’alla}a a kan samar da zaman lafiya a zuriyarsu kuma su shugabanci wa]annan sabbin dauloli don kauda tunaninsu ga komawa cikin birnin Zazzau. Wannan ba }aramin tunani ne ba, ga shugabanni adalai masanan ya kamata da hangen nesa. Daga wa]annan wurare basu sake tunanin kafa wata daula ko fadada kasa ba. Sai dai tarihin baya na shi Sarki Muhammadu inda ya yi yunkurin kwato wasu yankuna da ke karkashin kasar Zazzau ya zuwa sabuwar masarautarsa kuma wannan yunkuri ya cimma ajalinsa.

Shehu ]an Fodio ya yi fama da jama’arsa ko ince mabiyansa a }arken jihadinsa. Domin sun juya al’amarin ya zuwa neman mulki ba wai kokarin da’awa da jaddada addinin Allah; da daukaka addinin Allah ba. Almajiran Shehu sun mai da hankali wajen neman mulkan jama’a ko ta halin ya ya. Manufar Shehu shi ne na kauce wa shirka da kadaita Allah (S.W.A) abin bauta shi ka]ai kuma su maida duk al’amurransu ga Allah shi kadai. Amma ‘yan shirkokin da ba a rasa su ba tun daga mabiyansa har ya zuwa ga sauran jama’a. Allah (subhanahub wata ala) ya sa ya cimma nasara ta dagewa a kan akidarsa ba tare da jin tsoro ko shakkun wani abin da zai same shi ba. Duk wadannan nasarori sun samu ta wajen dagewar da Shehu tare da kaninsa Abdullahi da kuma dansa Muhammad Bello, su ka yi bisa yardan Allah. Mahara daga cikin ]aliban Shehu Mujaddadi, wa]anda son mulki ta yaudara, sun nausa ya zuwa kasashen Borno da Yobe da Taraba da kuma Bauchi, inda suka tadda Malam Rabeh Fadel Allah ya yi nisa da shugowa wajan jihadinsa. Wannan za a iya gani tun daga cikin kasar Niger har ya zuwa kasashen da na yi bayani a baya. Kamar yadda tarihi ya nuna mana cewar kafin karken jihadin da gudana a zamanin Shehu Usmanu, ]alibansa sun yi yun}urin kai jihadinsa kasashen gabashin kasashen Arewa wanda bai samu dama ba don tuni addini Musulunci ya yi }arfi sai dai fadan siyasa kawai.

A littafi mai suna “ Language Disappearance, case study of Biu Emirate” na Bukar Usman ya yi kokarin bayanin yadda ta kwashe tsakanin Mujaddidi Rabeh Fadel Allah tare da ]ansa Fadarallah da masarautun wa]annan kasashe a tsakanin shekara ta 1755-1809. Rabe ya nausa kasar Borno ]ansa kuma ya nausa }asar Biu har ya zuwa Wuyo wanda ake kira da suna Bayo a halin yanzu cikin kasar Borno. Wannan ya faru ne a tsakanin 1893-1901. A dalilin wannan tashin-tashina na jahadin wadda wa]annan Shehunnai biyu suka yi, ya kawo kai-komon jama’a daga wannan waje zuwa wancan waje, musamman ga jama’ar Biu a wancan karni. Hujjojin wannan bayani an samo su ta wajan zantawa da jama’a dabamdabam, wanda ya nuna cewar jama’a sun taru daga Arewacin masaninbao gabashin Niger da Borno zuwa kudancin wannan kasa. Misali jama’ar Biu sun nuna cewar akwai wurare biyu wanda yake duk asalin wurin mazaunansu ne (wurin zamansu), kamar Yeme da Chad. Bayanin baka ya nuna cewar Tera na daya daga cikin masu neman sarautar Ngazargamu a tsohuwar daular Borno kuma su suke sarautar a janhuriyan Nijar wanda har yanzu suna da kyakkyawar alaka da junarsu. Wasu daga cikin jama’ar Kanuri da suke zaune a Geidam wanda a halin yanzu yake cikin jihar Yobe sun guje wa jihadin Rabeh a cikin shekara ta 1890, wanda ya kai su ga gangarowa ya zuwa Gwara wanda aka fi sani da Gora. Wannan gari na kusa da garin Shani a cikin }asar Borno. Auratayya da kabilan Kanakuru kuma a dalilin haka suka samar da }abilan Komberi, ita ma wannan kabila ta jirga ya zuwa gundumar Tera. Yake-yaken jihadi sun ci gaba kuma jama’a sun ci gaba da hijira daga wannan wuri zuwa wancan wuri har ya zuwa shekara ta 1808 inda Fulani suka kama yammacin Ngazargamu wanda yake shi ne birnin daular Borno. Amma a karke a cikin shekara ta 1809 Sheikh Lamido ya kori Fulani daga daular Borno.

Wannan kai-komo ya sa Rabe ya rasa wajen zama inda ya bar Zindar ya nausa ya zuwa gabashin Nijar a cikin shekara ta 1893. Wannan ya zo daidai da Turawan Faransa sun shigo kasar Nijar kuma suka kashe shi a wani gari mai suna Kousseri cikin kasar Kamaru a shekara ta 1900. Haka ma dansa ya faru da shi wanda aka kashe shi a wani gari mai suna Gujba ta hanyan yaudara wanda Turawan Faransa su kai masa a shekara ta 1901. A nan ne kuma Turawan Faransa suka hadu da Turawan Ingila kuma turawan Ingila suka nuna wa Turawan Faransa cewar sun wuce iyaka kasar Faransa, wanda a yanzu suna cikin kasar da ake kira Nijeriya. Haka ya faru a inda Faransawa suka ba Turawan Ingila wuri.

Masallacin fada

Sarki Makau[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Game da rayuwar kasar Zazzau kuwa, Sarkin Zazzau Muhammadu Makau ya samar wa ‘yan-uwansa wurin zama ba tare da sun tsoma kansu cikin rikicin mulki da wasu suka haramta masu don bukatar mulkan }asarsu ba. Zazzaghawan asali, sun mai da martani ga sabuwar masarautar Zazzau a inda suka tare mashigin dake tsakanin kudancin }asar zuwa kasar Zazzau domin tauye kasuwancin da ke tsakaninsu da jama’an kudancin }asar nan. Haka kuma sun taimaka wa Turawa wajen cin }asar Zazzau, domin daidai wannan lokaci ne Turawa suka bullo. Zazzaghawa sun taka babban rawa wajan cin kasar Zazzau a wancan lokaci. A cikin rubuce rucen Hausa Fulani sun }o}arin yin bayanan }age ga jama’an Zazzau ta dauri musamman akan yadda ta kasance da Sarkin Zazzau Muhammadu Makau ta wajen neman kau da gaskiyar al’amurra. Kuma sun hada gabas da yamma wuri guda. Watau wajen dauko tarihi Barebari suka gauraya a cikin tarihin Zazzau ta dauri. Inda suka ]auko tarihin Albarka wanda yake shi ]an Sarkin Kukawa ne can cikin }asar Borno kuma ya zo kasar Zazzau a sanadiyyar rikicin Sarauta. Albarka bai da ninyar zama kasar Zazzau sai dai ya yada zango ya wuce. Wannan ya faru ne a zamanin Sarki Zazzau Alu Dan Sidi. Amma ga al’amarin Sarki sai ya jawo hankalinsa da ya zauna a nan kasar Zazzau. Sarki ya yi masa al}awarin bashi duk bakin inda ya yi jifa ta tsaya kyauta. Hakan kuma ya faru, wannan wuri ya kama tun daga bakin kotu ya yi iyaka da kwarin fadama. A dalilin haka ne wannan wuri ya samu sunarsa (Albarkawa). Malam Usman Katuka Sabulu ]a ne ga Sarkin Kano Al-wali kuma jika ne a gidan Sarautar Zazzagawan dauri (Zazzau), inda Sarki Isyaku Jatau ya dauki ‘yar kaninsa Malam Muhammadu Megamo ya ba da aurenta ga Sarkin Kano Al-wali. Usman Katuka Sabulu ya zo kasar Zazzau wajen kakanninsa don koyon karatu da samun ilmin addinin Muslinci, kuma Allah ya nufa wajen arzikinsa kenan a dalilin goyan bayan da ya ba juyin mulkin Filato Barno da kuma Hausa Fulanin a }asar Zazzau, (domin suna kiran kansu a matsayin Fulani) a lokacin yin ma gidan kakaninsa bore don kaucewa halin da zai iya shiga bayan basu ko kuma a bisa wasu dalilai nasa. A karke Sarkin Zazzaun na farko a daular Hausa-Fulani a kasar Zazzau Malam Mu’sa ya amince da Usman Sabulu kuma ya umurce shi da ya zauna a daya daga cikin gidajen kakanninsa watau na Zage zagi kuma aka ba shi sarautar katukan farko a daular Hausa Fulani. Katuka Usman ya samu tsawon sarakuna biyu a daular Hausa Fulani kafin a tsige shi daga kan sarautar; watau Mu’sa dan Yamusa.

Jerin sarakunan Suleja[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

1 Muhammadu Makau 1807-1825

2 Abubakar Ja (Abuja) 1825-1851

3 Abubakar Kwaka Dogon Sarki 1851-1877

4 Ibrahim Iyalai Dogon Gwari 1877-1902

5 Muhammadu Gani 1902-1917 Ya bar gadon mulki

6 Musa Angulu 1917-1944

7 Sulaimanu Barau 1944-1979

8 Malam Ibrahim Dodo Musa 1979-1993

9 Awwal Ibrahim 1993-1994 Ya bar gadon mulki

10 Bashir Sulaimanu Barau 1994-2000

11 Awwal Ibrahim 2000

Sarkakiyar sarautar Hausa Fulani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sarautar Hausa-Fulani a Arewacin Nijeriya na tafe da wasu sarkakiya wa]anda jama’a kan zanta a kansu sau da dama, watau ta yadda suka amshi mulki ko kuma yadda suka rin}a azabtar da ‘yan uwansu Musulmi; in har ba kai karatu wajen Shehu Mujaddidi ba, ko da kuwa kai Bafillace ne. wadannan misalai kan samu ta wajen nazartar abin da ya faru a sassa dabandaban a arewacin kasar nan. Amma an samu inda adalci ya fito karara a tsakanin kasar Katsina da Daura inda Sarkin Katsina Dikko ya ba Turawa shawarar da su dawo da jama’ar }asar Daura na asali watau Ha~e (A harshen Hausa-Fulani), a cikin shekara ta 1906. Kuma Sarkin Katsina ya ci gaba da ba su shawarar yadda za a yi a mai da su a kan karagar sarautar Daura, inda ya ce, “ku dauko jikansu Musa wanda yake zaune a Zangon-Daura a bashi sarautar Daura kuma a ha]a masa Zango da |aure duk a }ar}ashin mulkin Daura. Wannan al’amari ya faru ne a lokacin da Turawa suka shawarci Sarkin Katsina Dikko ta yadda za a dawo da masarauar Daura.

Kyakkyawar ala}a ta ]ore tsakanin Katsinawa da Daurawa na mutunta juna tun wancan lokaci har ya zuwa yanzu. Domin sun zama abokanin shawarar juna a duk wani abu da ya taso masu, alal misali lokacin da aka taso da zancan larduna Sarki Dikko ya shawarci Sarki Abdurrahman tare da neman alfarma da a ha]a }asar Katsina da Daura a matsayin lardi ]aya. Babu kokanto ko ja Sarkin Daura Abdurrahaman ya amince a dalilin wannan kyakkyawar ala}a. a wannan dalili ne masarautar Daura ta sa wa }ofar yamma suna Abdurrahman, domin shi ne sarki da ya yi sanadiyyar ha]ewar su da Katsina. kasar Kano ta samu kanta cikin wannan juyin-juya hali da }as ashen Hausa ke ciki. Arewacin }asar Kano ya soma fa]awa hannun Fulani cikin sauki, amma Sarki Alwali ya yi kokarin kare gabashin kasar. Bayan gwbzawa yaki da aka yi a dan Yahaya Fulani sun samu damar kamala kama kasar Kano kuma Sarkin Kano Alwali ya bar kasar. Anan ma an samu rabewar kai tsakanin Fulani kuma ak rasa wanda zai tsaya a matsayi Sarki. A karke sun aika wa Shehu da ya zaban masu shugaba. Shehu ya tambayesu waye fasihi a cikinsu sai suka ba da amsar cewar Sulaimanu bawan shugaban ya}i. to, anan ne Shehu y ace ma su shi ya kamata ya zama Sarki. Wannan ya faru a cikin shekara ta 1807.

Amma a game da kasar Kano da Ningi kuwa ya sha bamban da tsakanin Katsina da Daura. Kafuwar Ningi bai samu ba sai da aka ja batta tsakanin jama’an kasar Ningi da Sarkin Kano Usmanu. Abin da ya faru kuwa shi ne Sarkin Kano Usman ya sa wa jama’ar Ningi haraji, amma daya daga cikin ‘ya’yan Ningi, kuma malami wanda ya shahara a wancan zamani watau malam Hamza bai amince da wannan haraji ba. Kuma kamar yadda tarihi ya nuna cewar shi ma ya yi karatu wajen Shehu amma bai karbo Tuta ba kamar yadda sauran Hausa-Fulani suka kar~o Tuta. A wannan lokaci Dawakin-Kudu na karkashin Galadiman Kano. Malam Hamza ya ci gaba da da’awarsarsa na cewar babu inda aka ce Musulmi ya ba Musulmi jizya ko kudin gandu ko haraji. Wannan ya kai ga har an kai shi gaban Sarki a can Kano.

Kamar yadda zancan baka ya nuna cewar ya tafi da Gafakan Al}ur’aninsa da ]an buzunsa. A gaban Sarkin Kano ya sake bayyana adawarsa ta bayyana wa Sarki gaba gareshi cewar,’karatu dai mun yi gaban Shehu kuma ba inda Shehu ya ce Musulmi da su biya hukumar Musulmi jizya ko kudin gandu ko haraji ba, ka gani nan ina kan kasar Allah ne ba kasar ka ba’, nan take ya baza buzu ya hau kai. A karke Sarkin Kano ya lallaba wannan malami ya dawo kasarsu Dawaki. Amma bayan majalisan sarkin kano ta ba Sarki shawa kan wannan malami domin a ganinsu zai zame wa Sarki karfen-kafa sai Sarki ya ba da umurnin kamo shi. Ga al’amarin wannan malami kuwa ko da ya ji labarin kama shi, sai ya umurci Al’majiransa masu ]imbin yawa suka bar gari. A wani babin an ce mutanan da suka bishi sun kai gidaje 40 wanda a wancan lokaci gari ne. Abin kulawa kuma a nan babban adawan wannan malami shi ne bai yarda da ya}an jama’a ba illah wa’azi kuma da shi ya musuluntar da dimbin jama’a. amma ga al’amarin Hausa-Fulani a wannan lokaci basu amince da yin haka ba, sai dai su mallaki jama’a ta hanyar yakarsu don su zama masu mulkin mallaka ko ta halin kaka. Malam Hamza ya shiga kasar Bauchi da almajiransa kuma a wannan zamani Sarkin Bauchi Ibrahim, yana sarautar kasar a matsayin Sarki na biyu. Domin a }asar Bauchi daga Yakubu sai Ibrahim a sarautar }asar. Sarkin Bauchi ya sa Sarkin ~ara da ya tunkari wannnan malami. Anan ma wannan malami ya yi fama kwarai da gaske inda ya kai ga sai da Sarkin Bauchi ya taso da kansa yazo }ofar Ningi cikin wani gari mai suna Cafana ya shata fulotai inda ya dasa itatuwan gawo. Wannan abu ya faru wajen shekara 150 ko fiye da haka. Yake-yake ba su yi sauki ba har sai da Alu mai sango ya dau matakin kona duk wani lambunan Rano. Ganin haka aka nemi sulhu kuma aka zauna lafiya. A }asar kebbi wanda yake Fulani ke mulkan kasar kuma a lokacin Muahammadu Fodi ke mulki, amma Fulani sun fa]a ma shi kuma suka kora shi. Ya samu damar kafa garin Argungu a cikin shekara ta 1805 wanda amalam Abdullahi ya jagoranta; wannan shi ne dalilin da ake kira wannan waje Kebbin Argungun. Malam Muhammadu Fodi bai iya daurewa ba sai da ya rin}a kai masu hari akai-akai, wanda ya kawo rasa ransa a shekara ta 1826.

Amma duk da faruwan wannan abu magajinsa wanda aka fi sani da suna Karrari ya ci gaba da kai hari kasar Kebbi har zuwan Turawa. Wannan dalilin da yasa ake kiran Sarkin Argungu da ‘Sarkin Kebbi’. Wannan al’amari shi ya jawo hankulan Sarakunan }asar Hadejiya da tai iyaka da Borno suka sakar wa Malam Umar wani daga cikin Fulani da suke zaune a kasar. Haka kuma sauran kasashen kamar su Kazaure da Garun Gabas da Gatarwa da Auyo suka janye daga mulkinsu suka ba Fulani wuri. Sarakunan Katsina da Kano duk sun rasa mulkinsu a shekara ta 1807. Fulani sun kama dukkanin wuraren da ba Fulani ke mulki ba ko kuma Fulanin da basu amshi tuta ba ko da kuwa sun yi karatu wajen Shehu Usmanu. A }asar Katsina bayan Fulani sun amshi }asa sai rikicin mulki ya rincabe tsakaninsu. Wanda ya kai ga an samu gidajen adawa uku, Umaru da Dumyawa Na Alhaji da Umaru Dallaji dukkaninsu na adawar ya amshi tuta daga Shehu Usman. A }arke an samu sau}in al’amari bayan ya cimma nasaran zama Sarki a shekera ta 1807. Amma ga Sarkin Katsina da aka ture sai ya koma da zama a wani wuri da ake kira Mara]i Arewa da kasar Katsina wanda ya kai tsawon kimanin mil hamsin (50miles). Sarkin Katsina da ya koma Mara]i ya ci gaba da kai hari ga duk Fulanin da ya ci karo da su. wannan hari da ake kai ma Fulani ya samu goyon bayan }asashen Zamfara da Agadas.

Sarki Umaru Danlaje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Umaru Danlaje ya yi Sarauta daga shekara ta 1807 zuwa 1835. {asar Gobir dama ita ce masomin da’awa wanda ya koma jihadi, a shekara ta 1808 Sarki Yunfa ya rasa ransa a yakin Alkalawa wanda ta ke a wajen gundumar masarautar. Jajirtatce ne wajen kare kansa da }asarsa. Irin wannan jaruntaka ya samu amsuwa wajen magajinsa. A dalilin wannan jajircewa na su ya zama dole Fulani suka iya mallakan ka]an daga cikin }asar Gobir. A }arke a shekara ta 1808 Fulani suka kafa masarautarsu wanda trake da gundumar mulki, kuma a ka raba wannan wuri gida biyu; arewacin wurin in wanda ke da gunduma a Gwandu aka na]a Abdullahi a matsayin Sarki. Gabashin wurin dake da gunduma a Sakkwato aka na]a Muahammad Bello a matsayin Sarki. Shi ko Shehu Usmanu ya koma ga nazarin littafansa domin a }arke ya nuna damuwarsa na ganin ada’awarsa ta koma na neman mulki kuma fa]a]a }asa don sarauta ba ra’ayinsa ne ba.

Wadannan al’amurra sun gudana a kasar Zazzau inda Sarkin Zazzau Muhammadu Makau ya nemi zama da Sarkin Kano kuma Surukinsa Al’wali kuma ya nuna ma Malaman da ke adawa da ra’ayinsa cewar “wannan bawan Allah fahimtarwa yake bu}ata dangane da jihadin Shehu Mujeddidi”, amma Hausa-Fulanin dake }asar suka nuna rashin amincewarsu. Daga cikin Malamansu Malam Yamusa ya jagoranci kai Sarkin Zazzau Muhammadu Makau kara wajen Shehu Mujeddidi cewar ya juya wa koyarwar Shehu baya kuma ya koma al’amari na gargajiya. Akan haka Shehu ya soma tambayarsu abin da ya kamata a yi, a nan suka ba da shawarar a yaki }asar Zazzau. Jin kaha sai Shehu Usmanu ya ce da su “A’a sai dai ku yaki Sarkin Zazzau shi ka]ai domin }asar Zazzau akwai malamai masu yawa”. Wannnan al’amari bai samu damar gudana ba sai cikin watan Sallah }arama a lokacin da Sarkin Zazzau Muhammadu Makau ya fito yin Sallar Idi, a wananan tsakani masu bore suka kulle kofar gari bayan sun tarwatsa jama’ar Sarki. Ganin haka hankalin Sarki bai tashi ba musamman ganin ya iya tattara jama’arsa wuri guda a wani wuri da ake kira a yau Dakace amma asalin dalilinsa ana nufin dakacen Sarki ne(inda Sarki Muhammadu Makau ya dakata har ya hada jama’ansa). Nan take ya yanke hukuncin barin kasar Zazzau ya kuma nausa kudancin kasar, ba tare da ja in ja da su ba. Shawararsa na barin kasar ya faru a cikin shekara ta 1807 inda ya samar da sabon wuri kuma ya bar wa kaninsa bisa alkawarin kula da wurin domin shi ya dauri ninyan amso wasu bangarori da ke karkashin kasar Zazzau. Wadannan wurare ya yi iyaka da Kajuru.

A karke cikin shekara ta 1828 kasar an raba ta biyu inda aka ba Sulaimanu ja kuma aka sa ma wajan suna Suleja, sannan Abububakar ja shi ma ~angarensa ya koma da suna Abuja. Amma ga al’amarin Sarki Muhammadu kuwa ya fita harkan zaman sarauta ya koma ga neman kwato wasu yankuna a cikin kasar Zazzau. Ta wannan al’amari ne ya kai ga rasa ransa.

A yau daya daga cikin wadannan wurare mai suna Abuja ya zama abin alfari ga kasar Nijeriya baki daya, inda ta zama abin tun}ahon jama’an Nijeriya a matsayin Gundumar mulkin kasa baki daya. An amshi wnannan wuri (Abuja) a hannun Sarki Sulaimanu Barau a matsayin gundumar mulkin }asa a shekara ta 1976. A nan zamu iya ganin yadda aikin Sarki mai adalci Muhammadu Makau dan Sarki Isyaku jatau ya kai. Wannan ba karamin abin alfahari ne ba.

Zazzagawan dauri sun ci gaba da huddansu da Fulani da ke makabtaka da su, da ke da zama aBida. Amma jama’an da ke }asar Zariya sun komo da hu]]a da sabuwar kasar Muhammadu Makau dole a zamanin Sarki Abubakar Kwakwa, cikin shekara ta 1851 zuwa 1877.

Fadar sarki

Wannan ya faru a dalilin tsaida duk wani nau’in kasuwanci tsakanin kasar da kudancin Nijeriya.

Bayanan abubuwan da ya wakana a tsakanin ma su da’awar karban tuta daga hannun Shehu Usmanu na tattare a gun wadanda abin ya shafa, inda za ka iya samun gaskiyan abinda ya gudana a tsakaninsu. Amma ga al’amarin Hausa-Fulani ba za su tsaya su tsaga gaskiya don kowa ya ganta ba, illa su bayyana cewar sun kori kafurai ko su yi amfani da kalamar maguzanci. Allah mai girma, in muka ce za mu zanta irin nau’in mulkin da suka yi wa jama’a tabbas mutunci da }imansu zai zuba a idon jama’a musamman ‘yan bana-bakwai. Domin in aka fassara kalmar Maguzanci kuma muka bisu daya bayan daya zamu ga irin mummunar zama da aka yi ko ince a ke yi da su, in da hatta su kansu ba su bar junan su ba. Bari mu ga wani abu daga cikin al’amurran da ya faru Yake-yaken jihadi ko son mulki sun ci gaba da gudana kuma jama’a sun ci gaba da hijira daga wannan wuri zuwa wancan wuri har ya zuwa shekara ta 1808 inda Fulani suka kama yammacin Ngazargamu wanda yake shi ne birnin daular Borno. Amma a karshe a cikin shekara ta 1809 Sheikh Lamido ya kori Hausa-Fulani daga daular Borno.

Masarautar Zazzau[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Babbar ƙofar shiga masarautar Zazzau dake Zariya

Zazzau ko Zariya Masarauta ce ta mai dadadden Tarihi ta Hausawa wadda take da gidan sarautar ta a birnin Zariya dake jihar Kaduna a Arewacin Najeriya . Alhaji Shehu Idris Shine Sarkin Zazzau.

Maguzanci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Abu mafi mahimman ci da zamu fara dubawa wajen gane tarihin masarautar Zazzau shine labarun da suka shahara a karni na Ashirin. Wanda yake cewa asalin kafuwar masarautun Hausa ya fara ne daga kanan Bayajidda, Wato wani Jarumi da ake fada a tarihin Hausawa wanda shine asalin kafuwar masarautun Hausa da muke da su a wannan zamanin. Kamar yadda masana Tarihi suke fada cewa a karni na goma sha daya ne aka kafa masarautar zazzau bisa jogorancin Sarkin Zazzau Gunguma. Daga nanne kuma aka kafa masarautar Zazzau Ta zama daya daga cikin masarautun Hausawa ko Habe na Hausa Bakwai. Fitacciyar wadda tayi iko a masarautar Zazzau itace Sarauniyar Zazzau Amina.

Wacce tayi iko kodai tsakiyar karni na sha biyar ko kuma tsakiyar karni na sha shida. Birnin Zazzau ya zama cibiyar harhada bayi inda ake cinikin su zuwa Arewacin Najeriya kamar birnin Kano da birnin Katsina inda ake kasuwancin Bayi ta hanyar kasuwancin ban gishiri na baka kanwa daga nan kuma sai a wuce da Bayin zuwa Sahara. A yadda tarihi yazo Musulunci ya shiga Masarautar Zazzau ne a wajen shekara ta 1456 Amma kadan daga cikin wasu mutanen naci gaba da Tsafi yayin da wadansu kuma ke Maguzanci Har zuwa lokacin da jihadin Shehu Usman Dan fodiyo ya zo a shekarar 1808 Fulani conquest of 1808. Ayanzu dai Masarautar Zazzau Masarauta ce da tayi kaurin suna wajen tafiyar da Addinin Musulunci. Akwai manya manyan malamai na Musulunci a Masarautar.

Sarautar Fulani a Masarautar Zazzau

A watan Disamba na 1808 Mujahidai karkashin Jahorancin Mujadda Shehu Usman Danfodiyo suka samu nasarar korar Masu rike da sarautar lokacin wadanda Habe ne ko Hausawa. Hakanne yasa su Hausawan suka gudu zuwa yankin Abuja Suka tare a wajen da ake kira Suleja a yanzu. Shi yasa har yanzu ake kiran sarautar ko kuma sarkin Suleja da Sarkin Zazzau.

Jerin Sarakunan Zazzau[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sarakunan Habe, sun fara ne daga shekarar 1696 zuwa 1701.

  1. Bako Musa 1701 - 1703
  1. Ishaq 1703 - 1704
  1. Burema Ashaku 1704 - 1715
  1. Bako IV Sunkuru 1715 - 1726
  1. Muham dan Gungum 1726 - 1733
  1. Uban Ba 1733 - 1734
  1. Muham Gani 1734 - 1734
  1. Abu Muham Gani 1734 - 1737
  1. Dan Ashaku 1737 - 1757
  1. Muham Abu III 1757 - 1759
  1. Bawo 1759 - 1764
  1. Yunusa 1764 - 1767
  1. Yaqub 1767 - 1773
  1. Aliyu 1773 - 1779
  1. Cikkoku 1779 - 1782
  1. Muham Mai Gam 1782 - 1806
  2. Ishaq1806 - 1808
  1. Muham Makau dan Ishaq Ja

Sarakunan Fulani masu cin gashin kansu. Sun fara sarautar su ne daga 31 ga Disamba na 1808 zuwa 17 Mayu na 1821

  1. Malam Musa ibn Suleima Ibn Muhamm Juni 1821 - 1835
  1. Yamusa i Mallam Kilba 1835 18 Disamba 1846
  1. Abd al-Karim ibn Abbas 6 Janairu 1847 zuwa 28 Fabrairu 1847
  1. Hammad ibn Yamu 15 Afrilu 1847 zuwa Afrilu 1854
  1. Muhamm Sani ibn Yamusa Afrilu 1854 zuwa Disamba 1854
  1. Sidi `Abdal-Qadir i Musa Janairu 1855 5 zuwa Augusta 1856
  1. Abd as-Salam ibn Muhammadu Ka'i 21 Satumba 1856 zuwa Augusa ko Nuwamba 1870
  1. Abd Alla ibn Hammad

(karon farko) 22 Nuwamba 1870 Janairu ko Juli

  1. 1873 Abubakar ibn Musa (ya rasu a 1873) Augusta ko Satumba 1873 zuwa Nuwamba ko Disamba 1878
  1. Abd Alla ibn Hammad

(karo na biyu) 26 Disamba 1878 zuwa Janairu 1888

  1. Muhamm Sambo ib Abd al-Karim Janairu 1888 zuwa 13 Fabrairu 1897
  1. Usumanu Yero ibn Abd Alla

(ya rasu 1897) 17 Afrilu 1897 zuwa Maris 1903

  1. Muhamm Lawal Kwassau ibn Uthm Yero

Sarakunan zamanin mulkin mallaka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sunfara ne daga shekarar 1903 (mulkin mallaka) and later rulers Rulers of the independent Fulani emirate:[6] Start End R March 1903 8 April 1903 Sulayma (regent from 11 Sep 190 8 April 1904 9 November 1920 Ali ibn A al-Qadir 1924) 1920 1924 Dallatu i Uthman Yero 1924 1936 Ibrahim Muham Lawal Kwassa (b. c.18 d. 1936 1936 August 1959 Malam J ibn Isha (b. 189 d. 1959 September 1959 4 February 1975 Muham al-Amin Uthman 1908 - 1975) 8 February 1975 20 September 2020 Shehu i Idris (1936 - 2020)

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. E. J. Arnett, "A Hausa Chronicle" Journal of the Royal African Society 9 (1910)
  2. Muhammad Bello, Infaq 'l-Maysuur, chapter 7, translated Muhammad Shareef, (Sennar, Sudan,2008) http://www.siiasi.org/Chapter%207%20_Infaaq_.pdf
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