Rukunnan Musulunci Biyar (arkān al-Islām, larabci أركان الإسلام; ko arkān al-dīn, larabci أركان الدين, Rukunnan addini, Shika-shikan addini) abubuwa ne ko ayyuka wadanda ginshikai ne, guda biyar a Musulunci, wadanda wajibai ne akan kowane mai imani, kuma sune farkon ginshikin rayuwar Musulmi. Suna nan tattare a shahararren hadisin nan na mala'ika Jibril.
Shia, Ahmadiyya, da Sunni dukkanin su sun yarda da muhimman bayani da ayyukan wadannan abubuwan, amma Shi'a basa kiransu da irin wannan sunan (see Ancillaries of the Faith, na Twelvers, da kuma Seven pillars of Ismailism). Sune suka hada rayuwar musulmi, sallarsa, taimakawa gajiyayyu, tsarkake kai daga zunubbai, da aiki hajji, ga wanda yakeda ikon zuwa.
A Sunnah[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]
Shahada: (Imani)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]
Shahada itace mika wuya da tabbatar da Imani da bada gaskiya dake yarda da cewar babu wani abun bauta inba (Allah) ba, kuma Annabi Muhammad Manzon Sa ne. Jawabi ne dayake a tsare, kuma ana furta shine da Larabci: lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu muḥammadun rasūlu-llāh, (لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا الله مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ الله) "Babu abun bautawa da gaskiya sai Allah (kuma) Annabi Muhammad Manzon Allah ne. Furta wannan jawabin nada muhimmanci sosai, Kafin mutum yazama Musulmi, ko yadawo musulunci.
Salah: (Sallah)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]
Sallah (ṣalāh) itace bautar musulmai, Sallah ta kunshi yin salloli biyar kamar yadda Sunnah yazo dasu; sunayensu akan lokutan Amfani: Fajr (Subhi), Dhuhr (rana), ʿAṣr (Yamma), Maghrib (Almuru), da kuma ʿIshāʾ (dare). Sallar Fajr ana gudanar da ita ne kafin fitowar(tasowar) rana, Dhuhr kuma ana yinta ne a tsakiyar rana, bayan rana yayi zawali, Asr kuma da yammaci ake yinta kafin faduwar rana, Maghrib da almuru bayan rana ya fadi, sannan sai sallar Isha'i da akeyinta acikin dare. Duk wadannan salloli anayinsu ne ta hanyar kallon Kaaba a Mecca daya samar da muhimmin ginshiki a cikin alumman Musulmi. Musulmi sai sun wake jiki kafin yin Sallah; wannan wankin akekira da wudu ("purification"). The prayer is accompanied by a series of set positions including; bowing with hands on knees, standing, prostrating and sitting in a special position (not on the heels, nor on the buttocks). A Muslim may perform their prayer anywhere, such as in offices, universities, and fields. However, the mosque is the more preferable place for prayers because the mosque allows for fellowship.
Zakāh: (Zakkah)[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]
Zakkāh or alms-giving is the practice of charitable giving based on accumulated wealth. The word zakāt can be defined as purification and growth because it allows an individual to achieve balance and encourages new growth. The principle of knowing that all things belong to God is essential to purification and growth. Zakāt is obligatory for all Muslims who are able to do so. It is the personal responsibility of each Muslim to ease the economic hardship of others and to strive towards eliminating inequality. Zakāt consists of spending a portion of one's wealth for the benefit of the poor or needy, like debtors or travelers. A Muslim may also donate more as an act of voluntary charity (sadaqah), rather than to achieve additional divine reward.
There are five principles that should be followed when giving the zakāt:
- The giver must declare to God his intention to give the zakāt.
- The zakāt must be paid on the day that it is due.
- After the offering, the payer must not exaggerate on spending his money more than usual means.
- Payment must be in kind. This means if one is wealthy then he or she needs to pay a portion of their income. If a person does not have much money, then they should compensate for it in different ways, such as good deeds and good behavior toward others.
- The zakāt must be distributed in the community from which it was taken.
Sawm: Azumi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]
Ritual fasting is an obligatory act during the month of Ramadan. Muslims must abstain from food and drink from dawn to dusk during this month, and are to be especially mindful of other sins. Fasting is necessary for every Muslim that has reached puberty (unless he/she suffers from a medical condition which prevents him/her from doing so).
The fast is meant to allow Muslims to seek nearness and to look for forgiveness from God, to express their gratitude to and dependence on him, atone for their past sins, and to remind them of the needy. During Ramadan, Muslims are also expected to put more effort into following the teachings of Islam by refraining from violence, anger, envy, greed, lust, profane language, gossip and to try to get along with fellow Muslims better. In addition, all obscene and irreligious sights and sounds are to be avoided.
Fasting during Ramadan is obligatory, but is forbidden for several groups for whom it would be very dangerous and excessively problematic. These include pre-pubescent children, those with a medical condition such as diabetes, elderly people, and pregnant or breastfeeding women. Observing fasts is not permitted for menstruating women. Other individuals for whom it is considered acceptable not to fast are those who are ill or traveling. Missing fasts usually must be made up for soon afterward, although the exact requirements vary according to circumstance.
Hajj: Aikin Hajji[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]
Hajj itace ziyarar ibada dake faruwa a kowace watan musulunci na Dhu al-Hijjah zuwa Makkah. Kowani musulmi baligi dake da iko yazama wajibi yayi aikin hajji a rayuwarsa koda sau dayane. When the pilgrim is around 10 km (6.2 mi) from Mecca, he/she must dress in Ihram clothing, which, for men, consists of two white sheets. Both men and women are required to make the pilgrimage to Mecca. After a Muslim makes the trip to Mecca, he/she is known as a hajj/hajja (one who made the pilgrimage to Mecca). The main rituals of the Hajj include walking seven times around the Kaaba termed Tawaf, touching the Black Stone termed Istilam, traveling seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah termed Sa'yee, and symbolically stoning the Devil in Mina termed Ramee.
The pilgrim, or the haji, is honoured in the Muslim community. Islamic teachers say that the Hajj should be an expression of devotion to God, not a means to gain social standing. The believer should be self-aware and examine their intentions in performing the pilgrimage. This should lead to constant striving for self-improvement. A pilgrimage made at any time other than the Hajj season is called an Umrah, and while not mandatory is strongly recommended. Also, they make a pilgrimage to the holy city of Jerusalem in their alms-giving feast.
Nassoshi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]
- cite web |url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/295625/Pillars-of-Islam |title=Pillars of Islam |publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica Online|accessdate=2007-05-02
- cite web |url=http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e1859 |title=Pillars of Islam |work=Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies|publisher=Oxford University |location=United Kingdom |accessdate=2010-11-17}}
- cite web |url=https://www.pbs.org/empires/islam/faithpillars.html |title=Five Pillars |publisher=Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) |location=United Kingdom |accessdate=2010-11-17
- cite web |url=http://people.ucalgary.ca/~elsegal/I_Transp/IO5_FivePillars.html |title=The Five Pillars of Islam |publisher=University of Calgary |location=Canada |accessdate=2010-11-17
- cite web |url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/practices/fivepillars.shtml |title=The Five Pillars of Islam |publisher=BBC |location=United Kingdom |accessdate=2010-11-17
- cite web|url=http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/GLOSSARY/5PILLARS.HTM |title=arkan ad-din the five pillars of religion |publisher=Washington State University |location=United States |first=Richard |last=Hooker |date=July 14, 1999 |accessdate=2010-11-17 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20101203124633/http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/GLOSSARY/5PILLARS.HTM |archivedate=2010-12-03 |deadurl=yes |df=
- cite web|url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2122.html |title=Religions |accessdate=2010-08-25 |work=The World Factbook |publisher=Central Intelligence Agency |location=United States |year=2010}}
- From the article on the Pillars of Islam in Oxford Islamic Studies OnlineTemplate:Dead link
- Ridgeon (2003), p.258
- Zakat, Encyclopaedia of Islam Online
- Zakat Alms-givingTemplate:Dead link
- Template:Cite quran
- Template:Cite quran
- Template:Cite quran
- Fasting, Encyclopedia of the Qur'an (2005)
- Farah (1994), p.144-145
- Esposito (1998), p.90,91
- Tabatabaei (2002), p. 211,213
- "For whom fasting is mandatory". USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts. Archived from the original on 8 March 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-18.
- Template:Cite quran
- Khan (2006), p. 54
- Islam, The New Encyclopædia Britannica (2005)
- Farah (1994), p.145-147
- Hoiberg (2000), p.237–238
- Goldschmidt (2005), p.48