Jiragen saman Amurka

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Jiragen saman Amurka, Inc. girma ( AA ko AAL ), babban jirgin sama ne na Amurka wanda ke da hedikwata a Fort Worth, Texas, a cikin metroplex Dallas–Fort Worth . Shi ne jirgin sama mafi girma a duniya idan aka auna ta da girman jiragen ruwa, fasinjojin da aka tsara ɗauka, da mil fasinja na kudaden shiga. Ba'amurke, tare da abokan haɗin gwiwarsa na yanki da masu haɗin gwiwa, suna aiki da babbar hanyar sadarwa ta ƙasa da ƙasa tare da kusan jirage 6,800 a kowace rana zuwa kusan wurare 350 a cikin ƙasashe sama da 50. Jiragen saman amurka memba ne wanda ya kafa kungiyar Oneworld, kawancen jiragen sama na uku mafi girma a duniya. Ana gudanar da sabis na yankin ta masu zaman kansu da masu zaman kansu a ƙarƙashin alamar sunan Amurka Eagle.

Jiragen saman amurka da American Eagle suna aiki ne daga cibiyoyi 10, tare da Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) shine mafi girma. Kamfanin jirgin na ɗaukar fasinjoji sama da miliyan 200 a duk shekara tare da matsakaita sama da fasinjoji 500,000 a kullum.[ana buƙatar hujja] Tun daga 2019, kamfanin yana ɗaukar mutane kusan 130,000.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An Kafa kamfanin jiragen sama na Amurka a shekarar 1930 ta hanyar haɗin gwiwar ƙananan kamfanonin jiragen sama sama da tamanin. Ƙungiyoyin biyu da aka samo asali daga kamfanin jiragen sama na Amurka sune Robertson Aircraft Corporation da Colonial Air Transport . An fara ƙirƙirar tsohon a Missouri a cikin 1921, tare da haɗa su duka a cikin 1929 zuwa kamfani mai riƙe da Kamfanin Jirgin Sama . Wannan, bi da bi, an yi shi a cikin 1930 ya zama kamfani mai aiki kuma an sake masa suna a matsayin "American Airways". A cikin 1934, lokacin da sababbin dokoki da ƙaddamar da kwangilar wasiku suka tilasta yawancin kamfanonin jiragen sama su sake tsarawa, kamfanin ya sake yin hanyoyinsa zuwa tsarin da aka haɗa kuma aka sake masa suna "American Airlines". Tsakanin 1970 da 2000, kamfanin ya girma ya zama mai jigilar kayayyaki na duniya, yana siyan jirgin saman Trans World Airlines a 2001.

Ba'amurke yana da rawar kai tsaye a cikin haɓaka DC-3, wanda ya samo asali daga kiran wayar marathon daga shugaban kamfanin jirgin saman Amurka CR Smith zuwa Douglas Aircraft Company wanda ya kafa Donald Wills Douglas Sr. a kan DC-2 don maye gurbin jirgin saman Curtiss Condor II na Amurka. (Gidan DC-2 na yanzu shine 66 inches (1.7 m) fadi, kunkuntar don wuraren kwana na gefe-da-gefe. ) Douglas ya yarda ya ci gaba da ci gaba ne kawai bayan Smith ya sanar da shi niyyar Amurkawa na siyan jiragen sama 20. Samfurin DST ( Douglas Sleeper Transport ) ya fara tashi ne a ranar 17 ga Disamba, 1935, (bikin cika shekaru 32 na jirgin Wright Brothers a Kitty Hawk). Gidansa ya kasance inci 92 inches (2.3 m) fadi, kuma sigar da ke da kujeru 21 maimakon wuraren kwana 14-16 na DST an ba da suna DC-3. Babu samfurin DC-3; na farko da aka gina DC-3 ya biyo bayan DST guda bakwai daga layin samarwa kuma an kai shi ga Jirgin Saman Amurka. [1] Jirgin saman amurka ya ƙaddamar da sabis na fasinja a ranar 26 ga Yuni, 1936, tare da jirage guda ɗaya daga Newark, New Jersey, da Chicago, Illinois. [2]

Har ila yau, Amurka tana da rawar kai tsaye a cikin ci gaban DC-10, wanda ya samo asali daga ƙayyadaddun bayanai daga Jiragen saman amurka zuwa masana'antun a 1966 don bayar da wani jirgin sama mai fadi wanda ya kasance karami fiye da Boeing 747, amma yana iya tashi irin wannan hanyoyi masu tsawo daga filayen jiragen sama masu guntun titin jirgin sama. McDonnell Douglas ya amsa da DC-10 trijet jim kadan bayan hadewar kamfanonin biyu. [3] A ranar 19 ga Fabrairu, 1968, shugaban kamfanin jiragen sama na Amurka, George A. Spater, da James S. McDonnell na McDonnell Douglas sun sanar da aniyar Amirkawa na sayen DC-10. jiragen saman amurka ya ba da umarnin 25 DC-10s a cikin tsari na farko. [4] [5] DC-10 ya yi tashinsa na farko a ranar 29 ga Agusta, 1970, [6] kuma ya karɓi irin takardar shaidarsa daga FAA a ranar 29 ga Yuli, 1971. [7] Ranar 5 ga Agusta, 1971, DC-10 ya shiga sabis na kasuwanci tare da jiragen saman amurka a kan tafiya mai tafiya tsakanin Los Angeles da Chicago. [8]

A cikin 2011, saboda koma baya a masana'antar jirgin sama, iyayen kamfanin jiragen sama na American Airlines AMR Corporation sun shigar da karar kariya ta fatarar kudi. A cikin 2013, Jiragen saman akurka ya haɗu da US Airways amma ya kiyaye sunan "American Airlines", saboda shi ne mafi kyawun sananne a duniya; Haɗin gwiwar kamfanonin jiragen sama guda biyu ya haifar da samar da jirgin sama mafi girma a Amurka, kuma a ƙarshe na duniya.

Wuraren da wuraren zama[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wuraren[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tun daga watan Yulin 2022, Jirgin saman Amurka ya tashi zuwa wurare 269 na cikin gida da kuma wurare 81 na duniya a cikin kasashe 48 (tun daga Janairu 2022) a cikin nahiyoyi biyar.

A halin yanzu Amurka tana aiki da cibiyoyi goma.

  • Charlotte – Cibiyar Ba'amurke ta kudu maso gabashin Amurka da kuma babbar hanyar Caribbean. Ayyukansa a cikin Concourse E sune mafi girman aikin jirgin yanki a duniya. Ba'amurke yana da kusan kashi 91% na hannun jari a CLT, wanda ya sa ya zama mai jigilar kaya mafi girma a filin jirgin sama. [9] Tsohuwar tashar jirgin saman US Airways .
  • Chicago-O'Hare - Cibiyar Amurka don Midwest. Ba'amurke yana da kusan kashi 35% na kason kasuwa a O'Hare, wanda ya sa ya zama jirgin sama na biyu mafi girma a filin jirgin sama bayan United. [10]
  • Dallas/Fort Worth – Cibiyar Amurka ta Kudancin Amurka kuma babbar cibiya gabaɗaya. A halin yanzu Ba'amurke yana da kusan kashi 87% na kason kasuwa a DFW, wanda ya sa ya zama mai jigilar kaya mafi girma a filin jirgin sama.[11] Hedikwatar kamfanonin Amurka kuma tana cikin Fort daraja kusa da filin jirgin sama. [11] DFW tana aiki azaman ƙofa ta farko ta Amurka zuwa Mexico, da kuma ƙofar sakandare zuwa Latin Amurka. [11]
  • Los Angeles – Cibiyar Amurka don Yammacin Tekun Yamma da ƙofa mai buɗe ido. Ba'amurke yana da kusan kashi 19% na hannun jari a LAX, wanda ya sa ya zama mai jigilar kaya mafi girma a filin jirgin sama, kodayake Amurkawa, Delta da United kowannensu yana da zirga-zirgar fasinja iri ɗaya. [12]
  • Miami – cibiyar farko ta Latin Amurka da Caribbean. Ba'amurke yana da kusan kashi 68% na kasuwa a "Miami International", wanda ya sa ya zama babban jirgin sama a filin jirgin sama. [13]
  • New York–JFK – Cibiyar Tattalin Arziki ta Amurka ta Tsakiya da Kudancin Amurka. Galibi yana hidimar wuraren zuwa tare da yawan zirga-zirgar kasuwanci. Ba'amurke yana da kusan kashi 12% na hannun jari a JFK, wanda ya sa ya zama mai jigilar kaya na uku mafi girma a filin jirgin sama bayan Delta da JetBlue. [14]
  • New York–LaGuardia – Cibiyar New York ta biyu ta Amurka. Filin jirgin saman amurka kuma yana aiki a matsayin tushe na Jirgin. Jirgin Sama na Amurka. Ba'amurke yana da kusan kashi 27% na kason kasuwa a LGA, kuma shine na biyu mafi girma a bayan Delta. [15]
  • Philadelphia – Cibiyar gida ta farko ta Arewa maso Gabas ta Amurka da cibiyar transatlantic ta farko, da farko don wuraren shakatawa. Ba'amurke yana da kusan kashi 70% na kason kasuwa a PHL, wanda ya sa ya zama babban jirgin sama na filin jirgin sama. [16]
  • Phoenix-Sky Harbor - Dutsen Rocky na Amurka. A halin yanzu Amurka tana da kusan kashi 33% na kason kasuwa a PHX, wanda hakan ya sa ya zama jirgin sama na biyu mafi girma a filin jirgin.
  • Washington–Reagan – Cibiyar amurkawa ta babban birnin Amurka. Filin jirgin saman kuma yana aiki a matsayin tushe na Jirgin. Jirgin Sama na Amurka. Ba'amurke yana da kusan kashi 49% na kasuwar kasuwa a DCA, wanda ya sa ya zama mai jigilar kaya mafi girma a filin jirgin sama.[17]

Yarjejeniyar kungiya da codeshare[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Jiragen saman amurka memba ne na kawancen Oneworld kuma yana da codeshares tare da kamfanonin jiragen sama masu zuwa:

Harkokin haɗin gwiwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bugu da kari ga codeshares na sama, Jiragen saman amurka ya shiga cikin kamfanonin haɗin gwiwa tare da kamfanonin jiragen sama masu zuwa:

Jirgin ruwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tun daga Afrilu 2022, Jiragen saman amurka yana aiki da manyan jiragen kasuwanci mafi girma a duniya, wanda ya ƙunshi jirage 911 daga duka Boeing da Airbus, tare da ƙarin 161 da aka tsara ko kan tsari.

Sama da kashi 80% na jiragen Amurka kunkuntar jiki ne, galibi jerin Airbus A320 da Boeing 737-800 . Shi ne mafi girma A320 mai gudanar da jirgin sama a duniya, da kuma mafi girma aiki na bambance-bambancen A319 da A321. Shine mai aiki na huɗu mafi girma na jirgin sama na iyali 737 kuma mafi girma na biyu mafi girma na bambance-bambancen 737-800.

Jiragen saman Amurkan duk jiragen Boeing ne. Shi ne na uku mafi girma na ma'aikata na jerin Boeing 787 kuma mafi girma na shida na jerin Boeing 777.

Ba'amurke ke ba da odar jirgin Boeing na musamman a cikin 2000s. Wannan dabarar ta canza ne a ranar 20 ga Yuli, 2011, lokacin da Amurka ta ba da sanarwar haɗe-haɗen odar jiragen sama mafi girma a tarihi don jiragen kunkuntar jiki 460 ciki har da jiragen sama 260 daga jerin Airbus A320. Ƙarin jirgin sama na Airbus ya shiga cikin rundunar a cikin 2013 yayin haɗin gwiwar jiragen saman US Airways, wanda ke gudanar da kusan dukkanin jiragen Airbus.

VA ranar 16 ga Agusta, 2022, Ba'amurke ya ba da sanarwar cewa an tabbatar da yarjejeniya tare da "Boom Supersonic" don siyan aƙalla 20 daga cikin manyan jiragen sama na su na "Overture" & mai yuwuwa har zuwa 60 gabaɗaya.

Kamfanin jiragen sama na Amurka yana gudanar da gyaran jiragen sama da sansanonin gyarawa a Charlotte, Dallas–Fort daraja, Pittsburgh (inda ake kula da dukkan jiragen saman kunkuntar Airbus), da filayen jirgin saman Tulsa.


Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Pearcy, Arthur.
  2. Holden, Henry.
  3. Waddington 2000, pp. 6–18.
  4. Endres 1998, p. 16.
  5. "American Orders 25 'Airbus' Jets".
  6. Endres 1998, pp. 25–26.
  7. Endres 1998, p. 28.
  8. Endres 1998, p. 52.
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