Kimiyya

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
(an turo daga Kimiya)
Wikidata.svgkimiya
branch of science (en) Fassara, academic discipline (en) Fassara, academic major (en) Fassara, field of study (en) Fassara da specialty (en) Fassara
Chemicals in flasks.jpg
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na physical sciences (en) Fassara
Suna saboda alchemy (en) Fassara
Karatun ta chemistry student (en) Fassara
Wanda yake bi alchemy (en) Fassara
Hashtag (en) Fassara chemistry
Has quality (en) Fassara branch of chemistry (en) Fassara da chemical nomenclature (en) Fassara
Gudanarwan chemist (en) Fassara
Is the study of (en) Fassara chemical compound (en) Fassara, group or class of chemical substances (en) Fassara, chemical element (en) Fassara da chemical substance (en) Fassara
Tarihin maudu'i history of chemistry (en) Fassara da alchemy (en) Fassara
Stack Exchange site (en) Fassara https://chemistry.stackexchange.com

Kimiyya wani ilimi ne da yake nazartar abubuwan ɗabi'a da suke kewaye da mu[1]. Ilimin ya dogara kan wasu matakan gano haƙiƙar abubuwa, ta hanyar gwaje-gwaje da ake kira "experiment" a turance[2]. Masana kimiyya na lura da yadda ɗabi'a ke tafiya a sararin duniya ta hanyar lura, ɗanɗano, ji, gani ko shinshina. Ɗakin da ake gwaje-gwajen kimiyya shi ake kira da "laboratory"[3] a turance. Kimiyya ta rabu gidaje daban-daban amma tushen su ya haɗa da ilimin rayuwa da ake kira da Biology, ilimin Fiziks da kuma ilimin Kemistiri. Akwai ilimai da yawa da suka fita daga ƙarƙashin Kimiyya kamar na sararin subhna da ake kira da "Cosmology", na taurari da ake kira da "Astronomy", na ƙana nun abubuwa da ake kira da "Quantum Mechanics", da dai sauran su da yawa.

Political Science

Akwai kuma wasu iliman da suke dan ganta kansu da kimiyya saboda suna kwatanta yadda kimiyyar ke aiki a tsarin binciken su. Irin waɗannan ilimai sun haɗu a ɓangaren da ake kira Kimiyyar Jama'a (Social Science) kamar Kimiyyar Tattalin Arziki (wadda take daban a ayyukkan tattalin arziki), Kimiyyar siyasa (Political Science) da kuma ilimin halayyar jama'a (Sociology). Waɗannan ilimai ana kiran su da Kimiyya ne, saboda suna ƙoƙarin nazartar rayuwar ɗan Adam ko jama'a, kuma su fitar da nazura da su ke ƙoƙarin sharhi na musamman kan dalilin da ya sanya wani abu ke faruwa a cikin jama'a.[4]

Fanni ne na ilimi mai kula da abubuwa kamar ruwa, iska, daskararren abu, da dai sauran su. Kimiya na sarrafa waɗannan abubuwan dan ƙera wadan su. Duk abubuwan da muke amfani da su, kamar lantarki, roba, mai, takalmi, Mota, keke, jirgi duk ana sarrafasu ne daga kimiya. Wato kimiyya fanni ne na sani, wanda ya shafi garwaye-garwaye na abubuwa ingantattu. Kalmar “Kimiyya” asalin ta kalmar Larabci ce – daga “Al-Keemiyya” - kuma tana da ma’anoni guda biyu, inji Mu’ujamul Waseet, watau ɗaya daga cikin ƙamus din Larabci na zamani. Ƙamus ɗin yace: “Malaman da, ko magabata, suna amfani da wannan kalma ne don nufin canza nau’in ma’adanai daga wani nau’in zuwa wani.” Idan kuma suka ce “Ilimin Kimiyya”, suna nufin “...ilimin sanin yadda ake zagwanyar da sinadaran ƙarƙashin ƙasa ne, don samar da wani nau’in daban (musamman don mayar da su zinare).” Amma a wajen Malaman Zamani, a Larabce idan aka ce “Kimiyya”, in ji wannan ƙamus, yana nufin: “...ilimin binciken wani fanni (musamman na ƙarƙashin ƙasa) mai ɗauke da dokoki (ko ƙa’idojin) da ke taimakawa wajen fahimtar tsarin sa.” (Mu’ujamul Waseet, shafi na 844).

Wannan kalma ta Kimiyya ita ce Hausawa suka aro ta, kuma suke fassara ma’anar “Science” da ita, kamar yadda Neil Skinner ya tabbatar a cikin ƙamus na Turanci da Hausa, shafi na 156, inda ya kawo kalmar Science, yace: “ilimi irin na zamani (kamar su Kimiyya).” Wannan ke nuna cewa kalmar “Kimiyya” da Hausawa ke nufi, shine ma’anar da kalmar turanci ta Science ke bayarwa, ba wacce ma’anar kalmar Larabci ke bayarwa ba. Wannan kenan.

A ɗaya bangaren kuma, kalmar “Fasaha”, ita ma daga Larabci muka aro ta – asalinta shine: “Al-fasaahatu”, wadda ke nufin “bayyanawa ko kuɓutar harshe ko lafuzza daga sarƙaƙiyar zance ko rubutu, mai haddasa wahalar fahimta”, inji Mu’ujamul Waseet, a shafi na 723. A hausance idan aka ce “fasaha”, (dangane da wannan ma’ana da ƙamus ɗin ya bayar), ana nufin “bayyanannen abu, wanda babu sarƙaƙiya a ciki ko wahalar fahimta a tare da shi”.

A ɗaya ɓangaren kuma, ƙamus ɗin yaci gaba: “Faseehi shine mutum mai kyautata zance, mai bambance kyakkyawa daga mummuna wajen zance.” A nashi ɓangaren, Al Imam Ibnul Atheer ma haka ya tabbatar a littafinsa mai suna An-Nihaayah fee Gareebil Hadeeth wal Athar, mujalladi na 3, shafi na 403. Ga abinda yace kan kalmar “Faseehi”, siffar mai “Fasaha”: “...(mutum) mai sakakkiyar harshe wajen zance, wanda ya san kyakkyawa daga mummuna.” Dukkan waɗannan ma’anoni a Larabce kenan. Amma a harshen Hausa, kamar yadda ma’anar kalmar “’Kimiyya” a Larabce ta sha bamban da ma’anarta a Hausa, to haka ma ma’anar kalmar “Fasaha” ta sha bamban da ma’anarta na Larabci.

A cikin Kamus dinsa mai suna Hausa-English Dictionary, shafi na 309, wanda kuma aka buga tun shekarar 1934, Likita Bergery ya kawo ma’anar kalmar “Fasaha” da abinda take nufi a Hausance da kuma Larabce, inda yace: “Fasaha: Cleverness, whether of brain or hand. (But in Arabic = Eloquence).” Kamar yadda sunan ƙamus din ya nuna, marubucin kan kawo kalmar Hausa ce, sannan ya fassara ma’anarta a turance. Ya kuma tabbatar da cewa a Hausa kalmar “Fasaha” na nufin “hazaka” ne, wajen tunani ko iya tsara abu da hannu. Amma a Larabce, kamar yadda ya nuna cikin baka biyu, abinda kalmar ke nufi shine “iya tsara zance”, ko “hikima wajen iya magana, ta yadda kowa zai iya fahimta, komai karancin ilmin sa.” Wannan kuwa shine abinda ake kira Eloquence a harshen Turanci. Kuma shine ma’anar da dukkan Kamus din Larabci ke bayarwa.

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