Maƙiyi

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Duel tsakanin makiya biyu; a nan, haruffan Eugene Onegin da Vladimir Lensky daga labari, Eugene Onegin .

Maƙiyi wani mutum ne ko ƙungiyar da ake ɗaukarsa a matsayin mummunan gaba ko barazana. Ana ɗaukar maƙiyi a matsayin barazana ga rundunar da ke gaba da juna. An lura da manufar maƙiyi a matsayin "mafi mahimmanci ga mutane da al'ummomi". [1] Kalmar "maƙiyi" tana aiki da aikin zamantakewa na ayyana wani mahaluƙi a matsayin barazana, ta haka ne ke kira da martani mai tsanani ga wannan mahallin. [2] Halin zama ko samun maƙiyi ƙiyayya ne ko gaba ko gaba.

Sharuɗɗan[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wakilin farfagandar lokacin yaƙi na Sojojin Daular Jafananci, abokin gaba na Amurka a lokacin.

Maƙiyi ya fito ne daga kalmar Latin ƙarni na 9 inimi, an samo daga Latin don "aboki mara kyau" ( Latin ) ta hanyar Faransanci. "Maƙiyi" kalma ce mai ƙarfi, kuma "haɗin da ke tattare da abokan gaba zai haɗa da fushi, ƙiyayya, baƙin ciki, hassada, kishi, tsoro, rashin amincewa, da kuma ƙila ga daraja ". [2] A matsayin ra'ayi na siyasa, ana iya fuskantar abokan gaba da ƙiyayya, tashin hankali, yaƙi da yaƙi . Kishiyar maƙiyi aboki ko abokiyar gaba . Domin kalmar "maƙiyi" ɗan bellicose ne da kuma soja don amfani da shi a cikin al'umma mai ladabi, ana amfani da masu maye gurbin na yau da kullum. Sau da yawa kalmomin da aka maye gurbinsu suna zama ƙasƙanci a cikin mahallin da ake amfani da su. A kowane hali, zayyana "maƙiyi" ya wanzu ne kawai don nuna matsayin wani rukuni na mutane a matsayin barazana, da kuma yaɗa wannan nadi a cikin mahallin gida. Sharuɗɗan da aka maye gurbinsu da maƙiyi sau da yawa suna ci gaba zuwa ga gano ƙungiyar da aka sani a matsayin maƙiyi, da kuma ƙirƙira wannan tantancewar. Gwamnati na iya neman wakiltar wani mutum ko ƙungiya a matsayin barazana ga amfanin jama'a ta hanyar ayyana wannan ko ƙungiyar a matsayin maƙiyin jama'a.

Halin mutum ko/da ƙungiya a matsayin abokan gaba ana kiransa aljani. Yaɗa aljanu babban bangare ne na farfaganda . Har ila yau, "maƙiyi" yana iya zama mai ra'ayi; ana amfani da su don bayyana abubuwan da ba su da alaƙa da irin wannan cuta, da tarin wasu abubuwa. A cikin tauhidi, "Maƙiyi" yawanci ana keɓe shi don wakiltar mugun allahntaka, [3] shaiɗan ko aljani . Alal misali, "a farkon tarihin Iroquois, Rana da Wata, a matsayin allah da allahntakar dare da rana, sun riga sun sami halayen babban aboki da maƙiyin mutum, Allah mai kyau da Mugunta". [3] Akasin haka, wasu addinai suna bayyana Ubangiji mai tauhidi a matsayin maƙiyi; misali, a cikin 1 Samu’ila 28:16, ruhun Sama’ila ya gaya wa Saul marar biyayya: “Don me za ka tambaye ni, gama Ubangiji ya rabu da kai, ya zama maƙiyinka?”

"Abokan gaba," a matsayin abin fushi ko tunkuɗe al'umma, a tsawon tarihi ana amfani da shi azaman kayan aikin farfagandar samfuri don mayar da hankali ga tsoro da damuwa a cikin al'umma zuwa ga wata manufa ta musamman. Yawanci abin da ake nufi ya zama gama gari, kamar yadda yake tare da wata ƙabila ko ƙabila na mutane, ko kuma yana iya zama manufa ta ra'ayi, kamar aƙidar da ke nuna wata ƙungiya. A wasu lokuta tunanin abokan gaba ya rikiɗe; alhali da da'awar ƙabilanci na goyon bayan kiran yaƙi na iya yiwuwa daga baya sun canza zuwa da'awar aƙida da ra'ayi.

A lokacin Yaƙin Cold, kalmomin "Communists" ko "Reds" sun yarda da yawancin jama'ar Amirka don nufin "abokan gaba," kuma ma'anar kalmomin biyu na iya zama mai mahimmanci, dangane da yanayin siyasa, yanayi, ko jihar. na tsoro da tashin hankali a cikin al'umma a lokacin.

Akwai kalmomi da yawa waɗanda ke yin nuni ga yin watsi da ko kasa lura da maƙiyi, irin su Trojan doki ko kerkeci a cikin tufafin tumaki . [4] Gaba ɗaya, abin da ke fuskantar abokan gaba shine aboki ko abokiya, kodayake an ƙirƙira kalmar frenemy don ɗaukar ma'anar alaƙar da ƙungiyoyin ke da alaƙa don wasu dalilai kuma suna saɓani da juna don wasu dalilai.

A matsayin aikin kimiyyar zamantakewa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hadin kan kasashe daban-daban kan makiya daya

Kasancewa ko fahimtar wanzuwar abokan gaba na gamayya yana haifar da haɓaka haɗin kan ƙungiyar. [5] Duk da haka, ganowa da kula da wasu abubuwa a matsayin abokan gaba na iya zama rashin hankali, kuma alamar rashin aiki na tunani. Misali, ra'ayi na rukuni na iya rikieɗewa zuwa rukuni na tunani, wanda zai iya haifar da membobin "cikin" ƙungiyar su fahimci waɗanda ba memba ba ko wasu ƙungiyoyi a matsayin abokan gaba ko da inda wasu ba su nuna gaba ko barazana ba. [6] Paranoid schizophrenia yana da alaƙa da imani marar hankali cewa sauran mutane, tun daga ƴan uwa da abokan sana'a zuwa mashahuran da ake gani a talabijin, abokan gaba ne na kansu da ke yin makirci ga mai cutar. [7] [8] Hanyoyi marasa ma'ana na iya kaiwa ga magance abubuwan da ba su dace ba ba kawai a matsayin abokan gaba ba, amma a matsayin ƴan wasan kwaikwayo da gangan suna kawo fitina ga mai fama da shi.

Manufar maƙiya tana da kyau a fagen zaman lafiya da nazarin rikice-rikice, wanda ke samuwa a matsayin babba a yawancin manyan jami'o'i. A cikin karatun zaman lafiya, maƙiya su ne ƙungiyoyin da ake ɗauka a matsayin masu takaici ko hana cimma wata manufa. Ƙila maƙiyi ba su san ana ɗaukar su a matsayin haka ba, tun da ra'ayin na gefe ɗaya ne.

Don haka, don samun zaman lafiya, dole ne a kawar da barazanar. Ana iya samun wannan ta:

  • halakar da abokan gaba
  • canza tunanin mutum game da mahallin a matsayin abokan gaba
  • cimma manufar makiya abin takaici ne.

Rikice-rikice na sirri akai-akai ko dai ba a tantance su ba (ba a fayyace maƙasudin mutum ba) ko kuma a duba su ta hanya ɗaya kawai. Wannan yana nufin sau da yawa yana yiwuwa a warware rikici (don kawar da musabbabin rikici) ta hanyar sake fasalin maƙasudi kamar yadda aka kawar da takaici (ba mutum ba) an kawar da shi, a fili, tattaunawa, ko yanke shawara.

A cikin adabi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin wallafe-wallafen, sau da yawa suna tasowa ta hanyar gabatar da wani hali na farko, mai ba da labari, kamar yadda ya shawo kan matsalolin da wani mai adawa ya gabatar da shi wanda aka kwatanta a matsayin abokin gaba na abokin gaba. Takaddun labarin tatsuniyoyi na jarumai sukan gabatar da jarumar da ke fafatawa da babban makiyi wanda ƙarfinsa ya yi daidai da na jarumar, ta haka ne ke haifar da tashin hankali kan ko jarumin zai iya cin galaba a kan wannan makiyin. Ana iya nuna abokan gaba a matsayin mugun hali wanda ke shirin cutar da marasa laifi, ta yadda mai karatu zai goyi bayan jarumi a cikin bukatar yakar abokan gaba. [9]

Magani[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tsohon ɗan tawayen maƙiyi (a hagu) wani kwamandan ‘yan sanda ya gafarta masa (a hannun dama)

Akwai gwamnatoci daban-daban na shari'a da na tiyoloji da ke tafiyar da maganin maƙiya. Addinai da yawa suna da ƙa'idodi waɗanda ke fifita gafara da sulhu da abokan gaba. The Yahudawa Encyclopedia ya bayyana cewa "[h]jikin maƙiyi wani abu ne na dabi'a na al'umma na farko", [10] yayin da "shirin gafarta ma maƙiyi alama ce ta ci gaban ɗabi'a". [10] Ya yi iƙirarin cewa koyarwar Littafi Mai-Tsarki, Talmud, da sauran rubuce-rubuce, "a hankali yana koya wa mutane zuwa mataki na ƙarshe", [10] yana faɗi cewa "alamomi a cikin Littafi Mai-Tsarki na ruhun ƙiyayya da ɗaukar fansa ga maƙiyi ... ga mafi yawancin maganganun kishin ƙasa - ƙiyayya da abokan gaba na ƙasa sun dace da wani ruhu mai kyau". [10]

Rukunan addini[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kusan dukkanin manyan addinan suna da "manufofin soyayya iri daya, manufa daya ta amfanar dan'adam ta hanyar gudanar da ibada, da kuma tasiri iri daya na mai da mabiyansu su zama 'yan adam nagari". [11] Don haka an bayyana a ko’ina a cikin addinan duniya cewa ya kamata a bi da maƙiya cikin ƙauna, alheri, tausayi, da gafara.

Littafin Fitowa ya ce: “Idan ka sadu da sa ko jakin maƙiyinka suna ɓacewa, sai ka mayar masa da shi. Idan ka ga jakin wanda ya qi ka yana kwance a cikin kayansa, kuma ka hanu ka taimake shi, to, lalle ne ka taimake shi.” [12] Hakazalika littafin Misalai ya ce: “Kada ka yi murna sa’ad da maƙiyinka ya faɗi, kada zuciyarka ta yi murna sa’ad da ya yi tuntuɓe” [13] da kuma: “Idan maƙiyinka yana jin yunwa, ka ba shi abinci ya ci, idan kuma yana jin ƙishirwa, ka ba shi abinci. ruwan sha. Domin haka za ka tara garwashin wuta a kansa, Ubangiji kuma zai sāka maka.” [14] The Jewish Encyclopedia ya ce ra’ayin da Tsohon Alƙawari ya ba da umurni ga ƙiyayya ya samo asali ne daga rashin fahimtar Huɗuba a kan Dutse, inda Yesu ya ce: “Kun ji an faɗa, Ka ƙaunaci maƙwabcinka, ka ƙi maƙiyinka. . Amma ni ina gaya muku, ku ƙaunaci magabtanku, ku yi wa waɗanda suke tsananta muku addu’a.” [15]

The Jewish Encyclopedia kuma ya kawo nassoshi a cikin Talmud yana cewa: “Idan mutum ya sami abokinsa da abokin gaba yana bukatar taimako sai ya taimaki maƙiyinsa da farko domin ya shawo kan mugun nufinsa” [10] da kuma: “Wane ne mai ƙarfi? Wanda ya musanya maƙiyi abokin gaba" [10]

Ma'anar Ahimsa da aka samu a Hindu, Jainism da Buddhism kuma sun kama wannan ra'ayi, suna buƙatar alheri da rashin tashin hankali ga dukan abubuwa masu rai a kan cewa dukansu suna da alaƙa. Shugaban Indiya Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ya yi imani da wannan ka'ida sosai, yana mai cewa "[t] wanda ya bi wannan koyarwar, babu wani wuri ga abokin gaba". [16]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Aljanu
  • Abokin gaba
  • Frenemy
  • Kishiya

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Mortimer Ostow, Spirit, Mind, & Brain: A Psychoanalytic Examination of Spirituality and Religion (2007), p. 73.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Martha L. Cottam, Beth Dietz-Uhler, Elena Mastors, Introduction to Political Psychology (2009), p. 54.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Edward Burnett Tylor, Primitive culture (1873), p. 323-4.
  4. Vũ, Hoàng Thảo. A study on techniques to learn English idioms and proverbs. Diss. Đại học Dân lập Hải Phòng, 2010.
  5. Joan Ferrante-Wallace, Sociology: A Global Perspective (2006), p. 120.
  6. Wayne Weiten, Psychology: Themes and Variations, p. 546.
  7. Wayne Weiten, Psychology: Themes and Variations, p. 468.
  8. Mortimer Ostow, Spirit, Mind, & Brain: A Psychoanalytic Examination of Spirituality and Religion (2007), p. 74.
  9. Patrick Colm Hogan, What Literature Teaches Us about Emotion (2011), p. 294.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 Kaufmann Kohler, David Philipson, Treatment of an Enemy, The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906).
  11. The Dalai Lama, quoted in John Templeton, Agape Love: Tradition In Eight World Religions (2008), p. 2-3.
  12. Exodus 23:4-5.
  13. Proverbs 24:17.
  14. Proverbs 25:21-22.
  15. Matthew 5:43-44.
  16. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, The Satyagraha Ashram, reported in The Gandhi Reader: A Source Book of His Life and Writings, 2nd ed. (Madras: Samata Books, 1984), p. 138.