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Makamashi Talauci da Girki

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Makamashi Talauci da Girki
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Murhu mai dutse 3 na gargajiya da aka shirya itace a Guatemala, wanda ke haifar da gurɓacewar iska a cikin gida

Wani bangare na talauci ko ƙarancin makamashi: shine rashin samun tsabtataccen mai, mai na zamani da fasahar dafa abinci . Ya zuwa shekarar 2020, fiye da mutane biliyan 2.6 a kasashe masu tasowa suna dafa abinci akai-akai da mai kamar itace, takin dabbobi, gawayi, ko kananzir. Kona ire-iren wadannan man a buɗe wuta ko murhu na gargajiya na haifar da gurbacewar iska mai cutarwa, wanda ya yi sanadiyar mutuwar mutane miliyan 3.8 a duk shekara a cewar Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya (WHO), kuma yana haifar da matsaloli daban-daban na kiwon lafiya, zamantakewa da tattalin arziki da muhalli.

Babban fifiko a cikin ci gaba mai dorewa a duniya shine samar da wuraren dafa abinci mai tsabta a duk duniya kuma masu araha. Ana ɗaukar wuraren dafa abinci a matsayin "tsabta" idan fitar da su na carbon monoxide da ɓangarorin abubuwa masu kyau sun kasance ƙasa da wasu matakai kamar yadda hukumar dake kula da harkar lafiya ta Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya WHO ta ayyana.

Tukuna da na'urorin da ke aiki akan wutar lantarki, iskar gas mai ruwa (LPG), iskar gas mai bututu (PNG), gas na biogas, barasa, da zafin rana ana ɗaukar su tsabta. Ingantattun murhun dafa abinci waɗanda ke ƙone biomass yadda ya kamata fiye da murhu na gargajiya shine muhimmin mafita na wucin gadi a wuraren da tura fasahohin tsafta ba su da yuwuwa. Samun dama ga wuraren dafa abinci mai tsabta zai sami fa'idodi masu yawa don kare muhalli da daidaiton jinsi .

Matsalolin dake tattare da hanyoyin dafa abinci na gargajiya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gine -ginen katako na gargajiya

Ya zuwa shekarar 2020, fiye da mutane biliyan 2.6 a cikin ƙasashe masu tasowa sun dogara ne kan ƙona iskar gas mai gurbata muhalli kamar itace, busasshiyar taki, kwal, ko kananzir don dafa abinci, wanda ke haifar da gurbacewar iska mai cutarwa a gida kuma yana ba da gudummawa sosai ga gurbatar iska a waje. [1] Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya (WHO) ta yi kiyasin cewa gurbatar yanayi da ke da nasaba da dafa abinci na haifar da mutuwar mutane miliyan 3.8 a shekara. Alkaluman da binciken ya yi kiyasin cewa adadin wadanda suka mutu a shekarar 2017 ya kai miliyan 1.6.

Hayaki mai ƙarfi ya ƙunshi dubban abubuwa, da yawa daga cikinsu suna da haɗari ga lafiyar ɗan adam. Mafi kyawun fahimtar waɗannan abubuwa shine carbon monoxide (CO); ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta ; nitrous oxide; sulfur oxides; kewayon mahaɗan ƙwayoyin cuta masu canzawa, gami da formaldehyde, benzene da 1,3-butadiene; da mahaɗan aromatic polycyclic, irin su benzo-a-pyrene, waɗanda ake tsammanin suna da sakamako na ɗan gajeren lokaci da na dogon lokaci. [2]

Fitar da gurɓataccen iska na gida (HAP) ya kusan ninka haɗarin ciwon huhu na yara kuma shine ke da alhakin kashi 45 cikin ɗari na yawan mace-macen ciwon huhu a yara ƴan ƙasa da shekaru biyar. Shaidu masu tasowa sun nuna cewa HAP kuma yana da haɗari ga cataracts, babban dalilin makanta a cikin ƙananan ƙasashe masu shiga tsakani, da ƙananan nauyin haihuwa. [3] Yin girki da buɗaɗɗiyar wuta ko murhu mara tsafta shine kan gaba wajen konewar mata da yara a ƙasashe masu tasowa.

Tasirin lafiya ya ta'allaka ne a tsakanin mata, waɗanda ke da alhakin yin girki, da kuma ƙananan yara. [1] Aikin tattara man fetur yana fallasa mata da yara ga haɗarin aminci kuma galibi suna cinye sa'o'i 15 ko fiye a kowane mako, yana hana lokacin da suke da shi don ilimi, hutu, da aikin biya. [1] Mata da ƴan mata dole ne su yi tafiya mai nisa don samun man girki, kuma, a sakamakon haka, suna fuskantar haɗarin haɗari na jiki da ta jima'i. [3] Yawancin yara, musamman ƴan mata, ba za su iya zuwa makaranta ba domin su taimaka wa uwayensu da tara itace da kuma shirya abinci. [3] Mummunan lalacewar muhalli na gida, gami da kwararowar hamada, na iya faruwa ta hanyar girbin itace da sauran abubuwa masu ƙonewa. [4]

Wuraren dafa abinci na gargajiya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hanyar dafa abinci ta gargajiya ita ce a kan wutan dafa abinci mai dutse uku ko kuma a kan murhun laka. Wutar dutse uku ita ce murhu mafi arha don samarwa, tana buƙatar kawai duwatsu masu dacewa guda uku masu tsayi iri ɗaya waɗanda za a iya daidaita tukunyar dafa abinci akan wuta. Ana fitar da hayaƙi zuwa cikin gida maimakon fita ta cikin bututun hayaƙi.

Wuraren dafa abinci na gargajiya suna ba da damar zafi ya tsere zuwa sararin samaniya, wanda ke lalata mai. Yin amfani da buɗe wuta yana haifar da haɗarin ƙonawa da ƙonewa. Musamman lokacin da ake amfani da murhu a cikin gida, matsananciyar yanayi na sa manya musamman yara su fuskanci faɗuwa ko shiga wuta da samun kuna. Bugu da ƙari, zub da ruwan tafasasshen bazata na iya haifar da ƙonewa, kuma hura wuta don samar da iskar oxygen na iya fitar da garwashi da ke ƙonewa da kuma haifar da rauni a ido.

Tsaftace wuraren dafa abinci[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Masu girki masu amfani da hasken rana ba su da ƙazanta kuma suna da kyauta don amfani, amma suna buƙatar yanayi mai kyau da kuma tsawon lokacin dafa abinci. [1]

Babban fifiko a cikin ci gaba mai ɗorewa a duniya shine samar da wuraren dafa abinci mai tsabta a duk duniya kuma masu araha. A cewar Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya, ana ɗaukar wuraren dafa abinci a matsayin "tsabta" idan fitar da su na carbon monoxide da ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta ba su da ƙasa da wasu matakan. [1]

Tukwane da na'urorin da ake amfani da su ta hanyar wutar lantarki, gas mai ruwa ruwa (LPG), iskar gas mai bututu (PNG), gas na biogas, barasa, da zafin rana suna da tsabta. [1] Mafi kyawun murhu na fan gas ɗin da ke ƙona pellet ɗin biomass za a iya rarraba su azaman wuraren dafa abinci mai tsabta idan an sarrafa su daidai kuma pellet ɗin suna da isasshen danshi, amma waɗannan murhu ba su da yawa. [3] Tun daga shekarar 2016, babu murhun biomass da ake samu a ko'ina da ya dace da iyakokin fitar da aka ba da shawarar don amfanin gida na cikin gida. [1]

Ana iya amfani da wutar lantarki don kunna na'urori irin su dafaffen shinkafa da murhu mai inganci sosai, baya ga daidaitattun murhun wutan lantarki. Wutar shigar da wutar lantarki tana da inganci ta yadda ba su haifar da gurɓataccen gurɓataccen iskar gas ba (LPG) ko da an haɗa su da hanyoyin wutar lantarki, kuma wani lokacin suna da rahusa. Ya zuwa 2019, mutane miliyan 770 ba sa samun wutar lantarki, kuma ga wasu da yawa wutar lantarki ba ta da araha ko abin dogaro.

Masu narkar da iskar gas suna mayar da sharar gida, kamar sharar mutane da takin dabbobi, zuwa iskar methane da ke ƙonewa da tsabta. Tsarin iskar gas fasaha ce mai ban sha'awa a yankunan da kowane gida yana da aƙalla manyan dabbobi guda biyu don samar da taki, kuma ana samun ci gaba da samar da ruwa.

Masu girki masu amfani da hasken rana suna tattara da tattara zafin rana lokacin da akwai hasken rana. [1]

Ingantattun murhun girki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ingantattun murhun girki, irin waɗanda aka nuna a nan, suna ƙone biomass yadda ya kamata amma yawanci har yanzu suna fitar da matakan gurɓata mai guba.

Ingantattun murhun dafa abinci (ICS) yawanci sun fi ƙarfin man fetur fiye da murhu na gargajiya, kuma ana iya tura su azaman matakin wucin gadi na dafa abinci mai tsafta. [1] Tun daga 2009, ƙasa da kashi 30% na mutanen da suke dafa abinci da wani irin murhu na biomass suna amfani da ICS.

Haɓakawa na haɓakawa na ICS ba dole ba ne a fassara zuwa raguwa mai ma'ana a cikin haɗarin kiwon lafiya [1] saboda wasu yanayi, irin su ciwon huhu na yara, dangantakar da ke tsakanin matakan gurɓataccen abu da kuma tasiri akan jiki an nuna su ba na layi ba. Wannan yana nufin, alal misali, raguwar kashi 50 cikin ɗari na fallasa ba zai rage haɗarin lafiya da rabi ba. [3] Wani bita na tsari na 2020 ya gano cewa amfani da ICS ya haifar da ingantaccen haɓaka dangane da cutar hawan jini, ƙarancin numfashi, fitar da abubuwan da ke haifar da cutar kansa, da cututtukan zuciya, amma babu haɓaka sakamakon ciki ko lafiyar yara.

Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya tana ƙarfafa ci gaba da bincike don haɓaka fasahar murhun ƙwayoyin cuta mai ƙarancin hayaƙi, mai araha, mai ɗorewa, da biyan buƙatu masu amfani. [1]

Matsalolin da ba na fasaha ba[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sassan canjin ɗabi'a, wajen rage ficewar gida na yara, suna da yuwuwar rage gurɓacewar iska ta gida da kashi 20 zuwa 98%. Gurbacewar iska na cikin gida (IAP) na iya raguwa sosai ta hanyar dafa abinci a waje, rage lokacin da ake kashewa a wurin dafa abinci, buɗe ƙofar kicin yayin dafa abinci, guje wa jingina kan wuta yayin halartar taron. shirya abinci, nisantar da yara yayin da suke dafa abinci da kuma nisantar da yaran daga wurin girki. Hakanan ana iya rage mummunan tasiri ta canje-canje ga muhalli (misali amfani da bututun hayaƙi), busar da itacen mai kafin amfani, da amfani da murfi yayin dafa abinci. [5]

Dama don ilimantar da al'ummomi kan rage gurɓacewar iska a cikin gida sun haɗa da haɗin gwiwar bukukuwa, tarurrukan addini, da asibitocin wayar da kan jama'a. Ma'aikatan kiwon lafiya na al'umma suna wakiltar muhimmiyar hanya don ilmantar da al'ummomi don taimakawa wajen wayar da kan jama'a game da rage tasirin gurɓataccen iska a cikin gida. [6]

Ƙalubale[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yawancin masu amfani da murhu mai tsafta da mai na ci gaba da yin amfani da mai na gargajiya akai-akai da murhu, lamarin da aka fi sani da "takardar mai" ko "takardar tanda". [3] Alal misali, wani bincike na baya-bayan nan a Kenya ya gano cewa gidaje masu amfani da LPG na farko suna amfani da gawayi kashi 42 kamar yadda gidajen da ke amfani da gawayi na farko. [3] Lokacin da ake yin tari, ƙaddamar da wuraren dafa abinci mai tsabta bazai iya rage gurɓataccen iska ba don yin tasiri mai ma'ana a sakamakon lafiya. [1] Akwai dalilai da yawa na ci gaba da amfani da man fetur da murhu na gargajiya, kamar samar da man da ba a dogara da shi ba, tsadar mai, iya murhu don ɗaukar nau'ikan tukwane da dabarun dafa abinci, da buƙatar tafiya mai nisa don gyarawa. murhu. [1]

Ƙoƙarin inganta samar da tsaftataccen mai da murhu ya ci gaba da bunkasar yawan jama'a, kuma tsare-tsare na yanzu da kuma tsare-tsare har yanzu za su bar mutane biliyan 2.4 ba za su iya shiga ba a shekarar 2030.

Muhalli da illolin ci gaba mai ɗorewa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Woman baking bread on an electric stove
Wata mata tana dafa abinci da wutar lantarki, tushen makamashi mai tsafta, a Habasha

Ana sa ran canjawa zuwa hanyoyin dafa abinci mafi tsafta ko dai zai ɗan ɗaga hayaƙin da ake fitarwa ko kuma rage hayakin, koda kuwa man da zai maye gurbin man ɓurɓushin mai. Akwai shaida cewa canzawa zuwa LPG da PNG yana da ƙaramin tasirin yanayi fiye da konewar mai mai ƙarfi, wanda ke fitar da methane da baƙin carbon . [1] Ƙonewar iskar gas mai ƙarfi ya kai kashi 58 cikin ɗari na hayaƙin baƙar fata na duniya. [3] Ƙungiyar Ƙungiyoyin Ƙungiyoyin Ƙasa kan Sauyin Yanayi ta bayyana a cikin 2018, "Kudaden samun kusan samun damar samun wutar lantarki da tsabtataccen mai don dafa abinci da dumama ana hasashen zai kasance tsakanin dala biliyan 72 da 95 a kowace shekara har zuwa 2030 tare da ƙarancin tasiri akan hayaƙin GHG. ." [7]

Samun damar dafa abinci mai tsafta a bainar jama'a wani bangare ne na Manufar ci gaba mai dorewa ta Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya 7, wanda manufarsa ta farko ita ce: "Ya zuwa shekarar 2030, tabbatar da samun damar yin amfani da makamashi mai araha, abin dogaro da zamani". [8] Ci gaba a cikin dafa abinci mai tsabta zai sauƙaƙe ci gaba a cikin sauran manufofin ci gaba mai dorewa, kamar kawar da talauci ( Burin 1 ), lafiya mai kyau da jin dadi ( Buri na 3 ), daidaiton jinsi ( Burin 5 ), da aikin yanayi ( Buri na 13 ).

SDG 7 yana ƙayyadad da Mai nuna alama 7.1.2 azaman: "Kashi na yawan jama'a tare da dogaro na farko akan mai mai tsabta da fasaha". [8] - Ana ƙididdige ma'aunin a matsayin adadin mutanen da ke amfani da tsaftataccen mai da fasaha don dafa abinci, dumama da haske da aka raba ta jimillar rahoton yawan jama'a cewa duk wani girki, dumama ko haske, an bayyana shi azaman kashi. [9] "Tsaftataccen man fetur" a cikin wannan mahallin an bayyana shi ta hanyar maƙasudin yawan fitarwa da takamaiman shawarwarin mai (watau a kan kwal da kananzir da ba a sarrafa su ba) sun haɗa a cikin jagororin na yau da kullun na WHO don ingancin iska na cikin gida. [9] [10]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 World Health Organization 2016.
  2. Peabody, J. W., Riddell, T. J., Smith, K. R., Liu, Y., Zhao, Y., Gong, J., ... & Sinton, J. E. (2005). Indoor air pollution in rural China: cooking fuels, stoves, and health status. Archives of environmental & occupational health, 60(2), 86-95.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 ESMAP 2020.
  4. Tester 2012.
  5. Indoor air pollution and health - World Health Organization fact sheet.
  6. Amegah, A. K., & Jaakkola, J. J. (2016). Household air pollution and the sustainable development goals. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 94(3), 215.
  7. IPCC SR15 Ch5 2018.
  8. 8.0 8.1 United Nations (2017) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 6 July 2017, Work of the Statistical Commission pertaining to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (A/RES/71/313)
  9. 9.0 9.1 UN Statistics (2016) Goal 7 Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all (Updated on 30 March 2016)
  10. WHO (2014) WHO indoor air quality guidelines: household fuel combustion, World Health Organization, Geneva.

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Energypedia - musayar ilimin haɗin gwiwa kan makamashi mai sabuntawa, samun makamashi, da batutuwan ingancin makamashi a cikin ƙasashe masu tasowa.