Masallacin Sultan Ahmed

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Masallacin Sultan Ahmed
Sultan Ahmet camii
Historic Areas of Istanbul
Exterior of Sultan Ahmed I Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey 002.jpg
Blue Mosque Interior 2 Wikimedia Commons.JPG
Wuri
Ƴantacciyar ƙasaTurkiyya
Province of Turkey (en) FassaraIstanbul Province (en) Fassara
Million city (en) FassaraIstanbul
District of Turkey (en) FassaraFatih (en) Fassara
Neighborhood (en) FassaraEminönü (en) Fassara
Coordinates 41°00′19″N 28°58′37″E / 41.0053851°N 28.9768247°E / 41.0053851; 28.9768247
History and use
Opening1609
Ƙaddamarwa1616
Shugaba Ahmed I (en) Fassara
Suna saboda Ahmed I (en) Fassara
Addini Musulunci
Maximum capacity (en) Fassara 10,000
Karatun Gine-gine
Architect (en) Fassara Sedefkar Mehmed Agha (en) Fassara
Style (en) Fassara Ottoman architecture (en) Fassara
Tsawo 64 m
Faɗi 65 meters
Tsawo 82 meters
Heritage
Offical website

Masallacin Sultan Ahmed

(Baturke: Sultan Ahmet Camii), wanda kuma aka sani da Masallacin Blue, masallaci ne na Masarautar da ke Istanbul, Turkiya. Masallaci mai aiki, yana kuma jan hankalin ɗimbin baƙi. An gina shi tsakanin 1609 zuwa 1616 a lokacin mulkin Ahmed I. Its Külliye ya ƙunshi kabarin Ahmed, madrasah da asibitin. Fale-falen fale-falen da aka yi da hannu yana ƙawata bangon ciki na masallacin, kuma da daddare ana yi wa masallacin wanka da shudi yayin da fitilu ke kan manyan rumfunan masallacin guda biyar, mininare shida da manyan gidaje takwas.[1] Yana zaune kusa da Hagia Sophia, babban masallacin Istanbul har zuwa ginin Masallacin Blue da kuma wani shahararren wurin yawon bude ido. An saka Masallacin Blue a cikin jerin wuraren tarihi na UNESCO a shekarar 1985 a karkashin sunan "Yankunan Tarihi na Istanbul".

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayan Zaman Lafiya na Zsitvatorok da babban rashi a cikin yaƙin da aka yi da Farisa a shekara ta 1603–18, Sultan Ahmed I ya yanke shawarar gina babban masallaci a Istanbul don sake ƙarfafa ikon Ottoman. Zai zama masallacin daular farko na sama da shekaru arba'in. Yayin da magabatansa suka biya masallatansu da ganimar yaƙi, Ahmed I ya sayi kuɗi daga Baitulmali, saboda bai samu nasarori masu ban mamaki ba. An fara ginin a 1609 kuma an kammala shi a 1616.[2]

Kasancewar an biya shi daga baitul malin jama'a maimakon daga ganimar yakin sarkin, kamar yadda aka saba, hakan ya haifar da fushin malamai, masanan shari'a. An gina masallacin a wurin fadar sarakunan Byzantine, a gaban Basilica Hagia Sophia (a wancan lokacin, babban masallacin masarautar da ke Istanbul) da hippodrome, wurin da ke da ma’ana ta alama kamar yadda ta mamaye sararin samaniyar birnin. daga kudu. Manyan sassan kudancin kudancin masallacin suna kan tushe, rumbunan tsohon Babban Fada.[3]

Gine -gine[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masallacin Sultan Ahmed yana da manyan rumfuna guda biyar, ministoci guda shida, da kuma manyan kusoshi takwas. Wannan ƙira shine ƙarshen ƙarni biyu na ci gaban masallacin Ottoman. Ya ƙunshi abubuwa da yawa na Rumawa na makwabciyar Hagia Sophia tare da gine -ginen addinin Islama kuma ana ɗaukarsa babban masallaci na ƙarshe na zamanin gargajiya. Ginin gine -ginen, Sedefkâr Mehmed Ağa, ya kirkiri tunanin maigidansa Sinan, da nufin girman girma, girma da daukaka. An yi wa yankin na sama ado da yumbu mai ƙyalƙyali mai ƙyalli 20,000 a cikin nau'ikan tulip 60 daban-daban. Ƙananan labarun suna haskakawa ta tagogin gilashi 200. Masallacin yana gaban farfajiya tare da babban maɓuɓɓugar ruwa da yanki na musamman don alwala. Sarkar baƙin ƙarfe ta rataya a ƙofar kotun a gefen yamma.[4] Sarkin Musulmi ne kaɗai aka ba izini ya hau cikin dokin masallaci, kuma zai buƙaci ya ƙasƙantar da kansa don kada ya buga sarkar, alama ce ta tabbatar da tawali'u na mai mulki a gaban Allah.

Ta hanyar ayyukansa ya bar alamar yanke shawara a Istanbul. Filin da Masallacin Sultan Ahmed yake wanda aka fi sani da Sultanahmet. Ana iya ɗaukar wannan masallacin a matsayin ƙarshen aikinsa. Mehmed Agha, wanda shine ɗalibi na ƙarshe na Mimar Sinan, ya kammala aikin sa ta hanyar ƙara salo mai kyau, salon zane na gine -gine zuwa na babban malamin sa.

Ciki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kallon cikin gida, wanda ke nuna yankin addua da babban dome.
Masallacin Sultan Ahmed

A ƙananan matakansa kuma a kowane dutsen, an lulluɓe ciki na masallacin tare da fale -falen yumɓu na İznik na hannu sama da 20,000, wanda aka yi a İznik (tsohuwar Nicaea) a cikin ƙirar tulip sama da hamsin. Fale -falen fale -falen a ƙananan matakan al'ada ne a ƙira, yayin da a matakin gidan zane ƙirar su ta zama mai haske tare da wakilcin furanni, 'ya'yan itace da cypresses. An yi tiles ɗin a ƙarƙashin kulawar maigidan İznik. Farashin sarkin ya daidaita farashin da za a biya kowane tayal, yayin da farashin tayal gaba ɗaya ya ƙaru a kan lokaci. A sakamakon haka, ingancin tiles ɗin da ake amfani da su a cikin ginin ya ragu a hankali.[5]

Matakan sama na ciki suna mamaye launin shuɗi. Fiye da gilashin gilashi 200 masu ƙyalli masu ƙyalƙyali sun yarda da hasken halitta, a yau chandeliers ne ke taimakawa. A kan chandeliers, an sami ƙwai na jimina waɗanda aka yi nufin don guje wa saƙar gizo -gizo a cikin masallaci ta hanyar tunkuɗa gizo -gizo.[6] Kayan ado sun haɗa da ayoyin Alƙur'ani, yawancinsu Seyyid Kasim Gubari ne ya yi su, wanda ake ɗauka a matsayin babban mai kiran hoto a zamaninsa. An rufe benen da darduma, waɗanda amintattu ke ba da su kuma ana maye gurbinsu akai -akai yayin da suka tsufa. Manyan windows masu yawa suna ba da fa'ida mai fa'ida. An yi wa akwatunan a matakin bene ado da ɗamarar opus. Kowane exedra yana da tagogi biyar, wasu daga cikinsu makafi ne. Kowane rabin-dome yana da tagogi 14 da tsakiyar dome 28 (huɗu daga cikinsu makafi ne). Gilashi mai launi don tagogi kyauta ce ta Signoria na Venice ga sultan.

Babban mahimmin abu a cikin masallacin shine mihrab, wanda aka yi shi da sifa mai ƙyalƙyali da sassaƙaƙƙen marmara, tare da madaidaicin stalactite da allon rubutu biyu a saman sa. An kewaye shi da tagogi da yawa. Ganuwar da ke kusa an rufe ta da fale -falen yumbu. A hannun dama na mihrab ɗin akwai minber, ko minbari da aka yi wa ado sosai, inda liman yake tsaye lokacin da yake gabatar da hudubarsa a lokacin sallar azahar ranar Juma'a ko a ranaku masu tsarki. An tsara masallacin ta yadda ko a lokacin da ya fi cunkoson jama'a, kowa a cikin masallacin zai iya gani da jin liman.[5]

Kiosk na masarautar yana a kusurwar kudu maso gabas. Ya ƙunshi dandamali, loggia da ƙananan ɗakuna biyu masu ritaya. Yana ba da damar shiga gidan sarauta a cikin babban ɗakin masallacin kudu maso gabas. Waɗannan ɗakunan da suka yi ritaya sun zama hedkwatar Grand Vizier yayin murƙushe Janissary Corps na tawaye a 1826. Gidajen sarauta (hünkâr mahfil) yana tallafawa ginshiƙai marmara goma. Yana da nasa mihrab, wanda a da ana yi masa ado da fure -fure da gilt[7] tare da Alƙur'ani ɗari a kan lecterns masu ƙyalli da ƙyalli.[8]

Fitilu da yawa da ke cikin masallacin an taba rufe su da zinariya da duwatsu masu daraja.[9] Daga cikin kwanonin gilashin mutum zai iya samun kwai jimina da ƙwallan lu'ulu'u.[10] Duk waɗannan kayan adon an cire su ko aka sace su don gidajen tarihi.

Manyan allunan da ke jikin bango an rubuta sunayen halifofi da ayoyin Alqur'ani. Asalinsu babban mashahurin mai kiran sunan Seyyid Kasim Gubari na Diyarbakır na karni na 17 amma an sake dawo dasu akai-akai.[5]

An fara sanar da cewa masallacin zai gudanar da wasu gyare -gyare a cikin shekarar 2016. An kammala ayyuka da dama na gyare -gyare a ko'ina cikin Istanbul kuma maido da Masallacin Blue shine zai zama aikin karshe. Ana sa ran gyare -gyaren zai faru sama da shekaru uku da rabi kuma za a kammala shi nan da 2020.

Na waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masallacin Blue Blue ya shahara da ministoci 6
Masallacin Blue lokacin yamma

An gina facin falon gaban farfajiya iri ɗaya kamar yadda aka gina na Masallacin Süleymaniye, sai dai ƙari na turrets a kusurwoyin kusurwa. Kotun tana da girmanta kamar masallacin kanta kuma tana kewaye da wani katafaren gidan wasan kwaikwayo (revak). Tana da wuraren alwala a bangarorin biyu. Maɓallin maɓalli mai kusurwa huɗu kaɗan ne dangane da farfajiyar. Babbar ƙofar ƙofar farfajiyar ta fice daga gine -gine daga gidan kayan gargajiya. Semi-dome ɗinsa yana da kyakkyawan tsarin tsayuwa, wanda ƙaramin dome mai tsini a saman dolobate ya yi. Ana amfani da makarantar firamare ta tarihi (Sıbyan Mektebi) a matsayin "Cibiyar Bayanai na Masallaci" wacce ke kusa da bangonta na waje a gefen Hagia Sophia. Anan ne suke ba maziyarta gabatarwar gabatarwa ta kyauta akan Masallacin Blue da Musulunci gaba ɗaya.[11] Wani sarkar ƙarfe mai nauyi ya rataya a saman ƙofar kotun a gefen yamma. Sarki ne kawai aka ba izinin shiga harabar masallacin da doki. An sanya sarkar a can, don haka dole sarkin musulmi ya runtse kansa a duk lokacin da ya shiga kotun don gudun kada a buge shi. Wannan alama ce ta alama, don tabbatar da tawali'u na mai mulki a gaban allahntaka.[11].

Ministoci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ministoci na Masallacin Blue

Masallacin Sultan Ahmed yana daya daga cikin masallatai biyar na Turkiyya da ke da minare guda shida (daya a Masallacin Sabancı na zamani a Adana, Masallacin Muğdat a Mersin, Masallacin Çamlıca da ke Üsküdar da Masallacin Kore a Arnavutköy). Dangane da tatsuniya, wani masanin gine -gine bai ji roƙon Sultan na "altın minareler" (minarets na zinariya) a matsayin "altı minare" (minina shida), a lokacin fasali na musamman na masallacin Ka'aba a Makka. Lokacin da aka soki zatorsa, sai Sarkin Musulmi ya ba da umarnin a gina minaret ta bakwai a masallacin Makka.[12]. Ministoci guda hudu suna tsaye a kusurwar Masallacin Blue. Kowanne daga cikin waɗannan busassun, minarets masu siffa da fensir suna da baranda uku (Ana kiran şerefe) tare da corbels stalactite, yayin da sauran biyun a ƙarshen ƙofar gida suna da baranda biyu kawai. Kafin muezzin ko mai kiran sallah ya hau kan madaidaiciyar matattakala sau biyar a rana don sanar da kiran sallah.[12].

Ziyarar Paparoma Benedikt na 16[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Paparoma Benedict na 16 ya ziyarci Masallacin Sultan Ahmed a ranar 30 ga Nuwamban 2006 yayin ziyarar da ya kai Turkiyya. Wannan ita ce ziyarar Paparoma ta biyu a tarihi zuwa wurin bautar Musulmi. Bayan cire takalminsa, Paparoma ya ɗan dakata na mintuna biyu gaba ɗaya, idanunsa a rufe cikin tunani mai zurfi,[13] yana tsaye kusa da Mustafa Çağrıcı, Muftin Istanbul, da Emrullah Hatipoğlu, Limamin Masallacin Blue.[14]

Paparoma "ya gode wa Providence na Allah saboda wannan" kuma ya ce, "Bari duk masu bi su bayyana kansu tare da Allah ɗaya kuma su ba da shaida ga 'yan uwantaka ta gaskiya." Fafaroman ya lura cewa Turkiyya "za ta zama gadar abota da haɗin gwiwa tsakanin Gabas da Yamma", kuma ya gode wa jama'ar Turkiyya "saboda karamci da tausayawa" da suka nuna masa a duk zaman sa, yana mai cewa, "ya ji ana ƙaunarsa kuma an fahimce shi."[15].

Gallery[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Majiyoyi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Efendi, Evliya (1834). Narrative of Travels in Europe, Asia, and Africa, in the Seventeenth Century. Volume 1. trans. Ritter Joseph Von Hammer. London: Printed for the Oriental translation fund of Great Britain and Ireland.
  • Goodwin, Godfrey (2003) [1971]. A History of Ottoman Architecture. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-27429-3.

Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Sheila S. Blair, Jonathan M. Bloom – "The Art and Architecture of Islam, 1250–1800", Yale University Press, 1994; 08033994793.ABA
  • Turner, J. (ed.) – Grove Dictionary of Art – Oxford University Press, USA; New edition (January 2, 1996); 08033994793.ABA
  1. "Blue Mosque". sultanahmetcamii.org. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
  2. Goodwin 2003, p. 343.
  3. "History". sultanahmetcamii.org. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
  4. "Architecture". sultanahmetcamii.org/architecture-of-the-mosque/. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 "Interior". sultanahmetcamii.org/architecture-of-the-mosque/. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
  6. "Sultan Ahmet Cami or Blue Mosque". MuslimHeritage.com. Retrieved 2012-01-26.
  7. Öz, T., "Sultan Ahmet Camii' in Vakiflar Dergisi, I, Ankara, 1938
  8. Efendi 1834, p. 113.
  9. Naima M., Annals of the Turkish Empire from 1591 to 1659 of the Christian Era; Frazer, London, 1832
  10. Tournefort, J.P., Marquis de, Relation d'un voyage du Levant, Amsterdam, 1718
  11. 11.0 11.1 "Exterior". sultanahmetcamii.org/architecture-of-the-mosque/. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
  12. 12.0 12.1 "Minarets". sultanahmetcamii.org/architecture-of-the-mosque/. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
  13. "Pope Benedict XVI Visits Turkey's Famous Blue Mosque". Fox News. 2006-11-30. Retrieved 2011-10-19.
  14. "Pope makes Turkish mosque visit". BBC News. 2006-11-30. Retrieved 2012-01-26.
  15. "Pope: In mosque I prayed to the one God for all mankind". Asianews.it. 2006-06-12. Retrieved 2012-01-26.