Muhammad Ali Pasha

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Muhammad Ali Pasha
Beylerbey of Egypt (en) Fassara

1805 - 1848
Hurshid Pasha (en) Fassara - Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt (en) Fassara
Rayuwa
Cikakken suna محمد علي المسعود بن إبراهيم آغا
Haihuwa Kavala (en) Fassara, 4 ga Maris, 1769
ƙasa Misra
Harshen uwa Ottoman Turkish (en) Fassara
Mutuwa Alexandria, 2 ga Augusta, 1849
Makwanci Muhammad Ali Mosque (en) Fassara
Ƴan uwa
Abokiyar zama Amina Hanim (en) Fassara
Ayn al-Hayat Khanum (en) Fassara
Yara
Yare Muhammad Ali dynasty (en) Fassara
Karatu
Harsuna Larabci
Ottoman Turkish (en) Fassara
Kurdish (en) Fassara
Sana'a
Sana'a Shugaban soji, ɗan siyasa da statesperson (en) Fassara
Wurin aiki Daular Usmaniyya
Kyaututtuka
Imani
Addini Mabiya Sunnah
Muhammad Ali Pasha

Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha, wanda kuma aka fi sani da Muhammad Ali na Masar da Sudan (Albaniya: Mehmet Ali Pasha, Larabci: محمد علي باشا, ALA-LC: Muḥammad 'Alī Bāshā; Ottoman Baturke: محمد علی پاشا المسعود بن آغا; Baturke: Kavalalı Mehmed Ali Paşa;an haifeshi a ranar 4 ga watan Maris din shekarata alif 1769 - zuwa ranar 2 ga watan Agusta shekarata alif 1849), shi ne gwamnan Albaniya na Ottoman kuma mai mulkin Masar daga shekarata alif 1805 zuwa shekarar alif 1848, wanda ya kafa Masar ta zamani. A lokacin mulkinsa, ya mallaki dukkan Masar, Sudan, Hijaz da Levant.[1] Ya kasance kwamandan soji a rundunar daular Ottoman ta Albaniya da aka tura domin kwato Masar daga mamayar Faransa karkashin Napoleon. Bayan janyewar Napoleon, Muhammad Ali ya hau kan karagar mulki ta hanyoyi da dama na siyasa, kuma a shekara ta alif 1805 aka nada shi Wāli (viceroy) na Masar kuma ya samu mukamin Pasha. A matsayin Wāli, Muhammad Ali ya yi ƙoƙarin sabunta ƙasar Masar ta hanyar kafa sauye-sauye masu ban mamaki a fannin soji, tattalin arziki da al'adu. Ya kuma kaddamar da wani tashin hankali na kawar da Mamluk, tare da karfafa mulkinsa tare da kawo karshen mamayar Mamluk a kasar Masar.[2]

Rayuwarsa ta Farko[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Muhammad Ali Pasha

An haifi Muhammad Ali a Sanjak na Kavala (Kavala ta zamani), a cikin Rumelia Eyalet, ga dangin Albaniya daga Korça. Shi ne ɗa na biyu na taba sigari na Albaniya kuma ɗan kasuwa mai suna Ibrahim Agha, wanda kuma ya yi aiki a matsayin kwamandan Ottoman na ƙaramin yanki a garinsu.[3] Mahaifiyarsa ita ce Zeynep, 'yar Çorbaci Husain Agha, wani musulmin Albaniya mai shahara a Kavala.[8] Lokacin da mahaifinsa ya rasu yana karami, sai kawunsa Husain Agha ya dauke Muhammad tare da ‘yan uwansa.[8] A matsayin lada ga kwazon Muhammad Ali, kawunsa ya ba shi matsayin "Bolukbashi" na karbar haraji a garin Kavala[5]. Daga baya Muhammad Ali ya auri yar uwansa Amina Hanim, wata hamshakin attajiri. Ita ce diyar Ali Agha da Kadriye (yar uwar Zeynep).

Tasowa da Ikon Mulki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Janyewar da Faransa ta yi ya bar wutar lantarki a Masar. An raunana ikon Mamluk, amma ba a lalata shi ba, kuma sojojin Ottoman sun yi arangama da Mamluk don neman mulki. A wannan lokaci na tashin hankali Muhammad Ali ya yi amfani da dakarunsa na Albaniya masu aminci wajen yin aiki tare da bangarorin biyu, inda ya samu iko da daukaka ga kansa. Yayin da rikicin ya ci gaba, al'ummar yankin sun gaji da gwagwarmayar neman mulki. A shekara ta 1801 ya yi kawance da shugaban Masar Umar Makram da babban limamin Azhar na Masar. A lokacin da ake gwabza fada tsakanin Daular Usmaniyya da Mamluk a tsakanin 1801 zuwa 1805, Muhammad Ali ya yi taka-tsantsan don samun goyon bayan jama'a.[4]

Muhammad Ali Pasha da Sarki Bashir II

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Khalid Fahmy (1998). All the Pasha's Men: Mehmed Ali, his Army and the Making of Modern Egypt. Cambridge University Press.
  2. Kiel, Machiel (1990). Ottoman Architecture in Albania, 1385–1912. Islamic art series. Vol. 5. Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture. p. 163. ISBN 9290633301. The father of the famous viceroy of Egypt , Muhammed Ali , was a citizen of Korçë
  3. Kuhnke, LaVerne. Lives at Risk: Public Health in Nineteenth-Century Egypt. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990. http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft5t1nb3mq/
  4. All the Pasha's Men: Mehmed Ali, his Army and the Making of Modern Egypt, 123