Niels Bohr

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Niels Bohr
Farfesa

1916 -
Rayuwa
Cikakken suna Niels Henrik David Bohr
Haihuwa Kwapanhagan, 7 Oktoba 1885
ƙasa Kingdom of Denmark (en) Fassara
Mazauni Denmark
Sweden
Ingila
Tarayyar Amurka
Kwapanhagan
Mutuwa Kwapanhagan, 18 Nuwamba, 1962
Makwanci Assistens Cemetery (en) Fassara
Yanayin mutuwa  (Gazawar zuciya)
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Christian Bohr
Mahaifiya Ellen Bohr
Abokiyar zama Margrethe Nörlund (en) Fassara
Yara
Ahali Harald Bohr (en) Fassara
Ƴan uwa
Yare Bohr family (en) Fassara
Karatu
Makaranta University of Cambridge (en) Fassara
Trinity College (en) Fassara
University of Copenhagen (en) Fassara
(1903 - 1911) Doctor of Philosophy (en) Fassara
Thesis Studier over Metallernes Elektrontheori
Thesis director Christian Christiansen (en) Fassara
J. J. Thomson (en) Fassara
Dalibin daktanci Aage Bohr (en) Fassara
Robert Bruce Lindsay (en) Fassara
Svein Rosseland (en) Fassara
Harsuna Turanci
Danish (en) Fassara
Malamai Ernest Rutherford (en) Fassara
Christian Christiansen (en) Fassara
J. J. Thomson (en) Fassara
Ɗalibai
Sana'a
Sana'a physicist (en) Fassara, university teacher (en) Fassara, nuclear physicist (en) Fassara, philosopher of science (en) Fassara, ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa da chemist (en) Fassara
Hanya
Ƙungiyoyi Shekaru Wasanni da ya/ta buga Ƙwallaye
Akademisk Boldklub (en) Fassara-
 
Muƙami ko ƙwarewa Mai tsaran raga
Employers University of Copenhagen (en) Fassara
Niels Bohr Institute (en) Fassara
University of Cambridge (en) Fassara  (1911 -  1912)
Victoria University of Manchester (en) Fassara  (1914 -
Muhimman ayyuka Bohr model (en) Fassara
correspondence principle (en) Fassara
Kyaututtuka
Ayyanawa daga
Mamba Royal Society (en) Fassara
Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Academy of Sciences of the GDR (en) Fassara
German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina (en) Fassara
Lincean Academy (en) Fassara
Pontifical Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Academy of Sciences of the USSR (en) Fassara
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Hungarian Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (en) Fassara
Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters (en) Fassara
Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters (en) Fassara
National Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
American Academy of Arts and Sciences (en) Fassara
Russian Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Indian National Science Academy (en) Fassara
American Philosophical Society (en) Fassara
Accademia Nazionale delle Scienze detta dei XL (en) Fassara
Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities (en) Fassara
Polish Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities (en) Fassara
Sunan mahaifi Nicholas Baker
IMDb nm1106823

Niels Henrik David Bohr ( Danish: [ˈne̝ls ˈpoɐ̯ˀ] ; 7 Oktoba 1885 - 18 Nuwamba 1962) masanin kimiyyar Danish ne wanda ya ba da gudummawar Foundational to understanding atomic structure da ka'idar adadi, wanda ya sami lambar yabo ta Nobel a Physics a 1922. Bohr ya kasance masanin falsafa kuma mai tallata binciken kimiyya. Bohr ya haɓaka Bohr model of the atom , wanda a cikinsa ya ba da shawarar cewa matakan makamashi na electrons suna da amfani kuma cewa electrons suna jujjuya su cikin kwanciyar hankali a kusa da atomic nucleus amma suna iya tsalle daga matakin makamashi (ko orbit) zuwa wani. Kodayake samfurin Bohr an maye gurbinsu da wasu ƙira, ƙa'idodin sa na ci gaba da aiki. Ya yi la'akari da ƙa'idar complimentarity: cewa abubuwa za a iya yin nazari daban-daban cikin sharuddan kaddarorin da suka saba wa juna, kamar hali kamar wave or a stream of particles. Ra'ayin complementarity ya mamaye tunanin Bohr a duka kimiyya da falsafa.

Bohr ya kafa Cibiyar Nazarin Ilimin Kimiyya a Jami'ar Copenhagen, wanda yanzu ake kira Cibiyar Niels Bohr, wanda aka bude a 1920. Bohr ya ba da jagoranci kuma ya yi aiki tare da masana kimiyya ciki har da Hans Kramers, Oskar Klein, George de Hevesy, da Werner Heisenberg. Ya annabta wanzuwar wani sabon nau'i mai kama da zirconium, wanda ake kira hafnium, bayan sunan Latin na Copenhagen, inda aka gano shi. Daga baya, an sanya masa suna bohrium element.

A cikin shekarar 1930s, Bohr ya taimaka wa 'yan gudun hijira daga Nazism. Bayan da Jamusawa suka mamaye Denmark, ya yi sanannen ganawa da Heisenberg, wanda ya zama shugaban shirin kera makaman nukiliya na Jamus. A cikin watan Satumba 1943 labari ya isa ga Bohr cewa Jamusawa za su kama shi, don haka ya gudu zuwa Sweden. Daga nan ne aka kai shi Biritaniya, inda ya shiga aikin makamin nukiliya na Tube Alloys na Burtaniya, kuma yana cikin aikin Burtaniya na aikin Manhattan. Bayan yakin, Bohr ya bukaci hadin kan kasa da kasa kan makamashin nukiliya. Ya kasance tare da kafa CERN da Cibiyar Bincike ta Risø na Hukumar Makamashin Atomic ta Danish kuma ya zama shugaban farko na Cibiyar Nordic Theoretical Physics a 1957.

Shekarun farko[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haifi Niels Henrik David Bohr a Copenhagen, Denmark, a ranar 7 ga watan Oktoba 1885, na biyu na 'ya'ya uku na Christian Bohr, [1] farfesa a fannin ilimin lissafi a Jami'ar Copenhagen, da matarsa Ellen née Adler, wacce ta zo. daga dangin banki na Yahudawa masu arziki. [1] Yana da 'yar'uwa babba, Jenny, da ƙani Harald. Jenny ya zama malami, [1] yayin da Harald ya zama masanin lissafi kuma ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa wanda ya taka leda a ƙungiyar ƙwallon ƙafa ta Danish a gasar Olympics ta bazara ta 1908 a London. Niels ya kasance dan wasan kwallon kafa mai kishi, kuma 'yan'uwan biyu sun buga wasanni da yawa don Akademisk Boldklub na Copenhagen (Kungiyar Kwallon Kafa ta Ilimi), tare da Niels a matsayin mai tsaron gida.[2]

Head and shoulders of young man in a suit and tie
Bohr yana matashi.

Bohr ya yi karatu a Makarantar Latin ta Gammelholm, tun yana ɗan shekara bakwai. A cikin shekarar 1903, Bohr ya yi rajista a matsayin dalibi a Jami'ar Copenhagen. Babban karatunsa shi ne ilimin kimiyyar lissafi, wanda ya karanta a karkashin Farfesa Christian Christiansen, malami tilo a fannin ilimin lissafi na jami'a a lokacin. Ya kuma karanci ilmin taurari da lissafi a karkashin Farfesa Thorvald Thiele, da falsafa a karkashin Farfesa Harald Høffding, abokin mahaifinsa. [1]

A cikin shekarar 1905 Cibiyar Kimiyya da Wasika ta Royal Danish Academy ta dauki nauyin gasar lambar zinare don bincika hanyar auna yanayin tashin hankali na ruwa wanda Lord Rayleigh ya gabatar a 1879. Wannan ya haɗa da auna mitar motsin radius na jet na ruwa. Bohr ya gudanar da gwaje-gwaje masu yawa ta amfani da dakin gwaje-gwajen mahaifinsa a jami'a; ita kanta jami'ar ba ta da dakin gwaje-gwaje na kimiyyar lissafi.[3] Don kammala gwaje-gwajen nasa, dole ne ya yi nasa gilashin gilashi, yana samar da bututun gwaji tare da sassan giciye da ake buƙata. Ya wuce aikin na asali, ya haɗa gyare-gyare a cikin ka'idar Rayleigh da hanyarsa, ta hanyar yin la'akari da dankowar ruwa, da kuma aiki tare da ƙananan amplitudes maimakon kawai marasa iyaka. Rubutun nasa, wanda ya gabatar a minti na karshe, ya lashe kyautar. Daga baya ya gabatar da ingantaccen sigar takarda ga Royal Society a London don bugawa a cikin Ma'amalar Falsafa na Royal Society. [4] [1] [5]

Harald ya zama na farko daga cikin 'yan'uwan Bohr guda biyu don samun digiri na biyu, wanda ya samu a ilimin lissafi a cikin watan Afrilu 1909. Niels ya ɗauki wasu watanni tara don samun nasa akan ka'idar lantarki ta ƙarfe, batun da mai kula da shi, Christiansen ya ba shi. Daga baya Bohr ya fayyace karatun digirinsa a cikin babban littafinsa na Likitan Falsafa (Dr. Phil.). Ya bincika wallafe-wallafen kan batun, yana daidaitawa a kan samfurin da Paul Drude ya buga kuma Hendrik Lorentz ya ba da cikakken bayani, wanda aka yi la'akari da electrons a cikin karfe kamar gas.[6] Bohr ya tsawaita samfurin Lorentz, amma har yanzu ya kasa yin la'akari da abubuwan mamaki kamar tasirin Hall, kuma ya kammala cewa ka'idar lantarki ba ta iya yin cikakken bayanin kaddarorin maganadisu na karafa. An karɓi karatun a cikin watan Afrilu 1911, kuma Bohr ya gudanar da kariyar sa na yau da kullun a ranar 13 ga watan Mayu. Harald ya sami digirin digirgir a shekarar da ta gabata. [1] Rubutun Bohr ya kasance mai ban sha'awa, amma ya jawo hankali kaɗan a wajen Scandinavia saboda an rubuta shi cikin Danish, buƙatun Jami'ar Copenhagen a lokacin. A cikin shekarar 1921, masanin kimiyyar lissafi dan kasar Holland Hendrika Johanna van Leeuwen zai sami kansa da kansa a cikin ka'idar Bohr wanda aka fi sani da Bohr-Van Leeuwen theorem. [7]

A young man in a suit and tie and a young woman in a light coloured dress sit on a stoop, holding hands
Bohr da Margrethe Nørlund akan haɗin gwiwa a cikin 1910.
Niels Bohr

A cikin shekarar 1910, Bohr ya hadu da Margrethe Nørlund, 'yar'uwar masanin lissafi Niels Erik Nørlund. [1] Bohr ya yi murabus daga zama membansa a Cocin Denmark a ranar 16 ga watan Afrilu 1912, kuma shi da Margrethe sun yi aure a wani bikin farar hula a zauren gari a Slagelse a ranar 1 ga watan Agusta. Shekaru da yawa bayan haka, ɗan’uwansa Harald ma ya bar cocin kafin ya yi aure. [1] Bohr da Margrethe suna da 'ya'ya maza shida. [1] Mafi tsufa, Kirista, ya mutu a wani hatsarin kwale-kwale a 1934, [8] da wani, Harald, yana da naƙasasshiyar tunani sosai. An sanya shi a wata cibiyar da ke nesa da gidan danginsa yana ɗan shekara huɗu kuma ya mutu daga cutar sankarau bayan shekaru shida. [1] Aage Bohr ya zama masanin kimiyyar lissafi mai nasara, kuma a cikin shekarar 1975 an ba shi kyautar Nobel a fannin kimiyyar lissafi, kamar mahaifinsa. Dan Aage, Vilhem A. Bohr, masanin kimiyya ne da ke da alaƙa da Jami'ar Copenhagen da Cibiyar Kasa kan tsufa na Amurka. Hans Bohr [da] ya zama likita; Erik Bohr [da], injiniyan sinadarai; da Ernest, lauya. Kamar kawunsa Harald, Ernest Bohr ya zama dan wasan Olympics, yana buga wasan hockey na Denmark a gasar Olympics ta bazara ta 1948 a London.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 Pais 1991.
  2. Politiets Registerblade [Register cards of the Police ] (in Danish). Copenhagen: Københavns Stadsarkiv. 7 June 1892. Station Dødeblade (indeholder afdøde i perioden). Filmrulle 0002. Registerblad 3341. ID 3308989. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014.
  3. There is no truth in the oft-repeated claim that Bohr emulated his brother, Harald, by playing for the Danish national team. Dart, James (27 July 2005). "Bohr's footballing career" . The Guardian . London. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
  4. Rhodes 1986.
  5. Aaserud & Heilbron 2013.
  6. "Niels Bohr's school years" . Niels Bohr Institute. 18 May 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2013.
  7. Kragh 2012.
  8. Stuewer 1985.