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Rawa

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.


A man and woman, mid-leap
Masu rawa irin ta zamani
Membobin rawar rawa.

Rawa wani nau'in fasaha ne mai ɗauke da zaɓaɓɓun zaɓaɓɓu na motsin ɗan adam . Wannan motsi yana da kyan gani da kwatanci na alama, kuma an yarda da shi a matsayin rawa ta masu yi da masu kallo a cikin wata al'ada. Dance za a iya kasafta kuma aka bayyana ta Choreography, ta sharhin na ƙungiyoyi, ko ta wurin tarihi lokaci ko wuri na asali .

Wani muhimmin bambanci shi ne za a zana tsakanin mahallin wasan kwaikwayo da rawar rawa, [1] kodayake waɗannan nau'ikan nau'ikan ba koyaushe basa rabuwa gaba ɗaya; dukansu na iya samun ayyuka na musamman, ko na zaman jama'a, na bikin, na gasa, na batsa, na faɗa, ko na alfarma / liturgical . Sauran nau'ikan motsin mutum wani lokaci ana cewa suna da inganci irin na rawa, gami da wasan tsere, wasan motsa jiki, nishadantarwa, wasan motsa jiki , wasan ninkaya, ƙungiyoyin motsa jiki, da sauran nau'ikan wasannin motsa jiki.

Ayyuka da haɓakawa

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
Membobin wani kamfanin rawa na jazz na Amurka suna gudanar da ayyukansu na yau da kullun a cikin rawar rawa

Rawan wasan kwaikwayo, wanda kuma ake kira wasan kwaikwayo ko raye-raye na kide kide, an tsara shi da farko a matsayin abin kallo, yawanci ana yin wasan kwaikwayon ne a kan wasan kwaikwayo ta masu rawa na virtuoso. Sau da yawa yakan ba da labari, wataƙila ta amfani da mime, kayan ado da shimfidar wuri, ko kuma kawai yana iya fassara fassarar kayan kiɗa, wanda galibi keɓaɓɓe ne. Misalan wasan rawa ne irin na yamma da kuma rawan zamani, Rawan Indiya na gargajiya da raye-raye na Sinanci da Jafananci. Yawancin nau'ikan sifofi na yau da kullun suna kan rawa ne kaɗai, amma rawar rawa na iya bayyana a cikin wasan opera da sauran siffofin gidan wasan kwaikwayo na kiɗa.

Rawa ta shiga rawa, a wani bangaren, ko rawa ta jama'a, ta rawa, ta rawa, ta rawa irin ta layi, da'ira, sarka ko rawa ta murabba'i, ko rawar takwara kamar wacce aka saba da ita a yammacin rawa ta yamma . da farko don manufa ɗaya, kamar hulɗar zamantakewa ko motsa jiki, na mahalarta maimakon masu kallo. Irin wannan rawar ba safai take da wani labari ba. A rukunin dance da kuma kungiyar soja de rawa, a social abokin dance kuma a Efes de deux, sãɓã wa jũna bayyananne. Ko da rawa za a iya yi don kawai don gamsar da mai rawa. Masu rawa masu rawa galibi suna amfani da ƙungiyoyi iri ɗaya da matakai amma, alal misali, a cikin al'adun raye-raye na kiɗan lantarki, yawancin jama'a na iya yin rawa kyauta, ba tare da waɗanda suke tare da su ba. A gefe guda kuma, wasu al'adu suna shimfida dokoki masu tsauri game da wasu raye-raye wanda a misali, maza, mata da yara na iya ko dole ne su halarci.

Rawa da rawa a Bhimbetka

Shaidun archeological don raye-raye na farko sun hada da zane-zane na shekaru 9,000 a Indiya a Rock Shelters na Bhimbetka, da zane-zanen kabarin Masar waɗanda ke nuna adon rawa, kwanan wata c. 3300 BC. An kuma ba da shawarar cewa kafin ƙirƙirar rubutattun harsuna, rawa ta kasance muhimmiyar ɓangare na hanyoyin baka da kuma yadda ake gabatar da labarai daga zuriya ɗaya zuwa na gaba. [2] A amfani da dance a ecstatic trance jihohi da kuma warkar da rituals (as lura a yau a da yawa zamani "m" al'adu, daga Brazil Rainforest ga Kalahari Desert ) yana zaton sun kasance wani farkon factor a cikin zamantakewa da ci gaban dance. [3]

Za a iya kuma samun nassoshi game da rawa a cikin tarihin da aka rubuta tun da wuri; Rawa ta Girkanci ( horos ) ana kiranta Plato, Aristotle, Plutarch da Lucian . [4] Baibul da Talmud suna nuni ne ga al'amuran da yawa da suka danganci rawa, kuma suna ƙunshe da kalmomin raye-raye sama da 30. A cikin tukwanen kasar Sin tun daga zamanin Neolithic, an nuna rukunin mutane suna rawa a layi suna rike da hannu, kuma an samo kalmar Sinanci da farko don "rawa" a rubuce cikin kasusuwa na oracle . Anyi bayanin rawa a cikin Lüshi Chunqiu . Rawa ta farko a tsohuwar kasar Sin tana da alaƙa da sihiri da al'adun shamanic.

Gilashin tagulla na Girka na ɗan rawa da mayafi wanda aka lulluɓe shi, ƙarni na 3 zuwa 2 kafin haihuwar Yesu, Alexandria, Egypt.

A lokacin karni na farko na KZ a Indiya, an kirkiro matani da yawa waɗanda suke ƙoƙari su daidaita al'amuran rayuwar yau da kullun. Bharata Muni 's Natyashastra (a zahiri "matanin wasan kwaikwayo" ) ɗayan matani ne na baya. Ya fi dacewa da wasan kwaikwayo, inda rawa take taka muhimmiyar rawa a al'adun Indiya. Ya karkasa rawa zuwa nau'ikan hudu - na zamani, na al'ada, na yau da kullun, da kuma na fassara - da kuma cikin nau'ikan yankuna hudu. Rubutun yayi bayani dalla-dallan hannu ( mudras ) da rarraba ƙungiyoyi da gabobi daban-daban, matakai da sauransu. Wata al'ada mai karfi ta cigaba da raye-raye tun daga wannan lokacin ta ci gaba a Indiya, har zuwa zamanin yau, inda take ci gaba da taka rawa a cikin al'ada, al'ada, kuma, musamman, masana'antar nishaɗin Bollywood. Sauran nau'ikan nau'ikan raye-raye na zamani suma za'a iya samo su ga rawa ta tarihi, ta al'ada, ta al'ada, da ta kabilanci .

Rawa da kiɗa

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
'Yan mata masu rawa a cikin wake-wake, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Rawa gaba ɗaya, kodayake ba ta musamman ba, ana yin ta tare da rakiyar kiɗa kuma mai yuwuwa ko ba a yi ta cikin lokaci zuwa irin wannan kiɗan. Wasu rawa (kamar su rawa rawa ) na iya ba da kayan aikin sa a madadin (ko ƙari) kiɗa. Yawancin nau'ikan kide-kide da raye-raye da yawa an ƙirƙiri juna kuma ana yin su tare tare. Fitattun misalai na raye-raye na gargajiya / hada kiɗa sun haɗa da jig, waltz, tango, disko, da salsa .Wasu nau'ikan nau'ikan kiɗa suna da nau'in rawa iri ɗaya kamar kiɗa na baroque da raye-raye na baroque ; sauran nau'ikan rawa da kiɗa na iya raba nomenclature amma an haɓaka daban, kamar kiɗan gargajiya da rawa ta gargajiya .

Rawa da kari

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Rhythm da rawa suna da alaƙa mai zurfi a cikin tarihi da aiki. Dan rawa dan Amurka Ted Shawn ya rubuta; "Tunanin rhythm wanda ke ƙarƙashin duk karatun raye -raye wani abu ne wanda zamu iya magana akai har abada, kuma har yanzu ba mu gama ba." [5] Waƙar kiɗa tana buƙatar manyan abubuwa guda biyu; na farko, bugun bugun-a-kai-akai (wanda kuma ake kira "bugun" ko "dabara") wanda ke tabbatar da ɗan lokaci kuma, na biyu, ƙirar lafazi da hutawa wanda ke tabbatar da halayen mita ko ƙirar rhythmic. Nauyin bugun jini yana daidai daidai da tsawon lokaci zuwa mataki mai sauƙi ko ishara.

A basic tango rhythm

Raye-raye gabaɗaya suna da yanayin halayyar mutum. Tango, misali, galibi ana rawa cikin 2</br> 2 lokaci a kusan 66 beats a minti daya. Asali a hankali, wanda ake kira da "sannu a hankali", yana ɗaukar tsiya ɗaya, don haka cikakken "dama - hagu" yayi daidai da ɗaya 2</br> 2 auna. Asalin gaba da baya na rawa ana kidaya su - "a hankali-a hankali" - yayinda adadi da yawa ana kirga su "a hankali - mai saurin-sauri. [6]

Kamar yadda ake fasalta sautunan kiɗa ta hanyar ƙa'idodi masu ƙarfi da rauni, haka maimaitar motsa jiki sau da yawa ya dogara da sauya muscular ƙungiyoyi "masu ƙarfi" da "marasa ƙarfi". [7] Idan aka yi la'akari da wannan canjin na dama-hagu, na gaba-baya da faduwa, tare da alaƙar haɗin jikin mutum, to abu ne na al'ada cewa raye-raye da yawa da kiɗa da yawa suna cikin mitsi biyu da rabi . Koyaya, tunda kuma wasu irin waɗannan ƙungiyoyi suna buƙatar ƙarin lokaci a cikin wani juzu'i fiye da ɗayan - kamar tsawon lokacin da ake buƙata don ɗaga guduma fiye da bugawa - wasu raye-rayen raye-raye suna faɗuwa daidai da yanayi cikin mita uku . [8] Lokaci-lokaci, kamar yadda a cikin raye-rayen gargajiya na Balkans, al'adun rawa suna dogara ne da rikitarwa masu rikitarwa. Bugu da ari, hadaddun raye-raye da aka hada da tsayayyen jerin matakai koyaushe suna buƙatar jimloli da karin waƙoƙin wani tsayayyen tsayi don su bi wannan jerin.

Lululaund - 'Yar Rawar (zane da zane na siliki. AL Baldry 1901, kafin p. 107), Rubutun ya karanta; "Rawa wani nau'ine na kari / Koma wani nau'ine na kida / Kiɗa wani nau'i ne na tunani / Kuma tunani wani nau'i ne na allahntaka."

Aikin rawa, matakan kansu, suna haifar da "kwarangwal na farko na rawar rudu" wanda dole ne ya riga ya kasance ga kowane raye raye na kade-kade, yayin rawar kanta, kamar kida, tana buƙatar kiyaye lokaci [9] kamar dai yadda maimaitattun maimaita motsi suke kamar yadda tafiya, jan ruwa da tonowa suke yi, yayin da suka zama masu ladabi, wani abu mai ingancin rawa. [7]

Don haka, raye-raye na kiɗa ya tashi a farkon rawa, don haka tsoffin Masarawa suka danganta asalin rawa zuwa ga Athotus na allahntaka, wanda aka ce ya lura cewa kiɗan da ke rakiyar al'adun addini ya sa mahalarta su yi tafiya a hankali kuma sun kawo waɗannan ƙungiyoyi zuwa mizani gwargwado. Irin wannan ra'ayin, cewa rawa ta samo asali ne daga rawar kide-kide, har yanzu ana samun sa a cikin renaissance Turai a cikin ayyukan maigidan rawa Guglielmo Ebreo da Pesaro wanda ke magana game da rawa a matsayin motsi na jiki wanda ya taso kuma ya bayyana a ciki, motsi na ruhaniya yana yarda da "matakan kuma cikakkun jituwa na jituwa "wanda ya faɗo kan kunnen ɗan adam, [7] yayin da, a baya, Mechthild na Magdeburg, yana ɗaukar rawa a matsayin alama ce ta rayuwa mai tsarki wanda aka kwatanta a cikin faɗin Yesu" Na busa sarewa kuma ba ku yi rawa ba ", [10] ya rubuta;

Thoinot Arbeau ya yi bikin bikin karni na 16 na karnin-rawa Orchésographie, hakika, ya fara ne da ma'anoni sama da tamanin da ke da ganga. [11]

Helen Moller

Kamar yadda aka nuna a sama, an wakilci rawa a cikin shekaru daban-daban kamar yadda ta fito a matsayin amsa ga kiɗa tukuna, kamar yadda Lincoln Kirstein ya nuna, aƙalla wataƙila mawuyacin kiɗan ya tashi ne daga rawa. Shawn concurs, yana mai cewa rawa "ita ce fasaha ta farko ta jinsin mutane, kuma matrix din da duk wasu fasahohin suka fito da ita" kuma har ma da " mita a cikin wakokinmu na yau sakamako ne na lafazin da motsa jiki ya wajabta, kamar yadda rawa da karatu ana yinsu lokaci guda " [5] - wata magana da aka goyi baya ta hanyar amfani da kalmar" ƙafa "don bayyana mawaƙan mawaƙan waƙoƙi.

Scholes, ba mai rawa ba amma mawaƙi, yana ba da goyan baya ga wannan ra'ayi, yana faɗi cewa tsayayyen matakan waƙa, na biyu, uku ko huɗu zuwa sandar, kalmomin daidai da daidaito, ƙididdigar yau da kullun, bambanci da maimaitawa, na iya zama duka dangana ga tasirin "ba shi da lissafi" na rawa a kan kiɗa.

Émile Jaques-Dalcroze, da farko mawaƙi kuma malami, ya ba da labarin yadda binciken motsa jiki na masu kaɗa fiyani ya kai shi ga "gano cewa jin motsin kiɗa da ke tattare da yanayin yanayi yana kira ne ga jijiyoyin jiki da amsar jijiyoyin gabaɗaya", don haɓaka horo na musamman da aka tsara don daidaita halayen juyayi da haifar da haɗin gwiwa na tsokoki da jijiyoyi "kuma a ƙarshe don neman haɗi tsakanin" fasahar kiɗa da fasahar rawa ", wanda ya tsara cikin tsarin sa na eurhythmics . [12] Ya karkare da cewa "salon waka ne kawai a sanya shi cikin sautin motsi da motsi kai tsaye ba tare da nuna son rai ba". [13]

Saboda haka, kodayake babu shakka, kamar yadda Shawn ya tabbatar, "abu ne mai yiyuwa a ci gaba da rawa ba tare da kiɗa ba kuma ... kiɗa yana da cikakkiyar damar tsayawa da ƙafafunsa ba tare da wani taimako daga rawa ba", amma "fasahar biyu za ta kasance koyaushe mai alaƙa kuma dangantakar na iya zama mai fa'ida duka ga rawa da waƙa ", [14] fifikon fasaha ɗaya a kan ɗayan yana da ma'ana. The kowa Ballad matakan na waka da jama'a-songs daukan su sunan daga dance, kamar yadda ya aikata da wakar, mai ban mamaki a da'irar dance . Yawancin sunayen waƙoƙi da yawa an sanya musu suna " waltz " ko " minuet ", misali, yayin da aka samar da raye-raye da yawa na raye-raye waɗanda suka dogara da kayan waƙoƙin da ba a fahimta ba, kamar su 2 da 3 Partungiyoyin Partirƙira, Adams Violin Concerto da Andantino . Hakazalika, wakoki galibi an tsara su kuma ana sanya musu suna bayan raye-raye ko ayyukan kide-kide, yayin da rawa da kiɗa duk sun ja ra'ayinsu na "ma'auni" ko "mita" daga waƙa.

Shawn ya faɗi tare da amincewa da bayanin Dalcroze cewa, yayin da fasahar kiɗan kiɗa ta ƙunshi rarrabewa da haɗawar tsawon lokaci, ɗan hutu da lafazi "bisa ga tsarin ilimin lissafi", na "ririn roba" (watau rawa) "shine keɓe motsi a sarari, don fassara ƙimomin lokaci mai tsawo ta hanyar saurin motsi da gajere ta hanzari, daidaita lokutan dakatarwa ta hanyar sauye-sauye iri-iri da kuma nuna karin sauti a cikin maɓuɓɓugansu da yawa ta hanyar ƙarin nauyin jiki, ta hanyar jijiyoyin jijiyoyin jiki ".

Shawn duk da haka yana nuni da cewa tsarin lokacin kade-kade wani "abu ne da mutum ya kirkira, abu ne na wucin gadi .... wani kayan aiki ne da aka kera, alhali kuwa kari wani abu ne da ya kasance koyaushe kuma ya dogara da mutum ba kwata-kwata", kasancewar shi "lokaci mai gudana ne wanda tunaninmu na mutane ya kasu zuwa raka'a masu dacewa ", yana mai ba da shawarar cewa za'a iya rayar da waka ta hanyar komawa ga dabi'u da hangen nesa na rawa. [15]

Ba'amurkiyar 'yar rawa a farkon ƙarni na 20 - Helen Moller ta faɗi kawai cewa "yana da kari kuma yana da tsari fiye da daidaituwa da launi wanda, daga farkon, ya haɗa kiɗa, waƙa da rawa tare a cikin ƙungiyar da ba ta narkewa." [16]

Hanyoyi don rawa

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
Tang sarakuna mata masu rawa

Concert dance, kamar wasan kwaikwayo, kullum dogara ga ta manyan sikelin-nau'i a kan wani labari da ban mamaki tsarin. Movement sungiyoyi da motsin rai na waƙa an tsara su ne da nufin lalata halayen mutane da manufofin haruffa da ɓangarorinsu a cikin makircin. [17] Irin waɗannan buƙatun wasan kwaikwayon suna neman tsawaitawa, ƙungiyoyi masu 'yanci fiye da waɗanda aka saba da su cikin salon rawa mara rawa. A gefe guda, bellet blanket, wanda aka kirkira a cikin karni na 19, yana ba da damar tsaka-tsakin rawa mai rawa wanda ya zama cikakkiyar ballet "mara makirci" a cikin ƙarni na 20 [18] kuma hakan yana ba da izinin saurin, rawar rawa mai saurin motsawa kamar ta petit ruwayar Sanannen sanannen shine Rawar Cygnets a cikin aiki biyu na Swan Lake .

Ballet ta samo asali ne daga wasan kwaikwayo na kotu na karni na 16 da 17 na Faransa da Italiya kuma na ɗan lokaci masu raye-raye suna yin raye-raye da aka haɓaka daga waɗanda suka saba da suite na kiɗa, [19] duk an bayyana su ta hanyar amintattun kalmomin da ke kusa da kowane rawa. . Waɗannan sun bayyana kamar raye-rayen ɗabi'a a zamanin soyayya ta ƙasa .

Ballet ta kai ga yaduwar abubuwa a cikin rayuwar soyayyar, tare da babbar ƙungiyar makaɗa da ra'ayoyin kiɗa masu ban sha'awa waɗanda ba sa ran kansu cikin sauƙin fahimta da kuma rawa wanda ya jaddada mime mai ban mamaki. An bukaci mahimmin ra'ayi game da kari, wanda Rudolf Laban ya ambace shi da "kari da sifa" na motsi wanda ke sadar da ɗabi'a, motsin rai da niyya, [20] yayinda wasu al'amuran kawai ke buƙatar daidaitaccen aiki da mataki da kiɗa mai mahimmanci ga sauran salon rawa, don haka, ga Laban, Turawan zamani ba su iya fahimtar ma'anar "dadaddiyar juyayyar motsi", [21] yanayin da ya fara canzawa a cikin karni na 20 tare da ire-iren abubuwan da Igor Stravinsky ya gabatar na Ruwan bazara tare da sabonsa harshe mai ma'ana wanda ke nuna jin dad'in rayuwar zamanin baya. [22]

Salon rawa irin na gargajiya na Indiya, kamar rawa, galibi suna cikin yanayi mai ban mamaki, don haka akwai kamantawa da juna tsakanin magana da rawa "tsarkakakke". A wannan yanayin, duk da haka, an bayyana abubuwan biyu daban, kodayake ba koyaushe ake yin su daban ba. Abubuwan rhythmic, waɗanda ba su da fasaha da fasaha, an san su da nritta . Duk wannan da rawa mai bayyana (nritya), kodayake, suna da alaƙa da tsarin rhythmic ( tala ). Malaman makaranta sun dace da tsarin motsa jiki wanda ake kira bol don bukatun masu rawa.

Tsarin gargajiya na Jafananci na rawa-gidan wasan kwaikwayo irin su Kabuki da Noh, kamar rawa-wasan kwaikwayo na Indiya, rarrabe tsakanin ba da labari da kuma wasan kwaikwayo na rawa. Babban rukuni uku na kabuki sune jidaimono (na tarihi), sewamono (na gida) da kuma shosagoto (raye-raye). Da ɗan kamannin haka, Noh ya bambanta tsakanin Geki Noh, wanda ya danganci ci gaban makirci da labarin aiki, da Furyū Noh, raye-rayen da suka hada da wasan acrobatics, kayan wasan kwaikwayo, haruffa da yawa da kuma mataki na bayani dalla-dalla.

A contra dance, a form of participatory social folk dance with mixed European roots

Raye-raye na zamantakewar jama'a, waɗanda aka yi niyya don hallara maimakon na masu sauraro, na iya haɗa da nau'ikan mime da labarai, amma yawanci ana tsara su sosai da yanayin waƙar da ke motsawa, don haka kalmomin kamar waltz da polka suna nuni zuwa ga abubuwa na kiɗa kamar ga rawa kanta. Ofafafun ƙafafun 'yan rawa na iya zama wani muhimmin ɓangare na kiɗan, kamar a rawa rawa . Rawar Afirka, alal misali, ta samo asali ne daga tsayayyun matakai na yau da kullun, amma kuma na iya ba da izini mai yawa na fassarar rhythmic: ƙafafu ko akwati suna alama alamar bugun jini yayin da ake ɗaukar rudani da kafaɗa, gwiwoyi, ko kai, tare da mafi kyawun masu rawa a lokaci guda suna ba da filastik magana ga duk abubuwan da ke tattare da tsarin polyrhythmic . [23]

Al’adun gargajiya

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
"Kuduro" (Angolan dance)
Matasan Uganda suna rawa a wani bikin al'adu na zaman lafiya

  Rawa a Afirka an haɗa ta sosai a cikin al'umma kuma manyan abubuwan da ke faruwa a cikin al'umma ana yawan nuna su cikin raye -raye: ana yin rawa don haihuwa da jana'iza, bukukuwan aure da yaƙe -yaƙe. :13 Rawar gargajiya tana ba da ɗabi'a ta al'ada, gami da al'adun addini da ƙa'idodin jima'i; ba da motsin zuciyar da aka danne, kamar baƙin ciki ; motsa membobin al'umma su ba da haɗin kai, ko yaƙe -yaƙe ko niƙa hatsi; aiwatar da ayyukan ibada na ruhaniya; da ba da gudummawa ga haɗin kan zamantakewa.

Ana yin dubban raye -raye a fadin nahiyar. Za a iya raba waɗannan zuwa na gargajiya, na al'ada, da na gargajiya: raye -rayen al'adun wata al'umma, raye -rayen da aka ƙirƙiri kwanan nan cikin kwaikwayon salo na gargajiya, da raye -rayen da ake watsawa da yawa a makarantu ko darussa masu zaman kansu. :18 Sojoji da yawa, irin su mishan mishan na Turawa da gwamnatocin mulkin mallaka, sun canza rawar Afirka, waɗanda galibi ke danne al'adun rawa na gida kamar na lalata ko jan hankali. Rawa a cikin al'adun Afirka na zamani har yanzu tana hidimomin ayyukanta na al'ada a cikin sabbin abubuwa; rawa na iya yin bikin ƙaddamar da asibiti, gina al'umma don ƙaura daga ƙauyuka a cikin biranen da ba a sani ba, kuma a haɗa su cikin bukukuwan cocin Kirista. [24]

 

Dan wasan gargajiya na Indiya

Duk raye -rayen gargajiya na Indiya suna da digiri iri -iri da aka kafe a cikin Natyashastra don haka suna raba fasali na gama gari: alal misali, mudra (matsayi na hannu), wasu matsayin jiki, motsi kafa da haɗar wasan kwaikwayo ko bayyananniya ko abhinaya. Kiɗan gargajiya na Indiya yana ba da rakiyar raye -raye da masu rawa na kusan duk salo suna sa ƙararrawa a kusa da idon sawun su don nuna ƙima da haɓaka haɓakar.

A yanzu akwai nau'ikan yanki na rawa na gargajiya na Indiya. Rawa kamar "Odra Magadhi", wanda bayan shekaru da yawa na muhawara, an gano shi don gabatar da Mithila na yau, nau'in rawar Odisha na Odissi (Orissi), yana nuna tasirin rawa a cikin mu'amalar al'adu tsakanin yankuna daban -daban. [25]

Yankin Punjab da ya mamaye Indiya da Pakistan shine asalin asalin Bhangra . An san shi sosai a matsayin salon kiɗa da rawa. Yawanci yana da alaƙa da bukukuwan girbi na dā, ƙauna, kishin ƙasa ko al'amuran zamantakewa. An haɗa kiɗan ta da kayan kiɗan da ake kira 'Dhol'. Bhangra ba kawai kiɗa bane amma rawa ce, bikin girbi inda mutane ke bugun dhol (drum), rera Boliyan (waƙoƙi) da rawa. Ya ci gaba da haɓaka tare da bikin Vaisakhi na Sikhs .

Rawar da aka yi a Sri Lanka ta haɗa da raye-rayen shaidan ( yakun natima), al'adar da aka ƙera a hankali har zuwa cikin Sri-pre-Buddhist na baya wanda ya haɗu da tsoffin " Ayurvedic " dabarun cutar tare da yin amfani da hankali kuma ya haɗa fannoni da yawa ciki har da ilimin sararin samaniya na Sinhalese. Ana iya ganin tasirin su akan raye -rayen gargajiya na Sri Lanka . [26]

Wasu masu rawa na gargajiya na gargajiya guda biyu suna yin jerin The Nutcracker, ɗayan sanannun ayyukan rawa na gargajiya

Rawa ta Gabas ta Tsakiya galibi al'adun gargajiya ne na raye -raye waɗanda aka sabunta su zuwa wani zamani. Za su hada dabke, tamzara, Assuriyawa jama'a dance, Kurdish dance, Armenian dance kuma Turkish dance, da sauransu. [27] [28] Duk waɗannan nau'ikan raye -raye galibi sun haɗa mahalarta shiga juna ta hanyar riƙe hannu ko hannu (dangane da salon rawa). Za su yi motsi na rhythmic tare da ƙafafunsu da kafadunsu yayin da suke zagaya filin rawa. Shugaban raye -rayen gabaɗaya zai riƙe sanda ko mayafi . [27] [29]

Turai da Arewacin Amurka

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

   

Rawa a Bougival ta Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1883)
Sioux Buffalo Dance, 1894

Rawar gargajiya ta bambanta a duk faɗin Turai kuma mai yuwuwa ta dawo shekaru ɗari ko dubban shekaru, amma da yawa suna da fasali iri ɗaya kamar hallartar ƙungiyar da mai kira ke jagoranta, riƙe hannu ko haɗa haɗin gwiwa tsakanin mahalarta, da tsayayyun nau'ikan kiɗan da aka sani da caroles. Wasu, kamar rawar maypole gama gari ne ga al'ummomi da yawa, yayin da wasu kamar céilidh da polka suna da tushe sosai a cikin al'adu ɗaya. An kawo wasu raye -raye na al'adun Turai kamar rawar murabba'a zuwa Sabuwar Duniya kuma daga baya ya zama wani ɓangare na al'adun Amurka.

Ballet ta haɓaka da farko a Italiya sannan kuma a Faransa daga tabarau na kotun da suka haɗa kiɗa, wasan kwaikwayo, waƙa, waƙa, kayan ado da rawa. Mambobin kotun sun ɗauki matsayin masu yin wasan. A lokacin mulkin Louis XIV, shi kansa ɗan rawa, rawa ta ƙara daidaitawa. Kwararrun masu rawa sun fara maye gurbin 'yan kootu, kuma gwamnatin Faransa ta ba da lasisi ga masu rawa. Kwalejin koyar da rawa ta farko ita ce Académie Royale de Danse (Royal Dance Academy), wanda aka buɗe a Paris a 1661. Ba da daɗewa ba bayan haka, an kafa ƙungiyar rawa ta farko da aka kafa, mai alaƙa da Kwalejin; wannan rukunin ya fara ne a matsayin ƙungiyar maza duka amma a cikin 1681 an buɗe don haɗawa da mata ma. [2]

Rawan kide -kide na karni na 20 ya kawo fashewar bidi'a a cikin salon rawa wanda ke nuna fasahar fasahohin 'yanci. Farkon majagaba na abin da aka sani da rawa ta zamani sun haɗa da Loie Fuller, Isadora Duncan, Mary Wigman da Ruth St. Denis . Dangantakar kiɗa da rawa tana zama tushen Eurhythmics, wanda Emile Jaques-Dalcroze ya ƙirƙira, wanda ya yi tasiri ga haɓaka rawa ta zamani da rawa ta zamani ta masu fasaha irin su Marie Rambert . Eurythmy, wanda Rudolf Steiner da Marie Steiner-von Sivers suka haɓaka, sun haɗu da abubuwa na yau da kullun waɗanda ke tunatar da rawa ta gargajiya tare da sabon salo na 'yanci, kuma sun gabatar da sabon hadaddun ƙamus don rawa. A cikin shekarun 1920, muhimman wadanda suka kafa sabon salo kamar Martha Graham da Doris Humphrey sun fara aikinsu. Tun daga wannan lokacin, an haɓaka nau'ikan salon rawa iri -iri; ga Rawan zamani .

Rawar Baƙin Baƙon Ba'amurke ta bunƙasa a wurare na yau da kullun, maimakon a cikin ɗakunan rawa, makarantu ko kamfanoni. Taɓa rawa, disko, rawa jazz, raye -raye, raye -raye na hip hop, lindy hop tare da alakarta da yin kida da kida da rawa da rawa sun yi tasiri a duniya. Hanyoyin raye-raye da ke haɗa fasahar rawa ta gargajiya tare da raye-raye na Ba'amurke suma sun bayyana a ƙarni na 21, gami da Hiplet .

Latin Amurka

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 

Masu rawa kan titin samba suna yin fareti na carnival da gasa

Dance rawa ce ga rayuwar zamantakewar Latin Amurka da al'adu. Samba na Brazil, tango na Argentina, da salsa na Cuba mashahuran raye -raye ne na abokan tarayya, da sauran raye -raye na ƙasa - merengue, cueca, plena, jarabe, joropo, marinera, cumbia, bachata da sauransu - muhimman abubuwan al'adun ƙasashensu ne. Bukukuwan Carnival na gargajiya sun haɗa waɗannan da sauran raye -raye a cikin manyan bukukuwa.

Rawar rawa ta taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen ƙirƙira ƙira na gama gari tsakanin yawancin al'adu da ƙabilun Latin Amurka . Rawar ta taimaka wajen haɗaka yawancin jama'ar Afirka, Turai, da 'yan asalin yankin. Wasu nau'ikan rawar rawa, kamar capoeira, da motsi na jiki, musamman halayyar quebradas ko canjin ƙashin ƙugu, an hana su daban -daban kuma an yi bikin su a duk tarihin Latin Amurka. [30]

Hip -hop ya samo asali ne daga New York, musamman a yankin da ake kira Bronx. An halicce shi ne ga waɗanda suka yi gwagwarmaya a cikin al'umma kuma da alama ba su da murya a cikin al'umma da ke kewaye da su saboda rashin wadatarsu. Ya taimaka wa waɗanda ke cikin yanayi ɗaya su taru su yi magana game da batutuwa masu wahala ta amfani da motsi da ji.

Ilimin rawa

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana ba da karatun rawa ta hanyar zane -zane da shirye -shiryen ɗan adam na cibiyoyin ilimi da yawa. Wasu jami'o'in suna ba da Bachelor of Arts da manyan digiri na ilimi a cikin Dance. A dance nazari manhaja iya kẽwayẽwa wani bambancin kewayon darussa da batutuwa, ciki har da dance yi da kuma yi, Choreography, ethnochoreology, kinesiology, dance tsarin rubutu, da kuma dance far . Kwanan nan, an haɗa rawar rawa da motsa jiki a wasu makarantu cikin darussan lissafi don ɗaliban da ke da nakasa na ilmantarwa, naƙasasshiyar motsin rai/ɗabi'a da/ko rashin kulawa ta rashin hankali (ADHD).

Mai rawa yana yin rawa a ɗakin rawa, wuri na farko don horo a cikin rawar gargajiya da sauran salo da yawa

Ƙwararrun masu rawa

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kwararrun masu rawa suna yawan aiki akan kwangila ko don takamaiman wasanni ko samarwa. Rayuwar ƙwararrun dan rawa gaba ɗaya ɗaya ce ta canza yanayin aiki koyaushe, matsin lamba mai ƙarfi da ƙarancin albashi. Sakamakon haka, ƙwararrun masu rawa suna buƙatar ƙara yawan abin da suke samu don samun kwanciyar hankali na kuɗi. A cikin Amurka ƙwararrun masu rawa suna cikin ƙungiyoyi (kamar American Guild of Musical Artists, Screen Actors Guild and Actors 'Equity Association ) waɗanda ke kafa yanayin aiki da mafi ƙarancin albashi ga membobin su. Dole ƙwararrun masu rawa su mallaki yawan wasannin motsa jiki. Don jagorantar aiki mai nasara, yana da fa'ida kasancewa iri -iri a cikin salon rawa daban -daban, samun tushen fasaha mai ƙarfi da yin amfani da wasu nau'ikan horo na jiki don kasancewa cikin koshin lafiya.

Malaman rawa

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Malaman raye galibi suna mai da hankali kan koyar da wasan rawa, ko horar da masu rawa masu gasa, ko duka biyun. Yawanci suna da ƙwarewar wasan kwaikwayon a cikin nau'ikan rawar da suke koyarwa ko koyawa. Alal misali, dancesport malamai da kocina ne sau da yawa gasa rawa ko tsohon dancesport aikatawa. Malaman raye-raye na iya zama masu zaman kansu, ko makarantun raye-raye ko cibiyoyin ilimi gaba ɗaya da shirye-shiryen rawa. Wasu suna aiki don shirye -shiryen jami'a ko wasu makarantu waɗanda ke da alaƙa da ƙwararrun rawa na gargajiya (misali, rawa) ko kamfanonin rawa na zamani. Wasu kuma suna aiki da ƙananan makarantun raye -raye masu zaman kansu waɗanda ke ba da horon rawa da koyar da wasan kwaikwayo ga nau'ikan rawa daban -daban.

Choreographers sune waɗanda ke tsara ƙungiyoyin raye -raye a cikin raye -raye, galibi ana koyar da su jami'a kuma galibi ana ɗaukar su aiki don takamaiman ayyuka ko, da wuya a iya yin aiki akan kwangila a matsayin mazaunin mawaƙa na wani takamaiman kamfanin rawa.

Gasar wasannin rawa mai son rawa, wanda ke nuna Viennese Waltz

Gasar rawa rawa ce da aka shirya inda masu fafatawa ke yin raye -raye a gaban alkali ko alkali don samun kyaututtuka, kuma a wasu lokuta, kyaututtukan kuɗi. Akwai manyan nau'ikan wasannin raye -raye da yawa, waɗanda aka bambanta musamman ta hanyar salo ko salon raye -raye da aka yi. Manyan nau'ikan wasannin rawa sun haɗa da:

  • Rawar gasa, wacce aka yarda da nau'ikan salon rawa iri-iri, kamar su acro, ballet, jazz, hip-hop, lyrical, da tap .
  • Buɗe gasa, wanda ke ba da izinin salon rawa iri -iri. Misalin wannan shine shirin TV Don haka kuna tunanin zaku iya rawa .
  • Dancesport, wanda aka fi mayar da hankali ga gidan rawa da rawa Latin . Misalan wannan sune shirye -shiryen TV Suna rawa tare da Taurari da Rawanin Rawa .
  • Single-style gasa, kamar; rawa highland, ƙungiyar rawa, da rawa ta Irish, waɗanda ke ba da izinin salon rawa ɗaya kawai.

Bugu da kari, akwai wasannin gasa na rawa da yawa da aka gabatar a talabijin da sauran kafofin watsa labarai.

  • Art
  • Shafin zane -zane
  • Shaci na rawa
  • Fihirisar labaran rawa
  • Jerin lambobin yabo na rawa
  • Jikin mutum

Bayanan kula

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 

 

  1. Canadian National Arts Centre – Dance Forms: An Introduction
  2. 2.0 2.1 Nathalie Comte.
  3. Guenther, Mathias Georg.
  4. Raftis, Alkis, The World of Greek Dance Finedawn, Athens (1987) p25.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Shawn, Ted, Dance We Must, 1946, Dennis Dobson Ltd., London, p. 50
  6. Imperial Society of Teachers of Dancing, Ballroom Dancing, Teach Yourself Books, Hodder and Stoughton, 1977, p. 38
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Lincoln Kirstein, Dance, Dance Horizons Incorporated, New York, 1969, p. 4
  8. Shawn, Ted, Dance We Must, 1946, Dennis Dobson Ltd., London, p. 49
  9. Lincoln Kirstein, Dance, Dance Horizons Incorporated, New York, 1969, p. 3
  10. Matthew 11:17
  11. Lincoln Kirstein, Dance, Dance Horizons Incorporated, New York, 1969, p. 157
  12. Émile Jaques-Dalcroze, Rhythm, Music and Education, 1973, The Dalcroze Society, London, p. viii
  13. Émile Jaques-Dalcroze, Rhythm, Music and Education, 1973, The Dalcroze Society, London, p. 181
  14. Shawn, Ted, Dance We Must, 1946, Dennis Dobson Ltd., London, p. 54
  15. Shawn, Ted, Dance We Must, 1946, Dennis Dobson Ltd., London, pp. 50–51
  16. Moller, Helen and Dunham, Curtis, Dancing with Helen Moller, 1918, John Lane (New York and London), p. 74
  17. Laban, Rudolf, The Mastery of Movement, MacDonald and Evans, London, 1960, p. 2
  18. Minden, Eliza Gaynor, The Ballet Companion: A Dancer's Guide, Simon and Schuster, 2007, p. 92
  19. Thoinot Arbeau, Orchesography, trans. by Mary Stewart Evans, with notes by Julia Sutton, New York: Dover, 1967
  20. Laban, Rudolf, The Mastery of Movement, MacDonald and Evans, London, 1960, pp. 2, 4 et passim
  21. Laban, Rudolf, The Mastery of Movement, MacDonald and Evans, London, 1960, p. 86
  22. Abigail Wagner, A Different Type of Rhythm, Lawrence University, Wisconsin
  23. Ayansu, E.S. and Whitfield, P. (eds.
  24. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Hanna1973
  25. Exoticindiaart.com, Dance: The Living Spirit of Indian Arts, by Prof.
  26. Lankalibrary.com Archived 2007-03-09 at the Wayback Machine, "The yakun natima — devil dance ritual of Sri Lanka"
  27. 27.0 27.1 Badley, Bill and Zein al Jundi.
  28. Recep Albayrak Hacaloğlu.
  29. Subhi Anwar Rashid, Mesopotamien, Abb 137
  30. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named DelgadoMuñoz1997
  • Abra, Allison. "Tafi zuwa fadar sarauta: tarihin zamantakewa da al'adu na rawa da zauren rawa a Biritaniya, 1918 - 1960." Tarihin Biritaniya na zamani (Sep 2016) 30#3 pp. 432-433.
  • Blogg, Martin. Dance da Bangaskiyar Kirista: Wani Sanin Ilimi, Lutterworth Press (2011), 
  • Carter, A. (1998) The Routledge Dance Studies Reader . Routledge. ISBN 0-415-16447-8 .
  • Cohen, S, J. (1992) Rawa A Matsayin Gidan Wasan kwaikwayo: Karanta Tushen a Tarihin Rawa daga 1581 zuwa Yanzu . Kamfanin Princeton Book Co.  .
  • Daly, A. (2002) Manyan Gestures: Rubutu akan Rawa da Al'adu . Jami'ar Wesleyan Press . ISBN 0-8195-6566-0 .
  • Miller, James, L. (1986) Matakan Hikima: Rawar Cosmic a Tsarin gargajiya da Kiristanci, Jami'ar Toronto Latsa . ISBN 0-8020-2553-6 .

Hanyoyin waje

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
  • Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Dance" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  • Hotunan tarihi na rawa daga 3300 BC zuwa 1911 AD daga Project Gutenberg
  • Gidan Tarihi na Raye -raye na Amurka da Zauren Fame