Shaykh al-Islām

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Shaykh al-Islām (Larabci: شيخ الإسلام, romanized: Šayḫ al-Islām; Ottoman Turkish: شیخ‌ الاسلام, romanized: Şhaykḫu-l-İslām ko Sheiklı ul-Islam[1]) an yi amfani da shi a zamanin gargajiya azaman daraja ga fitattun malaman ilimin addinin Musulunci.[2][3] Ya fara fitowa ne a Khurasan har zuwa karshen karni na 4 na Musulunci.[2] A cikin kasashen tsakiya da yammacin Musulunci, lakabi ne na yau da kullun da aka bai wa masanan shari'a wadanda fatawoyinsu ke da tasiri musamman, yayin da a gabas ya zama masu mulki ne ke ba da shi. ga malaman da suka taka mukamai daban -daban amma ba galibi muftis ba. Wani lokaci, kamar yadda aka yi a kan Ibn Taimiyya, amfani da take yana da sabani. A cikin Daular Usmaniyya, tun daga farkon zamanin zamani, taken ya zo ne don nada babban mufti, wanda ke kula da matsayin manyan malamai da gwamnati ta nada. Daular Usmaniyya Sheikh al-Islam (haruffan Faransanci: cheikh-ul-islam) ya yi ayyuka da dama, ciki har da bai wa sarkin shawara kan al'amuran addini, halatta manufofin gwamnati, da nada alkalai.[2][4]

Tare da soke Khalifanci a 1924, an kawar da ofishin Ottoman na Shaykh al-Islām, wanda tuni ya lalace.[5] Zamani ya ga rawar da babban mufti ke aiwatarwa ta manyan muftis waɗanda aka naɗa ko zaɓaɓɓu ta hanyoyi daban -daban.[3]

Amfani na gargajiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kamar sauran laƙabi masu daraja da aka fara da kalmar sheik, kalmar shaykh al-islam tana cikin zamanin da aka keɓe ga malamai da sufi. Ya fara bayyana a Khurasan a karni na 10 (karni na 4 bayan hijira).[2] A cikin manyan biranen Khurasan da alama yana da ƙarin takamaiman ma'anoni, tunda mutum ɗaya ne kawai ke riƙe taken a wani lokaci da wuri. Masu rike da mukamin a Khurasan suna daga cikin manyan malamai, amma babu wata shaida da suka bayar da fatawa. A karkashin Ilkhans, Delhi Sultanate da Timurids an ba da taken, galibi daga mai mulki, ga manyan ulama waɗanda suka yi ayyuka daban-daban amma ba gabaɗaya muftis ba.[2]

A cikin Siriya da Masar an ba da taken ga mashahuran masanan shari'a kuma yana da daraja maimakon matsayin hukuma. A shekara ta 700/1300 a tsakiya da yammacin Islama kalmar ta haɗu da bayar da fatawa. Magoya bayansa sun ba Ibn Taimiyya taken amma abokan hamayyarsa sun kalubalanci wannan amfani.[2] Misali, malamin Hanafi 'Ala' al-Din al-Bukhari ya fitar da fatawa yana mai cewa duk wanda ya kira Ibnu Taimiyya "Shaikhul islam" ya aikata kafirci (kufr).[6][7] Akwai rashin jituwa kan ko taken ya kasance abin girmamawa ko sanya muftin gida a Seljuq da farkon Ottoman Anatolia.[2]

A Daular Usmaniyya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sheikh ul-islam Mehmet Cemaleddin Efendi a zamanin Sarkin Ottoman Sultan da Khalifa Abdul Hamid II

A Daular Usmaniyya, wacce ta mamaye yawancin duniyar Islama ta Sunni daga karni na 14 zuwa na 20, an ba Babban Mufti lakabin Sheikh ul-islam (Ottoman Turkish: Şeyḫülislām). Daular Usmaniyya tana da tsayayyen matsayi na malamai, inda Sheikh ul-Islam ke da matsayi mafi girma. Wakilin masarautar ya zabi Sheikh ul-Islam a cikin kaddarorin manyan biranen. Sheikh ul-Islam yana da ikon tabbatar da sabbin sarakuna; amma da zarar an tabbatar da sarkin, sarkin ya ci gaba da rike madafun iko fiye da Sheik ul-Islam. Sheikh ul-Islam ya bayar da fatawoyi, wadanda aka rubuta tafsirin Alqur'ani mai iko akan al'umma. Sheikh ul-Islam ya wakilci dokar shariah kuma a karni na 16 mahimmancinsa ya tashi wanda ya haifar da ƙara ƙarfi. Sultan Murad IV ya nada Sufi, Yahya, a matsayin Sheik ul-Islam a wannan lokacin wanda ya haifar da rashin yarda. Kin amincewa da wannan nadin ya bayyana karara karfin ikon da Sheikh ul-Islam yake da shi, tun da mutane suna tsoron zai canza hadisai da ka'idojin da suke rayuwa a ciki ta hanyar fitar da sabbin fatawoyi.

An soke ofishin Sheikh ul-islam a 1924, a daidai lokacin da Khalifancin Daular Usmaniyya. Bayan da aka kafa Majalisar Dokokin Turkiyya a 1920, an sanya ofishin Sheikh ul-Islam a ma'aikatar Shar'iyya wa Awqaf. A cikin 1924, an soke ofishin Sheikh ul-Islam a daidai lokacin da Khalifancin Daular Usmaniyya. Fadar Shugaban Addinai ta maye gurbin. A matsayin magajin ofishin Sheikh ul-Islam, Shugaban Harkokin Addini shine mafi iko a Turkiyya dangane da Musulunci na Sunni.

Masu karramawa masu daraja[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Malaman Musulunci masu zuwa an ba su laƙabi mai daraja "shaikh al-islam":

  • Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (b. 164 AH)
  • Abu Mansur al-Maturidi[8] (b. 231 AH)
  • Ibn Surayj[9][10] (b. 249 AH)
  • Al-Daraqutni[9] (b. 306 AH)
  • Al-Bayhaqi[9] (b. 384 AH)
  • Abu Ishaq al-Shirazi[9] (b. 393 AH)
  • Abu Talib al-Makki[11] (b. 386 AH)
  • Khwaja Abdullah Ansari[2]:400 (b. 481 AH)
  • Al-Juwayni[12] (b. 419 AH)
  • Fakhr al-Din al-Razi[13] (b. 544 AH)
  • Ibn al-Jawzi[9] (b. 509/510 AH)
  • Al-'Izz ibn 'Abd al-Salam[14][15] (b. 577 AH)
  • Ibn Daqiq al-'Id[16] (b. 625 AH)
  • Al-Nawawi[17] (b. 631 AH)
  • Taqi al-Din al-Subki[18](b. 683 AH)
  • Taj al-Din al-Subki[19] (b. 727 AH)
  • Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani[20] (b. 773 AH)
  • Zakariyya al-Ansari[21][22][23][24] (b. 823 AH)
  • Ibn Hajar al-Haytami[25] (b. 909 AH)
  • Siraj al-Din al-Bulqini[26][27] (b. 724 AH)
  • Ahmad Zayni Dahlan[28] (b. 1231 or 1232 AH)
  • Hussain Ahmed Madani (b. 1296)[29][30]
  • Majd al-Din Ishāq[31]
  • Muhammad Madni Ashraf Ashrafi Al-Jilani (b. 1357 AH)[32]
  • Shah Ahmad Shafi (b. 1334-35 AH)[33][34]
  • Mūsā Jār ul-Lāh Bigiev (b. 1295 AH)
  • Ibrahim Niass

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Hogarth, D. G. (January 1906). "Reviewed Work: Corps de Droit Ottoman by George Young". The English Historical Review. Oxford University Press. 21 (81): 186–189. JSTOR 549456. - CITED: p. 189: "'Sheikh-ul-Islam,' for instance, should be written 'Sheiklı ul-Islam,' and so forth. This mistake is common, but none the less a mistake." - Review of Corps de Droit Ottoman
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Gerhard Böwering, Patricia Crone, Mahan Mirza, The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought, p 509-510. 08033994793.ABA
  3. 3.0 3.1 Template:EI2
  4. James Broucek (2013). "Mufti/Grand mufti". In Gerhard Böwering, Patricia Crone (ed.). The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought. Princeton University Press.
  5. Brockett, Adrian Alan, Studies in two transmissions of the Qur'an
  6. The Biographies Of The Elite Lives Of The Scholars, Imams & Hadith Masters by Gibril Fouad Haddad
  7. Correct Islamic Doctrine/Islamic Doctrine by Ibn Khafif
  8. Gibril Fouad Haddad (2015). The Biographies of the Elite Lives of the Scholars, Imams and Hadith Masters. Zulfiqar Ayub. p. 141.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Al-Dhahabi, Siyar a'lam al-nubala' ('Biographies of Noble Personalities').
  10. Constructive Critics, Hadith Literature, and the Articulation of Sunni Islam by Scott C. Lucas - Page 87.
  11. Yazaki, Saeko (2012). Islamic Mysticism and Abu Talib Al-Makki: The Role of the Heart. Routledge. p. 122. ISBN 978-0415671101.
  12. M. M. Sharif, A History of Muslim Philosophy, 1.242. 08033994793.ABA
  13. Islam and Other Religions: Pathways to Dialogue by Irfan Omar
  14. Jackson, Sherman (1996). Islamic Law and the State: The Constitutional Jurisprudence of Shihab Al-Din Al-Qarafi (Studies in Islamic Law & Society). Brill. p. 10. ISBN 9004104585.
  15. Allah's Names and Attributes (Islamic Doctrines & Beliefs) by Imam Al-Bayhaqi (Author), Gibril Fouad Haddad (Translator)
  16. Islamic Culture - Volume 45 - Page 195
  17. Correct Islamic Doctrine/Islamic Doctrine - Page 11.
  18. Mohammad Hassan Khalil, Islam and the Fate of Others: The Salvation Question, Oxford University Press, 3 May 2012, p 89. 08033994793.ABA
  19. Tasawwuf al-Subki
  20. Template:EI2
  21. Template:EI2
  22. Safinah Safinat al-Naja' - The Ship of Salvation
  23. Timbuktu and the Songhay Empire by John O. Hunwick
  24. The Archetypal Sunni Scholar: Law, Theology, and Mysticism in the Synthesis of Al-Bajuri by Aaron Spevack
  25. The Prophets in Barzakh/The Hadith of Isra' and Mi'raj/The Immense Merrits of Al-Sham/The Vision of Allah by Al-Sayyid Muhammad Ibn 'Alawi
  26. [Mamluk Studies Review - Volume 6 - Page 118.]
  27. The Biographies Of The Elite Lives Of The Scholars, Imams & Hadith Masters by Gibril Fouad Haddad.
  28. Muhammad Hisham Kabbani (2004). The Naqshbandi Sufi Tradition Guidebook of Daily Practices and Devotions. Islamic Supreme Council of America. p. 187. ISBN 9781930409224.
  29. "Hussain Ahmad Madani - Oxford Islamic Studies Online". oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 2021-01-24.
  30. Syeda, Lubna Shireen (2014-08-10). "A study of jamiat-ulama-i-hind with special reference to maulana hussain ahmad madani in freedom movement (A.D. 1919-A.D.1947)". Ambedkar University (in English).CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  31. Richard Todd The Sufi Doctrine of Man: Ṣadr al-Dīn al-Qūnawī's Metaphysical Anthropology BRILL, 28.05.2014 08033994793.ABA p. 13
  32. "Eminent scholar starts religious discourses". thehansindia.com.
  33. "Bangladesh Radical Islamist Hefazat Chief Shah Ahmad Shafi Dies at Age of 104". news18.com.
  34. "Allama Shafi passes away". observerbd.com.