Fakhr al-Din al-Razi

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Fakhr al-Din al-Razi
تخطيط لاسم الإمام الرازي.png
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Ray (en) Fassara, 1150
Mutuwa Herat, 1210
Karatu
Harsuna Larabci
Ɗalibai
Sana'a
Sana'a Mai Falsafa, masanin lissafi, Ulama'u da Ilimin Taurari
Muhimman ayyuka Tafsir al-Kabir (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Musulunci

Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, ko Fakhruddin Razi ( Persian ) (26 ga watan Janairu 1150 - 29 ga watan Maris 1210) wanda ya kasan ce masanin tauhidi ya san shi sau da yawa, ya kasance mutumin farisa ne polymath, malamin addinin Islama [1] [2] kuma jagora ne na dabaru mai jan hankali. Ya yi rubuce-rubuce iri daban-daban a fannonin likitanci, ilmin kimiya, kimiyyar lissafi, ilimin taurari, ilimin sararin samaniya, adabi, tiyoloji, ilimin halayyar dan adam, falsafa, tarihi da fikihu . Ya kasance daya daga cikin magabata na farko da masu shakku wadanda suka zo da batun Multivers, kuma suka kwatanta shi da ilimin falaki na Al-Qur'ani . Mai musun samfurin duniya da kuma tunanin Aristotelian na wata duniya da ke zagaye da wata duniya, Al-Razi yayi jayayya game da wanzuwar sararin samaniya sama da duniyar da aka sani. [3]

An haifi Al-Razi ne a garin Rey na Iran, kuma ya mutu a Herat, Afghanistan . Ya bar tarin wadatar ayyukan falsafa da tiyoloji wadanda ke nuna tasiri daga ayyukan Avicenna, Abu'l-Barakāt al-Baghdādī da al-Ghazali . Biyu daga cikin ayyukansa mai taken Mabāhith al-mashriqiyya fm 'ilm al-ilāhiyyāt wa-'l-tabi'iyyāt ( Nazarin Gabas a Metaphysics da Physics ) da al-Matālib al-'Aliya ( Batutuwa Mafi Girma ) galibi ana ɗaukarsa a matsayin mafi yawansu muhimman ayyukan falsafa.

Tarihin rayuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Umar ibn al-Husayn a-Taymi al-Bakri a-Tabaristani Fakhr al-Din al-Razi Tabaristani [4] ( Larabci: أبو عبدالله محمد بن عمر بن الحسن بن الحسين بن علي التيمي البكري فخرالدین الرازی طبرستانی‎ الحسين بن علي التيمي البكري فخرالدین الرازی طبرستانی ) an haife shi (544 AH) zuwa ga wasu baƙi Larabawa daga ƙabilar Kuraishawa waɗanda suka yi ƙaura zuwa Rey a cikin Amol na Tabaristan ( Lardin Mazandaran na yau, Iran). [5] [6] [7] Ya fara karatu ne tare da mahaifinsa, Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn al-Makkī, shi kansa masanin sanannen martaba ne wanda a kwanan nan aka sake gano babban kwayar sa a kalam [8] sannan daga baya a Merv da Maragheh, inda yake ɗaya daga cikin ɗaliban. na Majd al-Din al-Jili, wanda kuma ya kasance almajirin al-Ghazali . Ya kasance babban mai goyon bayan makarantar tauhidin Ash'ari.

Tafsirinsa a kan Al-Qur'ani ya kasance mafi banbanci da yawa daga dukkan ayyukan da ke akwai, wanda ya kunshi mafi yawan abubuwan da suka bayyana a baya. Ya dukufa ga karatun da yawa kuma ance ya kashe dukiya mai yawa akan gwaje-gwajen da ake yi a harkar sihiri . Ya koyar a Rey (Iran ta Tsakiya) da Ghazni (gabashin Afghanistan ), kuma ya zama shugaban jami’ar da Mohammed ibn Tukush ya kafa a Herat (yammacin Afghanistan).

A shekarun baya, ya kuma nuna sha'awar sufanci, kodayake wannan bai zama wani muhimmin ɓangare na tunaninsa ba.

Babban Sharhi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Oneaya daga cikin nasarorin da Imam Razi ya samu shine aikin fassararsa na musamman akan Al-Qur'ani mai suna Mafātiḥ al-Ghayb ( Maɓallan Gaibu ) sannan daga baya ake masa laƙabi da Tafsīr al-Kabīr ( Babban Sharhi ), dalili ɗaya shine cewa ya kasance mujalladai 32 a tsayi. Wannan aikin ya ƙunshi yawancin sha'awar falsafa. Daya daga cikin "manyan damuwansa shi ne isar da hankali." Amincewarsa da asalin Alkurani ya girma tare da shekarunsa. " Babu shakka hankali da tunani irin na Al-Razi "yana da muhimmiyar matsayi a cikin bahasin a cikin al'adun Musulunci game da daidaita tunani da wahayi."

Ci gaban Al-Razi na Kalam (ilimin tauhidin karatuttukan musulinci) ya haifar da ci gaba da bunkasa ilimin tauhidi tsakanin musulmai. Razi ya ɗan sami lokuta daban-daban a cikin tunaninsa, wanda ya shafi mazhabar Ash'ari sannan daga baya al-Ghazali. Al-Razi yayi kokarin amfani da abubuwan Muʿtazila da Falsafah, kuma duk da cewa yana da wasu suka kan ibn Sina, amma Razi ya shafe shi matuka. Misali mafi mahimmanci wanda ya nuna kirkirar tunanin Razi na iya zama matsalar dawwama ta duniya da kuma alakarta da Allah. Ya yi ƙoƙari ya sake tsara hujjojin masana tauhidi da masana falsafa a kan wannan batun, ya tattara kuma ya yi nazarin dalilan bangarorin biyu sosai. Ya yi la’akari, a mafi yawancin, hujjar masana falsafa na har abada a duniya ya fi ƙarfin matsayin masu ilimin tauhidi na sanya fifikon yanayin duniya. A cewar Tony Street, bai kamata mu ga rayuwar Razi ta fa'ida ba ta tafiya daga ƙuruciya yar yare zuwa yanayin addini. Da alama ya ɗauki ra'ayoyi daban-daban na makarantu daban-daban, irin na Mutazilite da Asharite, a cikin tafsirinsa, Babban Sharhin .

Ma'anar hangen nesa na duniyoyi da yawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Al-Razi, a cikin ma'amalarsa game da tunaninsa na kimiyyar lissafi da kuma duniyar zahiri a cikin littafinsa na Matalib al-'Aliya, ya soki ra'ayin samfurin ƙasa a cikin sararin samaniya kuma "ya bincika ra'ayin kasancewar mutane da yawa a cikin yanayin sharhinsa. "a kan ayar Alqur'ani ," Dukkan godiya ta tabbata ga Allah, Ubangijin halittu. " Ya kiwata tambayar ko da kalmar " halittu " a cikin wannan aya tana nufin "mahara halittu a cikin wannan guda sararin samaniya ko halittu, ko don wasu kaunun ko wani multiverse bayan wannan da aka sani talikai." [3]

Al-Razi states:[3]

It is established by evidence that there exists beyond the world a void without a terminal limit (khala' la nihayata laha), and it is established as well by evidence that God Most High has power over all contingent beings (al-mumkinat ). Therefore He the Most High has the power (qadir ) to create millions of worlds (alfa alfi 'awalim) beyond this world such that each one of those worlds be bigger and more massive than this world as well as having the like of what this world has of the throne (al-arsh), the chair (al-kursiyy), the heavens (al-samawat ) and the earth (al-ard ), and the sun (al-shams) and the moon (al-qamar ). The arguments of the philosophers (dala'il al-falasifah) for establishing that the world is one are weak, flimsy arguments founded upon feeble premises.

Al-Razi ya yi watsi da ra'ayin Aristotelian da Avicennian na wata duniyan da ke zagaye da wata duniya. Ya bayyana manyan hujjarsu game da kasancewar duniyoyi masu yawa ko duniyoyi, yana mai nuna kasawarsu yana karyata su. Wannan kin amincewa ya samo asali ne daga tabbatar da kwayar zarra, kamar yadda mazhabar Ash'ari ta tauhidin Musulunci ta ba da shawara, wanda ya kunshi wanzuwar sarari inda kwayoyin halitta ke motsawa, haduwa da rabuwa.[ana buƙatar hujja] . Ya tattauna more a kan batun na wõfintattu - da komai a sarari tsakanin taurari da kuma waɗansu masaukai a cikin sararin samaniya, dake dauke da 'yan ko babu taurari - a mafi girma, daki-daki, a juz'i na 5 na Matalib. Yayi jayayya cewa akwai sararin samaniya mara iyaka wanda ya wuce duniyar da aka sani, kuma cewa Allah yana da iko ya cika wurin da duniyoyin da basu da iyaka. [9]

Jerin ayyuka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Al-Razi ya yi rubuce-rubuce sama da ɗari a kan batutuwa daban-daban. Manyan ayyukansa sun hada da:

  • <i id="mwug">Tafsir al-Kabir</i> ( <i id="mwuw">Babban Sharhi</i> ) (wanda kuma aka fi sani da Mafatih al-Ghayb )
  • Asas al-Taqdis ( Gidauniyar Bayyanar da Rahamar Allah) Hujja ta Ibn Khuzayma, da Karramites, da Anthropomorphists
  • 'Aja'ib al-Kur'ani ( Sirrin Alƙur'ani )
  • Al-Bayan wa al-Burhan fi al-Radd 'ala Ahl al-Zaygh wa al-Tughyan
  • Al-Mahsul fi 'Ilm al-Usul
  • Al-Muwakif fi 'Ilm al-Kalam
  • 'Ilm al-Akhlaq ( Kimiyyar Da'a )
  • Kitab al-Firasa ( Littafin Firasa )
  • Kitab al-Mantiq al-Kabir ( Babban Littafin kan Manhaji )
  • Kitab al-nafs wa'l-ruh wa sharh quwa-huma ( Littafin kan Rai da Ruhu da Iliminsu )
  • Mabahith al-mashriqiyya fi 'ilm al-ilahiyyat wa-'l-tabi'iyyat ( Nazarin Gabas a fannin ilimin Jima'i da Jiki)
  • Al-Matālib al-'Āliyyah min al- 'ilm al-ilahī ( Batutuwan Mafi Girma ) - aikinsa na ƙarshe. Al-Razi ya rubuta al-Matālib yayin rubuta al-Tafsir kuma ya mutu kafin ya kammala duka ayyukan biyu.
  • Muhassal afkar al-mutaqaddimin wa-'l-muta’akhkhirin ( Girbi / Gwanin Tunanin Magabata da na Zamani)
  • Nihayat al 'Uqul fi Dirayat al-Usul
  • Risala al-Huduth
  • Sharh al-Isharat ( Sharhin al-Isharat wa-al-Tanbihat na Ibnu Sina )
  • Sharh Asma 'Allah al-Husna ( Sharhin Asma' Allah al-Husna )
  • Sharh Kulliyyat al-Qanun fi al-Tibb ( Sharhin Canon Magani )
  • Sharh Nisf al-Wajiz li'l-Ghazali ( Sharhin Nisf al-Wajiz na Al-Ghazali )
  • Sharh Uyun al-Hikmah ( Sharhin Uyun al-Hikmah )

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Jerin Ash'aris da Maturidis
  • Jerin masana tauhidi na musulmai
  • Jerin masana kimiyyar Iran
  • Astronomy a zamanin da na Musulunci
  • Cosmology a cikin na da Musulunci
  • Abdol Hamid Khosro Shahi
  • Nur al-Din al-Sabuni

Bibliography[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Don rayuwarsa da rubuce-rubucensa, duba:

  • GC Anawati, Fakhr al-Din al-Razi a cikin The Encyclopedia of Islam, bugu na 2, ed. by HAR Gibbs, B. Lewis, Ch. Pellat, C. Bosworth et al., 11 vols. (Leiden: EJ Brill, 1960-2002) juzu'i. 2, shafi na 751-5.

Don rubuce-rubucen sa na bokanci da sihiri, duba:

  • Manfred Ullmann, Die Natur- und Geheimwissenschaften im Islam, Handbuch der Orientalistik, Abteilung I, Ergänzungsband VI, Abschnitt 2 (Leiden: EJ Brill, 1972), shafi na. 388–390.

Don rubutunsa akan ilimin motsa jiki, duba:

  • Yusef Mourad, La physiognomie arabe et le Kitab al-firasa de Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (Paris, 1939).

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Richard Maxwell Eaton, The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204–1760, University of California Press,1996, - Page 29
  2. Shaikh M. Ghazanfar, Medieval Islamic Economic Thought: Filling the Great Gap in European Economics, Routledge, 2003
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Adi Setia (2004), "Fakhr Al-Din Al-Razi on Physics and the Nature of the Physical World: A Preliminary Survey", Islam & Science, 2, retrieved 2010-03-02
  4. Ibn Khallikan. Wafayat al-A‘yan wa Anba’ Abna’ al-zaman, translated by William MacGuckin Slane. (1961) Pakistan Historical Society. pp. 224.
  5. مدة التحقيق في بشائر بيت آل الصديق لأبي المكارم الصديقي
  6. جواهر الاثار ، عبد العزيز بن محمد الجوهري ، اسطنبول ، 1798
  7. طبقات الشافعية الكبرى الجزء 8 صـــ81
  8. Shihadeh, Ayman, ed. (2013) Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī’s Father, Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn al-Makkī. Nihāyat al-Marām fī Dirāyat al-Kalām. Facsimile of the Autograph Manuscript of Vol. II. Berlin; Tehran: Freie Universität Berlin and Mīrāth-i Maktūb.
  9. John Cooper (1998), "al-Razi, Fakhr al-Din (1149-1209)", Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge, retrieved 2010-03-07