Simón Bolívar

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Simón Bolívar
1. president of Bolivia (en) Fassara

12 ga Augusta, 1825 - 29 Disamba 1825 - Antonio José de Sucre (en) Fassara
President of Peru (en) Fassara

8 ga Faburairu, 1824 - 28 ga Janairu, 1827
José Bernardo de Tagle y Portocarrero, Marquis of Torre Tagle (en) Fassara - Andrés de Santa Cruz (en) Fassara
shugaba

1819 - 1830
President of Venezuela (en) Fassara

1 Oktoba 1817 - 24 ga Faburairu, 1819 - José Antonio Páez (en) Fassara
President of Venezuela (en) Fassara

7 ga Augusta, 1813 - 16 ga Yuli, 1814
Francisco de Miranda (en) Fassara - Simón Bolívar
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Karakas da Birthplace of Simón Bolívar (en) Fassara, 24 ga Yuli, 1783
ƙasa Ispaniya
Venezuela
Ecuador
Bolibiya
Gran Colombia (en) Fassara
Mazauni Casa del Vínculo y del Retorno (en) Fassara
Ingenio Bolívar (en) Fassara
Harshen uwa Yaren Sifen
Mutuwa Quinta de San Pedro Alejandrino (en) Fassara, 17 Disamba 1830
Makwanci Cathedral of Santa Marta (en) Fassara
Caracas Cathedral (en) Fassara
Panteon Nacional (en) Fassara
Yanayin mutuwa Sababi na ainihi (tibi
Zazzabin Rawaya)
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Juan Vicente Bolívar y Ponte
Mahaifiya María Concepción Palacios Aguirre Ariztía - Sojo Blanco Herrera
Abokiyar zama María Teresa del Toro y Alayza (en) Fassara  (26 Mayu 1802 -  22 ga Janairu, 1803)
Ma'aurata Manuela Sáenz de Aizpuru (en) Fassara
Ahali María Antonia Bolívar Palacios (en) Fassara, Juana Bolívar (en) Fassara da Juan Vicente Bolívar Palacios (en) Fassara
Ƴan uwa
Karatu
Harsuna Yaren Sifen
Faransanci
Malamai Simón Rodríguez (en) Fassara
Andrés Bello (en) Fassara
Sana'a
Sana'a ɗan siyasa da hafsa
Kyaututtuka
Aikin soja
Digiri Janar
Ya faɗaci Spanish American Wars of Independence (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Regular Masonic jurisdictions (en) Fassara

Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios (24 Yuli 1783 - 17 Disamba 1830) shi ne shugaban soja da siyasa na Venezuela wanda ya jagoranci kasashen Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Panama da kuma Bolivia don samun 'yancin kai daga Daular Spain. An san shi da sunan El Libertador, ko kuma Mai ' Yanci na Amurka.

An haifi Simón Bolívar a Caracas a cikin Babban Kyaftin na Venezuela a cikin dangin criollo masu arziki. Kafin ya cika shekaru goma, ya rasa iyayensa biyu kuma ya zauna a gidaje da yawa. Bolívar ya yi karatu a ƙasashen waje kuma ya zauna a ƙasar Sipaniya, kamar yadda aka saba ga maza na manyan iyalai a zamaninsa. Yayin da yake zaune a Madrid daga 1800 zuwa 1802, an gabatar da shi zuwa falsafar Fassara kuma ya haɗu da matarsa María Teresa Rodríguez del Toro y Alaysa. Bayan ya koma Venezuela, a cikin shekarar 1803 del Toro ya kamu da zazzaɓi kuma ya mutu. Daga 1803 zuwa 1805, Bolívar ya fara wani babban balaguron da ya ƙare a Roma, inda ya yi rantsuwar kawo ƙarshen mulkin Mutanen Espanya a Amurka. A cikin karni na 1807, Bolívar ya koma Venezuela kuma ya ba da shawarar samun 'yancin kai na Venezuela ga sauran masu arziki. Lokacin da ikon Mutanen Espanya a cikin Amurka ya raunana saboda Yaƙin Peninsular Napoleon, Bolívar ya zama ɗan gwagwarmaya mai himma kuma ɗan siyasa a cikin yaƙe-yaƙe na Amurka na 'yancin kai.

Bolívar ya fara aikinsa na soja a shekara ta 1810 a matsayin jami'in 'yan bindiga a yakin 'yancin kai na Venezuela, yana yakar Mutanen Espanya da karin sojojin 'yan asalin kasar a jamhuriyar Venezuela ta farko da ta biyu da kuma hadaddiyar lardunan New Granada . Bayan sojojin Spain sun mamaye New Granada a cikin 1815, Bolívar ya tilasta wa yin gudun hijira a Jamhuriyar Haiti, wanda ɗan juyin juya halin Haiti Alexandre Pétion ya jagoranta. Bolívar ya yi abota da Pétion kuma, bayan ya yi alkawarin kawar da bauta a Kudancin Amirka, ya sami tallafin soja daga Haiti. Komawa zuwa Venezuela, ya kafa jamhuriya ta uku a cikin 1817 sannan ya haye Andes a 1819 don 'yantar da New Granada. Bolívar da abokansa sun ci Mutanen Espanya a New Granada a 1819, Venezuela da Panama a 1821, Ecuador a 1822, Peru a 1824, da Bolivia a 1825. Venezuela, New Granada, Ecuador, da Panama sun hade cikin Jamhuriyar Colombia (Gran Colombia), tare da Bolívar a matsayin shugaban kasa a can kuma a Peru da Bolivia.

Simón Bolívar

A cikin shekarunsa na ƙarshe, Bolívar ya ƙara jin kunya game da jamhuriyar Kudancin Amirka, kuma ya nisanta su saboda akidarsa ta centralist ideology. An cire shi daga ofisoshinsa a jere har sai bayan yunkurin kisa da bai yi nasara ba, ya yi murabus daga shugabancin Colombia kuma ya mutu sakamakon cutar tarin fuka a shekara ta 1830. Ana ɗaukarsa a matsayin alamar ƙasa da al'adu a cikin Latin Amurka; kasashen Bolivia da Venezuela (a matsayin jamhuriyar Bolivia ta Venezuela) da kudaden su ana kiran sunan sa. Gadonsa ya bambanta kuma yana da nisa a cikin Latin Amurka da bayansa; An yi ta tunawa da shi a duk faɗin duniya ta hanyar fasahar jama'a ko sunayen tituna da kuma al'adun gargajiya.

Ƙuruciya da iyali[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haifi Simón Bolívar a ranar 24 ga watan Yuli 1783 a Caracas, babban birnin Babban Kyaftin Janar na Venezuela, ɗa na huɗu kuma ƙarami na Juan Vicente Bolívar y Ponte [es] da María de la Concepción Palacios y Blanco [es] . An yi masa baftisma a matsayin Simón José Antonio de la Santísma Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios a ranar 30 ga watan Yuli. [1] An haifi Simón a cikin dangin Bolívar, ɗaya daga cikin mafi arziki kuma mafi girman iyalai criollo a cikin Amurkan Sifen. Bolívar na farko da ya yi ƙaura zuwa Amurka shine Simón de Bolívar, ɗan Basque kuma jami'in notary wanda ya isa Santo Domingo a tsakiyar karni na 16. A cikin 1588-89, ya shiga cikin ma'aikatan Diego Osorio Villegas, Gwamnan Santo Domingo, lokacin da aka naɗa shi Gwamnan lardin Venezuela kuma ya koma Caracas. A can, zuriyar Simón de Bolívar suma za su yi aiki a cikin tsarin mulkin mallaka kuma su yi aure cikin dangin Caracas masu arziki. A lokacin da aka haifi Simón Bolívar, Bolivars sun mallaki dukiya a duk faɗin Venezuela.

Masanin tarihi na Biritaniya John Lynch ya kwatanta lokacin ƙuruciyar Simón Bolívar a matsayin "a lokaci guda yana da gata kuma an hana shi." [2] Juan Vicente ya mutu da tarin fuka a ranar 19 ga watan Janairu 1786, kuma ya bar María de la Concepción Palacios da mahaifinta, Feliciano Palacios y Sojo [es], a matsayin masu kula da gadon yara na Bolívar. Waɗannan yaran María Antonia Bolívar Palacios [es] (an haife shi a shekara ta 1777), Juana Bolívar Palacios [es] (an haife shi a shekara ta 1779), Juan Vicente Bolívar Palacios [es] (an haife shi 1781), da Simón [3] an tashe su daban da juna da mahaifiyarsu, kuma, bin al'adar mulkin mallaka, ta bayin gidan Afirka; [4] Wani bawa mai suna Hipólita Bolívar [es] wanda yake kallonsa a matsayin uwa da uba. A ranar 6 ga watan Yuli 1792, María de la Concepción ita ma ta mutu da tarin fuka. Yin imani cewa danginsa za su gaji dukiyar Bolívars, [5] Feliciano Palacios ya shirya aure da María Antonia da Juana da, kafin ya mutu a ranar 5 ga watan Disamba 1793, [3] ya ba da kulawar Juan Vicente da Simón ga nasa. 'ya'yan, Juan Félix Palacios da Carlos Palacios y Blanco [es], bi da bi. [23]

Ilimi da tafiya ta farko zuwa Turai: 1793–1802[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Simón Bolívar

Tun yana yaro, Bolívar ya shahara da rashin da'a. Ya zo ya kyamaci Carlos, [2] wanda ba shi da sha'awar Bolívar in ban da gadonsa, kuma ya yi watsi da karatunsa. [5] Tun kafin mahaifiyar Bolívar ta mutu, ya yi shekaru biyu a ƙarƙashin kulawar lauyan Venezuelan Miguel José Sanz a jagorancin Real Audiencia of Caracas [es], Kotun daukaka kara ta Spain a Caracas. A cikin shekarar 1793, Carlos Palacios ya shiga Bolívar a Casa de Las Primeras Letras [es] wanda Simón Rodríguez ke gudanarwa. A cikin watan Yuni 1795, Bolívar ya gudu daga hannun kawun nasa don gidan Maria Antonia da mijinta. Ma'auratan sun nemi amincewa da canjin wurin zama, [5] amma Real Audiencia ta yanke shawarar batun don goyon bayan Palacios, wanda ya aika Simón ya zauna tare da Rodríguez. [

Bayan watanni biyu a can, Bolívar ya koma kan jagorancin Real Audiencia zuwa gidan iyali na Palacios. Bolívar ya yi wa Real Audiencia alkawari cewa zai mai da hankali kan iliminsa, kuma daga baya Rodríguez da ƙwararrun ƙwararrun Venezuelan Andrés Bello da Francisco de Andújar [es] suka koyar da shi cikakken lokaci. A cikin shekarar 1797, haɗin gwiwar Rodríguez da wani makirci na neman 'yancin kai ya tilasta masa ya tafi gudun hijira, kuma Bolívar ya shiga cikin rundunar sojan girmamawa. Lokacin da aka ba shi mukamin jami'i bayan shekara guda, kawunsa Carlos da Esteban Palacios y Blanco [es] . ya yanke shawarar aika Bolívar don shiga na ƙarshe a Madrid. A can, Esteban ya kasance abokai tare da wanda Sarauniya Maria Luisa ta fi so, Manuel Mallo.

Miniature portrait of Bolívar in 1800
Hoton ƙaramin hoto na Bolívar a cikin 1800

A ranar 19 ga watan Janairun 1799, Bolívar ya shiga jirgin ruwan yaƙi na Sipaniya <i id="mwwg">San Ildefonso</i> a tashar jiragen ruwa na La Guaira, [38] ya nufi Cádiz. [5] Jirgin ya fara tafiya zuwa Veracruz don lodin azurfar Mexica don wucewa zuwa Spain. Jirgin ya isa a ranar 2 ga watan Fabrairu, [5] amma an hana shi fita har tsawon makonni bakwai saboda katangar da Birtaniyya ta yi wa Havana. San Ildefonso ya tsaya a Santoña, a arewacin bakin tekun Spain, a watan Mayu 1799. Bayan mako guda, Bolívar ya isa Madrid kuma ya shiga Esteban, wanda ya sami Bolívar ya kasance. " jahilci sosai". Esteban ya tambayi Gerónimo Enrique de Uztáriz y Tovar, ɗan ƙasar Caracas kuma jami'in gwamnati, don ilmantar da Bolívar. [5] [6] Uztáriz ya yarda kuma Bolívar, wanda ya koma gidansa a cikin Fabrairu 1800, [6] ya sami ilimi sosai.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Langley 2009.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Lynch 2006.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Slatta & de Grummond 2003.
  4. Masur 1969.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Arana 2013.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Cardozo Uzcátegui 2011.