Wurare masu zafi (Tropics)

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Taswirar duniya tare da yankin intertropical wanda aka haskaka a cikin ruwan hoda
Yankunan duniya tare da yanayin zafi na wurare masu zafi

Yankuna masu zafi wato Tropics sune yankin Duniya da ke kewaye da tsakiyar duniya - Equator. Tropic of Cancer a Arewacin Hemisphere yana iyakance su a cikin latitude 23°26′11.3″ (ko kuma 23.43649 °) N da Tropic na Capricorn a Kudancin Hemisphere a 23°26′11.3″ (ko kuma 23.43649 °) S; waɗannan latitude sun yi daidai da karkatar da duniya. Har ila yau ana kiran wurare masu zafi da wurare masu zafi da yankin torrid (duba yankin ƙasa ). Yankunan zafi sun haɗa da ko'ina a Duniya wanda ke ƙarƙashin ƙasa ( Rana tana saman kai tsaye ) aƙalla sau ɗaya a cikin shekarar hasken rana . Don haka matsakaicin latitudes na wurare masu zafi suna da ƙima iri ɗaya mai kyau da mara kyau. Hakanan, suna kimantawa, saboda ƙasa ba cikakkiyar madaidaiciya ba ce, “kusurwar” karkatacciyar ƙasa . Ita kanta "kusurwar" ba a daidaita ta musamman saboda tasirin wata, amma iyakokin wurare masu zafi shine babban taron ƙasa, kasancewa matsakaicin tsari, kuma bambancin ƙarami ne.

Dangane da yanayi na klimate, wurare masu zafi suna samun hasken rana wanda ya fi sauran Duniya kai tsaye kuma galibi suna da zafi da ɗumi. Kalmar "wurare masu zafi" wani lokaci tana nufin irin wannan yanayi fiye da yankin yanki. Yankin na wurare masu zafi ya haɗa da hamada da duwatsu masu dusar ƙanƙara, waɗanda ba na wurare masu zafi ba a yanayin yanayin. An rarrabe wurare masu zafi daga sauran yankuna na yanayi da yanayin halittu na Duniya, waɗanda sune tsakiyar latitudes da yankunan polar a kowane ɓangaren yankin daidaitawa.

Yankuna masu zafi na troops suna da kashi 40% na sararin duniya kuma sun ƙunshi kashi 36% na ƙasa . As of 2014 , yankin ya kasance gida ga 40% na yawan mutanen duniya, sannan kuma an yi hasashen wannan adadi zai kai kashi 50% nan da 2050.

Asalin Kalma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kalmar "tropic" ta fito ne daga tsohuwar yaren Girkanci τροπή ( tropē ), ma'ana "juyawa" ko "canza shugabanci"

kaka da yanayin klamet[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Jadawalin da ke nuna haɓakar ruwan sama na kowane wata. Yankuna na wurare masu zafi suna samun hazo fiye da latitudes mafi girma. Matsakaicin giza-gizai, wanda ke biye da ma'aunin hasken rana a cikin shekara, yana ƙarƙashin reshe mai tasowa na yaɗuwar Hadley; ƙananan ƙananan wurare masu zafi suna ƙarƙashin reshe mai saukowa kuma sunahaifar da yankunan hamada.
Kallon sararin samaniya na Bora Bora, Polynesia na Faransa
Faɗuwar rana mai zafi a kan teku a Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia

Akanyi amfani da "Tropical" a cikin ma'ana gaba ɗaya don yanayin yanayi na wurare masu zafi don nufin ɗumi zuwa ɗumi da danshi shekara-shekara, galibi tare da ma'anar ciyayi mai ɗumi.

Yankuna da yawa na wurare masu zafi suna da lokacin rani da damina. A rigar kakar, damana, ko kore kakar ne lokaci na shekara, kama daga daya ko fiye watanni, a lokacin da mafi yawan talakawan shekara-shekara ruwan sama a wani yankin da dama. Areas tare da rigar yanayi ne ya watsa a fadin rabo daga cikin tropics da subtropics . [1] A ƙarƙashin rarrabuwa na yanayin Köppen, don yanayin yanayin zafi, an bayyana watan damina a matsayin watan da matsakaicin hazo yake 60 millimetres (2.4 in) ko fiye. Wasu yankunan da ake samun lokacin damina na ganin hutu a cikin ruwan sama a tsakiyar lokacin bazara lokacin da yankin haɗin kai na tsaka-tsaki ko ramin damuna ke motsawa kusa da wurin da suke yayin tsakiyar lokacin zafi; ciyawar ciyawa ta al'ada a cikin waɗannan yankuna ta fito ne daga gandun daji na yanayi mai zafi zuwa savannah .

Lokacin da damina ke faruwa a lokacin zafi, ko lokacin bazara, hazo yana sauka musamman a lokacin maraice da farkon sa'o'in maraice. Lokacin damina shine lokacin da ingancin iska ke inganta, ingancin ruwa mai kyau yana inganta kuma ciyayi na tsawo sosai, wanda ke haifar da amfanin gona a ƙarshen kakar. Ambaliyar ruwa na sa koguna su cika kogunansu, wasu dabbobin kuma su koma kan tudu. Abubuwan gina jiki na ƙasa suna raguwa kuma yashewar yana ƙaruwa. Yawan kamuwa da cutar zazzabin cizon sauro a yankunan da damina ta zo daidai da yanayin zafi. Dabbobi suna da dabarun karbuwa da rayuwa don tsarin jiyya. Lokacin noman rani na baya yana haifar da karancin abinci zuwa lokacin damina, saboda amfanin gona bai gama girma ba.

Duk da haka, yankuna a cikin wurare masu zafi na iya ba da yanayin yanayin zafi. A ƙarƙashin rarrabuwa na yanayin yanayi na Köppen, yawancin yankin da ke cikin yanayin yanayin ƙasa ana rarrabasu ba a matsayin "na wurare masu zafi" amma a matsayin "bushe" ( m ko rabin-m ), gami da hamadar Sahara, Desert Atacama da Outback Australia . Hakanan, akwai tundra mai tsayi da dusar ƙanƙara, waɗanda suka haɗa da Mauna Kea, Dutsen Kilimanjaro, Puncak Jaya da Andes har zuwa kudu har zuwa arewacin arewacin Chile da Perú .

Tsarin halittu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dabino kwakwa a cikin ɗumi, yanayin zafi na arewacin Brazil
Dajin Tropical kusa da Fonds-Saint-Denis, Martinique

Shuke -shuke na yankuna masu zafi da dabbobi na wurare masu zafi sune waɗancan nau'in na asalin ƙasashe masu zafi. Tsarin halittu na wurare masu zafi na iya ƙunsar gandun daji na wurare masu zafi, dazuzzukan yanayi na yanayi, busassun (galibi gandun daji), gandun daji, hamada da sauran nau'ikan mazaunin. Akwai sau da yawa gagarumin yankunan rabe-raben, da kuma nau'in endemism ba, musamman a rainforests da kuma yanayi gandun daji. Wasu misalai na muhimman abubuwan halittu masu rai da ɗimbin ɗimbin halittu sune El Yunque National Forest a Puerto Rico, Costa Rican da Nicaraguan gandun daji, Amazon Rainforest yankuna na ƙasashen Kudancin Amurka da yawa, Madagascar busassun gandun daji, Waterberg Biosphere na Afirka ta Kudu, da gabashin gandun daji na Madagascar. Sau da yawa kasa na gandun daji na wurare masu zafi ba su da ƙoshin abinci mai gina jiki, yana mai sa su zama masu saurin kamuwa da dabarun sare itatuwa, wanda a wasu lokutan wani sashi ne na canza tsarin aikin noma.

A cikin tarihin labarin halittu, an rarrabe wurare masu zafi zuwa Paleotropics (Afirka, Asiya da Ostiraliya) da Neotropics (Caribbean, Amurka ta Tsakiya, da Kudancin Amurka). Tare, wani lokacin ana kiran su Pantropic. Tsarin daular halittu ya bambanta kaɗan; da Neotropical daula hada da duka da Neotropics da temperate kudancin Amurka, da kuma Paleotropics dace da Afrotropical, Indomalayan, Oceanian, da kuma wurare masu zafi Australasian sammai .

Yanayi na zafi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tropicality yana nufin hoton da mutanen da ke hasashe daga wajen wurare masu zafi suke da shi na yankin, daga mai mahimmanci har zuwa yin magana akan tayi. Tunanin yanayin wurare masu zafi ya sake samun sha'awa a cikin zancen ƙasa lokacin da masanin tarihin ƙasar Faransa Pierre Gourou ya buga Les Pays Tropicaux ( The Tropical World in English), a ƙarshen 1940s. [2]

Kalmar Tropicality ya ƙunshi sifofi biyu. Oneaya, shine cewa tsibiran suna wakiltar 'Aljannar Adnin', sama a Duniya, ƙasar da ke da ɗimbin ɗimbin halittu - aka aljanna na wurare masu zafi. [3] Madadin shi ne cewa wurare masu zafi sun ƙunshi daji, yanayin da ba za a iya cin nasara ba. Sau da yawa an tattauna ra'ayi na baya a cikin tsohon adabin Yammacin Turai fiye da na farko. [3] Shaidu suna ba da shawara a kan lokaci cewa ra'ayi na wurare masu zafi kamar irin wannan a cikin sanannun adabi an maye gurbinsa da ingantattun fassarori masu inganci.

Mashahuran Malaman Yammacin Turai sun yi ƙoƙarin tsara dalilai game da dalilin daya sa wurare masu zafi ba su dace da wayewar ɗan adam ba fiye da waɗanda ke cikin yankuna masu sanyi na Arewacin Hemisphere. Shahararriyar bayani ta mai da hankali kan bambancin yanayi. Dazuzzuka masu zafi da gandun daji suna da yanayin zafi da zafi fiye da sanyi da bushewar yanayin Arewacin Duniya. Wannan jigon ya sa wasu masana suka ba da shawarar cewa yanayin zafi mai zafi yana da alaƙa da yawan mutane da ba su da iko akan yanayi misali 'gandun daji na Amazon'. [4]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Yankin Hardiness
  • Subtropics
  • Muhallin Tropical
  • Tropical marine yanayi
  • Shekara mai zafi

Nassoshi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Michael Pidwirny (2008). CHAPTER 9: Introduction to the Biosphere. PhysicalGeography.net. Retrieved on 2008-12-27.
  2. Arnold, David. "Illusory Riches: Representations of the Tropical World, 1840-1950", p. 6. Journal of Tropical Geography
  3. 3.0 3.1 Arnold, David. "Illusory Riches: Representations of the Tropical World, 1840-1950", p. 7. Journal of Tropical Geography
  4. Arnold, David. "Illusory Riches: Representations of the Tropical World, 1840-1950", p. 13. Journal of Tropical Geography