Yanayin tashin duniya

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Ra'ayin mai zane na babban tasirin asteroid . Maiyuwa ne asteroid ya haifar da bacewar dinosaurs da ba na avian ba .

Haɗarin bala'i na duniya ko yanayin tashin kiyama wani hasashe ne na gaba wanda zai iya lalata jin daɗin ɗan adam a ma'aunin duniya, har ma da haɗari ko lalata wayewar zamani . Lamarin da zai iya haifar da bacewar ɗan adam ko dindindin kuma ya tauye haƙƙin ɗan adam an san shi da " haɗari mai wanzuwa ."

A cikin shekaru ashirin (20) da suka gabata, an kafa ƙungiyoyin ilimi da ƙungiyoyin sa-kai da dama don gudanar da bincike kan bala'in duniya da hadurran da ke wanzuwa, da tsara matakan da za a iya ragewa da ko dai bayar da shawarwari ko aiwatar da waɗannan matakan.

Ma'ana da rarrabawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Iyali/ƙarfin grid daga takardar Bostrom "Tsarin Rigakafin Haɗari azaman fifikon Duniya"

Ƙayyade haɗarin bala'i na duniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kalmar kasadar bala'i ta duniya "ba ta da ma'ana mai kaifi", kuma gaba ɗaya tana nufin (saƙaƙƙe) ga haɗarin da zai iya haifar da "mummunan lahani ga jin daɗin ɗan adam a ma'aunin duniya".

Dan Adam ya sha fama da manyan masifu a baya. Wasu daga cikin waɗannan sun haifar da mummunar lalacewa amma sun kasance na gida ne kawai-misali a hasashe Baƙar fata na iya haifar da mutuwar kashi ɗaya bisa uku na yawan mutanen Turai, 10% na yawan mutanen duniya a lokacin. Wasu sun kasance na duniya, amma ba su yi tsanani ba-misali cutar mura ta shekarar 1918 ta kashe kimanin kashi 3-6% na al'ummar duniya. Yawancin hatsarin bala'i na duniya ba zai yi tsanani ba har ya kashe yawancin rayuwa a duniya, amma ko da mutum ya yi, yanayin muhalli da ɗan adam za su murmure daga ƙarshe (ya bambanta da haɗarin da ke wanzuwa ).

Hakazalika, a cikin Bala'i: Hadari da Amsa, Richard Posner ya yi nazari kuma ya haɗu da abubuwan da suka faru da suka haifar da "rushewa ko rugujewa" a duniya, maimakon ma'auni "na gida ko yanki". Posner yana ba da haske game da abubuwan da suka dace da kulawa ta musamman kan dalilai masu tsada saboda suna iya yin haɗari kai tsaye ko a kaikaice ga rayuwar ɗan adam gaba ɗayan ta.

Ƙayyadaddun haɗarin wanzuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An bayyana hatsarori masu wanzuwa a matsayin "hadarin da ke yin barazana ga halakar damar ɗan adam na dogon lokaci." Samun haɗarin wanzuwa (wani bala'i mai wanzuwa ) zai iya haifar da bacewar ɗan adam kai tsaye ko kuma ba zai sake dawowa ba a cikin yanayin ƙasƙantaccen yanayi. Haɗarin da ke akwai wani yanki ne na haɗarin bala'i na duniya, inda lalacewar ba kawai ta duniya ba ce har ma ta ƙare da dindindin, tana hana murmurewa kuma ta haka ta shafi duka na yanzu da duk tsararraki masu zuwa. [1]

Hadarin da ba na lalacewa ba[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Duk da yake bacewa ita ce hanya mafi bayyane ta yadda za a iya lalata ƙarfin ɗan adam na dogon lokaci, akwai wasu, ciki har da rugujewar da ba za a iya murmurewa ba da kuma dystopia wanda ba a iya murmurewa . Bala'i mai tsanani da ya isa ya haifar da rugujewar wayewar ɗan adam ta dindindin, ba za ta iya jurewa ba, zai zama bala'i mai wanzuwa, koda kuwa ya gagara ƙarewa. [2] Hakazalika, idan dan Adam ya fada karkashin tsarin mulkin kama-karya, kuma ba a samu damar farfadowa ba to irin wannan dystopia shima zai zama bala'i mai wanzuwa. Bryan Caplan ya rubuta cewa "watakila dawwamar mulkin kama-karya zai kasance mafi muni fiye da bacewa". [3] (Littafin George Orwell na sha tara tamanin da huɗu ya ba da shawara misali. ) to Amman a Wani labari na dystopian yana raba mahimman siffofi na ɓarna da rugujewar wayewar da ba za a iya murmurewa ba-kafin bala'i, ɗan adam ya fuskanci ɗimbin abubuwan da za a zaɓa daga; bayan bala'i, bil'adama yana kulle har abada a cikin mummunan yanayi. [2]

Tushen haɗari masu yuwuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hatsari mai yuwuwar bala'i na duniya sun haɗa da haɗarin ɗan adam, wanda mutane suka haifar (fasahar, mulki, sauyin yanayi), da haɗarin da ba ɗan adam ko na halitta ba. Hadarin fasaha sun haɗa da ƙirƙirar hankali na wucin gadi mai lalacewa, fasahar kere -kere ko nanotechnology . Rashin isasshen ko rashin dai-daituwa na mulkin duniya yana haifar da haɗari a cikin zamantakewa da siyasa, kamar yakin duniya, ciki har da kisan kare dangi, ta'addanci ta hanyar amfani da kwayoyin halitta da aka gyara, ta'addanci ta yanar gizo yana lalata muhimman ababen more rayuwa kamar grid na lantarki ; ko gazawar sarrafa annoba ta yanayi. Matsaloli da kasada a fannin gudanar da tsarin mulkin duniya sun hada da dumamar yanayi, gurbacewar muhalli, gami da gushewar jinsin halittu, yunwa sakamakon rashin daidaiton albarkatu, yawan jama'a, gazawar amfanin gona da noma mai dorewa .

Misalai na wadanda ba anthropogenic kasada ne wani asteroid tasiri taron, a supervolcanic fashewa, a m gamma-ray fashe, a geomagnetic guguwa lalata lantarki kayan aiki, na halitta dogon lokacin da sauyin yanayi, maƙiya extraterrestrial rayuwa, ko da tsinkaya Sun canza zuwa cikin ja giant tauraro ya mamaye dukkan Duniya.

Kalubalen dabara[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bincike game da yanayi da rage haɗarin bala'o'i na duniya da haɗarin wanzuwa yana ƙarƙashin ƙalubale na musamman kuma, sakamakon haka, ba a cikin sauƙi a ƙarƙashin ƙa'idodin ƙa'idodin kimiyya na yau da kullun. Misali, ba abu mai yuwuwa ko da'a ba ne a yi nazarin waɗannan haɗarin ta hanyar gwaji. Carl Sagan ya bayyana hakan game da yakin nukiliya: "Fahimtar sakamakon dogon lokaci na yakin nukiliya ba shine matsala ba don tabbatar da gwaji". Bugu da ƙari, yawancin haɗari masu haɗari suna canzawa da sauri yayin da fasaha ta ci gaba da kuma yanayin baya, kamar yanayin yanayin ƙasa, sannan canzawa. Wani ƙalubale shine matsalar gaba ɗaya na yin hasashen makomar gaba cikin dogon lokaci, musamman ga haɗarin ɗan adam wanda ya dogara da sarƙaƙƙiyar tsarin siyasa, tattalin arziƙi da zamantakewar ɗan adam. [2] Bugu da ƙari ga sananne kuma hatsarori masu ma'ana, abubuwan da ba za a iya gani ba na baƙar fata na swan na iya faruwa, suna gabatar da ƙarin matsala ta hanyoyin. [2]

Rashin tarihin tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dan Adam bai taba fuskantar wani bala'i na wanzuwa ba kuma idan mutum ya faru, to lallai zai zama wanda ba a taba ganin irinsa ba. Saboda haka, hatsarori masu wanzuwa suna haifar da ƙalubale na musamman ga tsinkaya, har ma fiye da sauran abubuwan da suka faru na dogon lokaci, saboda tasirin zaɓi na lura . Sabanin mafi yawan al’amuran da suka faru a baya, gazawar wani cikakkar ɓatawar abin da ya faru a baya ba hujja ba ce da ke nuna yiwuwarsu a nan gaba, domin duk duniyar da ta fuskanci irin wannan waki’ar ba ta da masu kallo, don haka ba tare da la’akari da yawansu ba, ba wata wayewa da ta lura da ita. kasadar wanzuwa a cikin tarihin sa. [4] Ana iya guje wa waɗannan batutuwan ɗan adam a wani ɓangare ta hanyar kallon shaidar da ba ta da irin waɗannan tasirin zaɓi, kamar tasirin tasirin asteroid akan wata, ko kimanta tasirin sabon fasaha kai tsaye.

Don fahimtar yanayin rugujewar wayewar duniya da ba a taɓa samun irinta ba, (wani nau'in haɗarin wanzuwa), yana iya zama darasi don nazarin rugujewar wayewar gida daban-daban waɗanda suka faru a tsawon tarihin ɗan adam. Misali, a wayewa irin su Daular Romawa sun ƙare a cikin asarar tsarin mulki na tsakiya da kuma babban hasarar wayewar ababen more rayuwa da fasahar ci gaba. Duk da haka, waɗannan misalan sun nuna cewa al'ummomi suna da wuyar jure wa bala'i; alal misali, Turai ta Tsakiya ta tsira daga Mutuwar Baƙar fata ba tare da fuskantar wani abu mai kama da rugujewar wayewa ba duk da asarar kashi kusan 25 zuwa 50 na al'ummarta.

Ƙarfafawa da haɗin kai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Akwai dalilai na tattalin arziki waɗanda zasu iya bayyana dalilin da yasa ƙananan ƙoƙari ke shiga cikin raguwar haɗari. Amfanin jama'a ne na duniya, don haka ya kamata mu sa ran kasuwanni ba su wadatar da shi. Ko da babbar al'umma ta saka hannun jari a matakan rage haɗarin, wannan al'ummar za ta ci moriyar kaɗan ne kawai na ribar yin hakan. Bugu da ƙari kuma, raguwar haɗarin wanzuwa shine amfanin jama'a tsakanin al'umma na duniya, tun da yawancin fa'idodin rage haɗarin haɗari za su ci moriyar al'ummomin da ke gaba, sannan kuma ko da yake waɗannan mutanen nan gaba za su kasance a shirye su biya kudade masu yawa don rage hadarin da ke wanzuwa, babu wata hanyar da za a iya amfani da ita. don irin wannan ciniki akwai. [1]

Rashin hankali[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawancin son rai na fahimi na iya yin tasiri ga hukuncin mutane game da mahimmancin haɗarin da ke wanzuwa, gami da ƙarancin rashin hankali, ragi na hyperbolic, kasancewar heuristic, faɗuwar haɗin gwiwa, tasirin heuristic, da tasirin ƙarfin gwiwa .

Rashin hankali yana rinjayar yadda muyagun mutane suke ɗaukar bacewar ɗan adam a matsayin. Alal misali, lokacin da mutane suka motsa su ba da gudummawar kuɗi ga abubuwan da suka dace, adadin da suke son bayarwa ba ya karuwa daidai da girman batun: mutane suna da niyyar hana mutuwar tsuntsaye a ƙalla 200,000 ko 2,000. [5] Hakazalika, mutane sukan fi damuwa da barazana ga daidaikun mutane fiye da manyan kungiyoyi.

Eliezer Yudkowsky ya yi la'akari da cewa yawan sakaci yana taka rawa a fahimtar jama'a game da hadurran da ke wanzuwa: [6] [7]

Lambobin da suka fi girma, kamar mutuwar mutane Har miliyan 500, musamman ma daban-daban yanayin yanayi kamar bacewar dukkanin nau'in ɗan adam, da alama suna haifar da wani salon tunani daban. . . Mutanen da ba za su taɓa yin mafarkin cutar da yaro ba suna jin haɗarin wanzuwa, kuma suna cewa, "To, watakila nau'in ɗan adam bai cancanci tsira da gaske ba".

Duk hasashe da aka yi a baya na halakar ɗan adam sun tabbatar da ƙarya ne. Ga wasu, wannan yana sa gargaɗin nan gaba ya zama ƙasa da aminci. Nick Bostrom ya bayar da hujjar cewa rashin halakar ɗan adam a baya, shaida ce mai rauni da ke nuna cewa ba za a sami halakar ɗan adam a nan gaba ba, saboda son rai da sauran tasirin ɗan adam.

Masanin ilimin a zamantakewa EO Wilson ya bayar da hujjar cewa: "Dalilin wannan hazo mai ban mamaki, masana juyin halitta sunyi jayayya, shine cewa yana da fa'ida a zahiri a cikin duka amma ƴan shekaru na ƙarshe na shekaru miliyan biyu na wanzuwar halittar Homo. . . An sanya ƙimar kuɗi a kan kulawa ta kusa ga nan gaba da haɓakawa da wuri, da kaɗan. An manta da bala'o'i na girman da ke faruwa sau ɗaya kawai a cikin 'yan ƙarni ko kuma a canza su zuwa tatsuniya." [8]

Shawarar ragewa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Multi-Layer tsaro[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsaro cikin zurfin tsari tsari ne mai fa'ida don rarraba matakan rage haɗarin zuwa matakan tsaro guda uku (3):

  1. Rigakafin : Rage yuwuwar bala'in da ke faruwa tun farko. Misali: Matakan hana barkewar sabbin cututtuka masu saurin yaduwa.
  2. Martani : Hana kai girman bala'i zuwa matakin duniya. Misali: Matakan hana ɓarkewar ƙaramin makaman nukiliya zuwa yaƙin nukiliyar gaba ɗaya.
  3. Juriya : Ƙara ƙarfin ɗan adam (akan halaka) lokacin da aka fuskanci bala'o'i na duniya. Misali: Matakan haɓaka amincin abinci a lokacin hunturu na nukiliya.

Bacewar ɗan adam yana yiwuwa idan duk abubuwan tsaro guda uku (3) sun yi rauni, wato, "ta hanyar haɗari da ba za mu iya yin rigakafi ba, da wuya mu sami nasarar amsawa, kuma da wuya mu yi tsayin daka."

Halin haɗarin da ba a taɓa gani ba yana haifar da ƙalubale na musamman wajen tsara matakan rage haɗarin tunda ɗan adam ba zai iya koyo daga tarihin abubuwan da suka faru a baya ba.

Tallafawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wasu masu binciken suna jayayya cewa duka bincike da sauran yunƙurin da suka shafi haɗarin wanzuwar ba su da kuɗi. Nick Bostrom ya bayyana cewa an yi ƙarin bincike akan Star Trek, hawan dusar ƙanƙara, ko ƙwararrun dung fiye da haɗarin da ke wanzuwa. An soki kwatancen Bostrom a matsayin "masu girma". Tun daga shekarata 2020, ƙungiyar Yarjejeniyar Makamai ta Halittu tana da kasafin kuɗi na shekara-shekara na dalar Amurka 1.4 miliyan.

Gudanar da muhalli[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An ba da shawarar sarrafa sararin samaniya da mutunta iyakokin duniya azaman hanyoyin hana bala'o'in muhalli. A cikin iyakokin waɗannan hanyoyin, fannin geoengineering ya ƙunshi manyan injiniyoyi da gangan da sarrafa yanayin duniyar duniya don yaƙar ko magance sauye-sauyen ɗan adam a cikin sinadarai na yanayi. Wasu ƙasashe sun mai da ecocide laifi.

Mallakar sararin samaniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mallakar sararin samaniya wani zaɓi ne da aka tsara don inganta ƙima na tsira daga yanayin bacewa. Magani na wannan iyakar na iya buƙatar injiniyan megascale .

Masanin ilimin fannin taurari Stephen Hawking ya ba da shawarar mamaye sauran duniyoyin da ke cikin tsarin hasken rana da zarar fasaha ta ci gaba sosai, don inganta damar tsira daga abubuwan da ke faruwa a duniya kamar yakin nukiliya na duniya.

Billionaire Elon Musk ya rubuta cewa dole ne bil'adama ya zama nau'in halittu masu yawa don guje wa bacewa. [9] Musk yana amfani da kamfaninsa na SpaceX don haɓaka fasahar da yake fatan za a yi amfani da shi a cikin mulkin mallaka na Mars .

Tsarin tsira[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wasu malamai suna ba da shawarar kafa ɗaya ko fiye da ƙauyuka masu dogaro da kai, nesa, na dindindin waɗanda aka ƙirƙira musamman don tsira daga bala'i na duniya. Masanin tattalin arziki Robin Hanson ya bayar da hujjar cewa matsugunin matsugunin da bai kai mutane a ƙalla 100 na dindindin ba zai inganta yiwuwar rayuwar bil'adama a lokacin bala'o'i da dama a duniya. [10]

An ba da shawarar adana abinci a duniya, amma farashin kuɗi zai yi yawa. Bugu da ƙari, zai iya haifar da mutuwar miliyoyin mutane a kowace shekara saboda rashin abinci mai gina jiki .

Wasu masu tsira sun tanadi koma bayan rayuwa tare da kayan abinci na shekaru da yawa.

An binne Vault Global Seed Vault mai 400 feet (120 m) a cikin wani dutse a tsibirin Arctic . An tsara shi don ɗaukar Kashi 2.5 iri biliyan daga kasashe sama da 100 a matsayin riga-kafi don adana amfanin gonakin duniya. Dutsen da ke kewaye shine −6 °C (21 °F) (kamar na 2015) amma ana ajiye rumbun a −18 °C (0 °F) ta firji da ake samun wutar lantarki daga cikin gida.

Fiye da hasashe, idan al'umma ta ci gaba da aiki kuma idan biosphere ya kasance wurin zama, ana iya biyan bukatun kalori ga yawan ɗan adam a halin yanzu a cikin ra'ayi na tsawon lokacin rashi na hasken rana, idan aka ba da isasshen shiri na gaba. Abubuwan da aka zayyana sun haɗa da girma namomin kaza akan mataccen shukar biomass da ya bar bayan bala'i, canza cellulose zuwa sukari, ko ciyar da iskar gas zuwa ƙwayoyin methane-narkewa.

Hatsarin bala'i na duniya da mulkin duniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Rashin isasshen mulkin duniya yana haifar da haɗari a cikin zamantakewa da siyasa, amma hanyoyin gudanarwa suna tasowa a hankali fiye da canjin fasaha da zamantakewa. Akwai damuwa daga gwamnatoci, kamfanoni masu zaman kansu, da kuma sauran jama'a game da rashin tsarin gudanar da mulki yadda ya kamata don tinkarar kasada, yin shawarwari da yanke hukunci tsakanin muradu daban-daban da masu cin karo da juna. An ƙara jadada wannan ta hanyar fahimtar haɗin kai na haɗarin tsarin duniya. Idan babu ko tsammanin gudanar da mulkin duniya, gwamnatocin ƙasa za su iya yin aiki ɗaya ɗaya don ƙarin fahimta, ragewa da kuma shirya bala'o'in dake a duniya.

Shirye-shiryen gaggawa na yanayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin shekarata 2018, kungiyar ta Rome ta yi kira da a kara daukar matakai kan sauyin yanayi tare da buga shirinta na gaggawa na yanayi, wanda ke ba da shawarar matakan aiki goma don iyakance matsakaicin karuwar zafin duniya zuwa digiri 1.5 a ma'aunin celcius. Bugu da ari, a cikin shekarata 2019, Kulob ɗin ya buga ƙarin cikakken Tsarin Gaggawa na Planetary.

Akwai shaidun da ke nuna cewa haɗuwa tare da abubuwan da suka shafi tunanin mutum da ke fitowa yayin yin la'akari da raunin jinsunan ɗan adam a cikin yanayin sauyin yanayi yana ba da damar waɗannan abubuwan su kasance masu dacewa. Lokacin da haɗin gwiwa tare da sarrafa abubuwan da ke tattare da motsin rai yana da tallafi, wannan na iya haifar da haɓaka cikin juriya, sassaucin ra'ayi, juriyar abubuwan da ke da alaƙa, da haɗin gwiwar al'umma.

Motsa Duniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin ƴan shekaru biliyan, Rana za ta faɗaɗa cikin ja-jajayen giant, tana haɗiye duniya. Ana iya guje wa hakan ta hanyar matsar da duniya nesa da Rana, tare da kiyaye yanayin zafi da tsayi. Ana iya cimma hakan ta hanyar tweaking tawayoyin taurari masu tauraro da taurarin taurari don su wuce kusa da duniya ta yadda za su kara kuzari ga kewayar duniya. Tun da faɗaɗa Rana yana jinkirin, kusan irin wannan haduwar kowace shekara 6,000 zata isa.

Masu shakka da adawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masanin ilimin halayyar dan adam Steven Pinker ya kira haɗarin wanzuwa "nau'in mara amfani" wanda zai iya janye hankali daga barazanar gaske kamar canjin yanayi da yakin nukiliya.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Aƙalla wata ƙungiya ta satirical tana da'awar cewa bayyanannen manufarta ita ce ta gaggauta halakar ɗan adam da ƙarshen duniya: Cibiyar Nazarin Eschatology.

Ƙungiyoyi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (est. Shekarar 1945) yana ɗaya daga cikin tsoffin ƙungiyoyin haɗari na duniya, waɗanda aka kafa bayan jama'a sun firgita da yuwuwar yaƙin atomic bayan WWII. Yana nazarin haɗarin da ke da alaƙa da yaƙin nukiliya da makamashi kuma yana kula da agogon Doomsday da aka kafa a cikin shekarata 1947. Cibiyar Foresight (est. 1986) yayi nazarin haɗarin nanotechnology da fa'idodinsa. Ya kasance ɗaya daga cikin ƙungiyoyin farko don yin nazarin sakamakon da ba a yi niyya ba na fasahar da ba ta da lahani ta tafi haywire a duniya. K. Eric Drexler ne ya kafa shi wanda ya buga " Grey goo ".

Tun daga shekara ta 2000, ɗimbin masana kimiyya da masana falsafa da masu fasaha na fasaha sun ƙirƙiri ƙungiyoyin da suka sadaukar da kansu don nazarin haɗarin duniya a ciki da waje na ilimi.

Kungiyoyin da ba na gwamnati ba ne (NGOs) sun hada da Cibiyar Binciken Lissafi na Injin (est. Shekarar 2000), wanda ke da niyyar rage hadarin da aka haifar ta hanyar wucin gadi da Jed da Jed Mccaleb da Jed McCAl . Ƙaddamarwar Barazana ta Nukiliya (est. 2001) tana neman rage barazanar duniya daga barazanar nukiliya, nazarin halittu da kuma sinadarai, da kuma lalata lalacewa bayan wani lamari. Yana kiyaye ma'aunin tsaro na kayan nukiliya. Gidauniyar Lifeboat (est. 2009) ta ba da kuɗin bincike don hana bala'in fasaha. Yawancin kudaden bincike suna tallafawa ayyukan a jami'o'i. Cibiyar Haɗarin Bala'i ta Duniya (est. 2011) tankar tunani ce don haɗarin bala'i. Ƙungiyoyin masu zaman kansu masu zaman kansu da 'yan kasuwa na muhalli ne ke ba da kuɗin. Gidauniyar Ƙalubalen Duniya (est. 2012), wanda ke a Stockholm da kuma kafa ta Laszlo Szombatfalvy, ta fitar da rahoton shekara-shekara game da yanayin kasada na duniya. Cibiyar Rayuwa ta Future of Life (est. 2014) tana aiki don rage matsananciyar haɗari, manyan haɗari daga fasaha masu canzawa, da kuma jagorancin ci gaba da amfani da waɗannan fasahohin don amfana da dukan rayuwa, ta hanyar bayar da kyauta, shawarwarin manufofi a Amurka, Turai Ƙungiyar Tarayyar Turai da Majalisar Dinkin Duniya, da kuma wayar da kan ilimi. Elon Musk, Vitalik Buterin da Jaan Tallinn wasu manyan masu ba da gudummawa ne. Cibiyar da ke kan Rikicin Tsawon Lokaci (est. Shekarar 2016), wanda aka fi sani da Cibiyar Nazarin Gidauniyar, wata ƙungiya ce ta Biritaniya da ke mayar da hankali kan rage haɗarin wahalar astronomical ( s-hadarin ) daga fasahohin da ke tasowa.

Ƙungiyoyin tushen jami'a sun haɗa da Future of Humanity Institute (est. 2005) wanda ke yin bincike game da tambayoyin makomar bil'adama na dogon lokaci, musamman haɗari na wanzuwa. Nick Bostrom ne ya kafa ta kuma tana da tushe a Jami'ar Oxford. [11] Cibiyar Nazarin Haɗarin Kasancewa (est. Shekarata 2012) ƙungiya ce ta Jami'ar Cambridge wacce ke nazarin manyan haɗarin fasaha guda huɗu: hankali na wucin gadi, fasahar kere-kere, ɗumamar duniya da yaƙi. Dukkansu hatsari ne na mutum, kamar yadda Huw Price ya bayyana wa kamfanin dillancin labarai na AFP, "Da alama hasashe mai ma'ana cewa wani lokaci a cikin wannan ko karni mai zuwa za a kubuta daga matsalolin ilmin halitta". Ya kara da cewa idan wannan ya faru "ba mu zama mafi wayo a kusa ba," kuma za mu yi kasadar kasancewa cikin jin kai na "injunan da ba na mugunta ba, amma injunan da ba su hada da mu ba." Stephen Hawking ya kasance mai ba da shawara. Ƙungiyar Millennium Alliance for Humanity da Biosphere ƙungiya ce ta Jami'ar Stanford wacce ke mai da hankali kan batutuwa da yawa da suka shafi bala'in duniya ta hanyar haɗa membobin masana kimiyya a cikin ɗan adam. Paul Ehrlich ne ya kafa shi, sannan kuma da sauransu. Jami'ar Stanford kuma tana da Cibiyar Tsaro da Haɗin kai ta ƙasa da ƙasa da ke mai da hankali kan haɗin gwiwar siyasa don rage haɗarin bala'i a duniya. An kafa Cibiyar Tsaro da Fasaha ta Farko a cikin Janairun shekarata 2019 a Makarantar Sabis na Harkokin Waje na Georgetown ta Walsh kuma za ta mayar da hankali kan bincike na manufofin fasaha na fasaha masu tasowa tare da farko da aka ba da hankali ga basirar wucin gadi. Sun sami tallafin dala miliyan 55 daga Good Ventures kamar yadda Open Philanthropy ya ba da shawara. [12]

Sauran ƙungiyoyin tantance haɗarin sun samo asali ne a cikin ƙungiyoyin gwamnati. Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya (WHO) ta hada da wani bangare da ake kira Global Alert and Response (GAR) mai sa ido da kuma mayar da martani ga rikicin annoba a duniya. GAR yana taimaka wa ƙasashe membobi tare da horo da haɗin kai game da annoba. Hukumar Raya Kasashen Duniya ta Amurka (USAID) tana da shirinta na Barazana da Cutar Kwayar cuta wanda ke da nufin yin rigakafi da kuma dauke cututtukan da suka samo asali daga tushensu Ko Kuma farkon su. Laboratory National Lawrence Livermore yana da sashin da ake kira Global Security Principal Directorate wanda ke yin bincike a madadin gwamnati batutuwan da suka shafi lafiyar halittu da kuma yaki da ta'addanci.

Duba wasu abubuwan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named priority
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Ord 20202
  3. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :7
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :8
  5. Desvousges, W.H., Johnson, F.R., Dunford, R.W., Boyle, K.J., Hudson, S.P., and Wilson, N. 1993, Measuring natural resource damages with contingent valuation: tests of validity and reliability. In Hausman, J.A. (ed), Contingent Valuation:A Critical Assessment, pp. 91–159 (Amsterdam: North Holland).
  6. Bostrom 2013.
  7. Yudkowsky, Eliezer. "Cognitive biases potentially affecting judgment of global risks". Global catastrophic risks 1 (2008): 86. p.114
  8. Is Humanity Suicidal? The New York Times Magazine May 30, 1993)
  9. Elon Musk thinks life on earth will go extinct, and is putting most of his fortune toward colonizing Mars
  10. Hanson, Robin. "Catastrophe, social collapse, and human extinction". Global catastrophic risks 1 (2008): 357.
  11. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :3
  12. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named CSET

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  • Toby Ord (2020). Hatsarin Haɗari - Haɗarin wanzuwa da makomar ɗan adam . Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781526600219

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]