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Abdullahi bin Ali

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Abu Muhammad ‘Abd Allāh ibn ‘Ali ( Larabci: أبو محمد عبد الله بن علي‎ </link> ; c. 712 – 764 CE) ya kasance memba na daular Abbasiyawa, kuma ya taka rawar gani a hawansa mulki a lokacin juyin juya halin Abbasid . A matsayinsa na gwamnan Sham, ya karfafa ikon Abbasiyawa a lardin, tare da kawar da ragowar daular Umayyawa tare da murkushe zanga-zangar goyon bayan Umayyawa. Bayan rasuwar dan'uwansa kuma khalifan Abbasiyawa na farko, al-Saffah, a shekara ta 754, ya kaddamar da yunkurin neman mukamin halifa a kan dan'uwan al-Saffah, al-Mansur, amma ya sha kaye kuma aka daure shi. An kashe shi a shekara ta 764.

Matsayi a cikin juyin juya halin Abbasiyawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Abd Allah ya kasance dan gidan Abbasiyawa, kuma kawu ga khalifofin Abbasiyawa biyu na farko, al-Saffah ( r. 750-754 ) da al-Mansur ( r. 754-775 ). [1]

A farkon shekara ta 749, boren adawa da Banu Umayyawa da ya faro karkashin Abu Muslim a Khurasan ya yi galaba a kasashen gabashin Khalifanci, kuma sojojin Khurasani suka ratsa yamma da Farisa zuwa kan iyakokin Iraki . A watan Oktoba na 749, aka ayyana al-Saffah halifa a Kufa, kuma cikin sauri ya sami karbuwa daga Abu Muslim da Kufans, wanda hakan ya hana Alid yunkurin juyin juya hali. Don tabbatar da ikon Abbasiyawa, al-Saffah yanzu ya nada 'yan iyalinsa don jagorantar runduna: an aika ɗan'uwansa, al-Mansur na gaba, don jagorantar Siege na Wasit, yayin da aka aika Abd Allah don ya fuskanci halifan Umayyawa Marwan II. ( r. 744-750 ) a cikin Jazira . [2]

Don haka Abd Allah ya rike babban kwamanda a yakin Zab, inda sojojin Abbasiyawa suka fatattaki Marwan na biyu, suka kuma jagoranci fatattakar Marwan na farko zuwa Sham, inda ya kwace babban birnin Umayyawa Dimashku daga nan zuwa Palastinu, wanda ya tilasta Marwan. don gudun hijira zuwa Masar . Dan uwansa Salih ya bi Marwan zuwa kasar Masar, inda aka kama sarkin Umayyawa aka kashe shi. [1] [3]

A matsayinsa na gwamnan Abbasiyawa na farko a Siriya, Abd Allah ya tabbatar da kansa a matsayin makiyin Banu Umayyawa, yana tsananta tsananta wa 'yan uwa. A cewar Masanin Gabas ta Sweden Karl Vilhelm Zetterstéen, "ya yi watsi da wata hanya don kawar da tushensu da reshe. A lokacin zamansa a Falasdinu, an kashe kusan tamanin daga cikinsu a lokaci guda." [1] Wannan zaluncin ya yi tasiri sosai, ta yadda wani mutum guda daga cikin daular, wato halifa Hisham bn Abdil Malik jikan Abdurrahman bn Mu'awiya ya yi nasarar tserewa daga mutuwa ya gudu zuwa Andalus, inda ya gudu zuwa Andalus. ya kafa sabuwar daular Banu Umayyawa.

Wannan danniya mai tsanani, da kuma tauyewar sojojin Khurasani masu nasara, nan da nan ya haifar da tashin hankali daga kabilar Sham, karkashin jagorancin gwamnan Jund Qinnasrin, Abu'l-Ward ibn al-Kawthar . Suna tare da Abu Muhammad al-Sufyani, zuriyar halifa Mu'awiya I, wanda ya gabatar da kansa a matsayin dan takara na farfado da halifancin Umayyawa. Da farko 'yan tawayen sun yi nasara, inda suka fatattaki sojojin Abbasiyawa karkashin dan'uwan Abd al-Samad kusa da Qinnasrin, amma Abd Allah ya yi musu mugun fata a Marj al-Akhram a karshen shekara ta 750. Abu'l-Ward ya fadi, yayin da Abu Muhammad ya gudu zuwa jeji. [1] [4] Wani dan uwan Abu Muhammad, al-Abbas bn Muhammad, ya taso a Aleppo jim kadan, amma al-Mansur, wanda yake mulkin Jazira, ya aika da dakarun da suka dakile boren kafin Abd Allah ya isa. Daga nan sai Abd Allah ya zarce kan iyakar Sumaysat, inda aka taru a karkashin Ishaq bn Muslim al-Uqayli.

A yayin da aka cimma matsaya tsakanin Ishaq da al-Mansur, sannan aka karbe da yawa daga cikin jagororin Umayyawa cikin sahun Abbasiyawa. [5] Wani bore, karkashin jagorancin Aban ibn Mu'awiya jikan Hisham bn Abd al-Malik, ya barke a lokacin rani na shekara ta 751 a kusa da Sumaysat, wanda ya tilastawa Abd Allah katse wani farmaki da aka kai yankin Rumawa domin dakile shi. Wani mai biyayya ga Banu Umayyawa, Abd al-Samad bn Muhammad bn al-Hajjaj bn Yusuf, ya sami nasarar tserewa daga shan kaye, ya kama shi har zuwa shekara ta 755. [4]

neman Halifanci[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Duk da tashe-tashen hankulan da 'yan Umayyawa suka yi a Jazira, a cikin 'yan shekaru masu zuwa, bisa ga dukkan alamu Abd Allah ya iya tabbatar da amincin sarakunan kabilar Sham, kuma lardin ya kasance mafi kwanciyar hankali. A lokacin mutuwar al-Saffah a cikin watan Yuni na 754, ya sanya shi, tare da al-Mansur da mataimakin gabas, Abu Muslim, a matsayin daya daga cikin manyan mutane uku a cikin halifanci. [4] [2] Al-Saffah ya rasu a hanyarsa ta zuwa Makka, kuma a kan gadon mutuwarsa ya nada al-Mansur a matsayin magajinsa. A lokacin, Abd Allah yana shirya wani gagarumin yakin da ake yi da Daular Rumawa, kuma ya hada dakaru masu yawa don haka. Da samun labarin mutuwar al-Saffah, Abd Allah ya ayyana kansa a matsayin Halifa, yana mai da'awar cewa al-Saffah ya yi masa alkawarin gadon mulki a matsayin ladan rawar da ya taka wajen kifar da Marwan na biyu.

Gaskiyar da'awar Abd Allah da irin halaccin da ya samu a gaban al-Mansur abu ne mai wuya a tantance bin yawaitar al'adun makiya bayan ya sha kaye, amma, kamar yadda P. Cobb ya yi sharhi, "abin da duk bayanan suka yi ittifaqi a kai shi ne. cewa magajin al-Saffah ba a tabbata ba kafin mutuwarsa", kuma akwai alamun cewa Abd Allah "ya bayyana kansa a matsayin magaji bayyananne [...] a cikin ƴan shekaru kafin mutuwar al-Saffah." [4] Abd Allah ya samu gagarumin goyon baya a kasar Sham, da sojojin kasar Siro-Jaziran da kuma manyan mutanen kasar Sham wadanda suka nemi dawo da martabar da suke da ita a karkashin mulkin Umayyawa, da kuma sojojin Khurasani da ya yi wa jagoranci a lokacin juyin juya halin Musulunci. [2]

Yayin da sojojin Abd Allah suka fara tattaki zuwa Iraki, al-Mansur ya koma ga Abu Muslim domin neman goyon baya. Duk da cewa halifa bai aminta da karfin Abu Muslim ba, amma kasancewarsa a duk duniya yana da farin jini a wajen sojojin Khurasani na juyin juya halin Musulunci ya sanya ya zama dan takarar da zai iya fuskantar Abd Allah da hada mafi yawan sojojin Khurasani wadanda suka zama babban ginshikin gwamnatin zuwa bangaren Halifa. . [2] Sojojin biyu sun hadu a Nisibis a watan Nuwamba 754. Sojojin Abd Allah ya cika da shakku, kasancewar Khurasani sun kyamaci yakar Abu Muslim. Hakika, a cewar Zetterstéen, Abd Allah "an ce ya kashe Khurasani 17,000 a cikin sojojinsa, saboda yana tsoron ba za su taba fada da Abu Muslim ba".

Har yanzu mutanen Sham suna jin haushin shan kashin da suka yi a hannun Abd Allah a Zab. A cikin kalmomin Hugh N. Kennedy, Abd Allah "ya zargi yaudara kuma ya gudu kafin yakin ya ci gaba", yana neman mafaka a Basra, inda wani ɗan'uwansa, Sulayman, ya kasance gwamna. [1] [2] Duk da nasarar da aka samu da sunansa, wayayyun al-Mansur ya yi sauri ya kawar da Abu Muslim, babban abokin hamayyarsa. Bayan ‘yan watanni ne aka lallasa Abu Muslim ya zo kotun halifa, aka kashe shi. [2]

Abd Allah ya zauna a Basra a karkashin kariyar dan uwansa har sai da aka sallame shi, bayan shekaru biyu. Abd Allah yanzu yana kurkuku bisa umarnin al-Mansur, har a cikin 764, an ɗauke shi zuwa cikin wani gida wanda aka lalatar da shi da gangan, ya faɗo masa ya binne shi a ƙarƙashin kufai. "(Zetterstéen). A lokacin rasuwarsa, an ce yana da shekaru 52 a duniya.

Duk da tawayen Abd Allah, ɗan'uwansa Salih da iyalinsa suka gaje shi a Siriya, waɗanda suka kasance a matsayin manyan jiga-jigan Abbasiyawa a lardin na rabin ƙarni na gaba. [3]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Zetterstéen 1987.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Kennedy 2004.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Grohmann & Kennedy 1995.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Cobb 2001.
  5. Kennedy 1986.