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Abu Yusuf

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Abu Yusuf
mai shari'a

Rayuwa
Haihuwa Kufa, 731
ƙasa Umayyad Caliphate (en) Fassara
Daular Abbasiyyah
Mutuwa Bagdaza, 13 Satumba 798
Karatu
Harsuna Larabci
Malamai Imam Abu Hanifa
Shu'ba Ibn al-Ḥajjāj (en) Fassara
Ɗalibai
Sana'a
Sana'a qadi (en) Fassara, Mujtahid da mai falsafa
Employers Kufa
Bagdaza
Muhimman ayyuka Kitab al-Kharaj (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Musulunci
Mabiya Sunnah

Abu Yusuf Ya’qub bn Ibrahim al-Ansari wanda aka fi sani da Abu Yusuf (Larabci: أبو يوسف) dalibin malamin shari'a ne Abu Hanifa wanda ya taimaka wajen yada tasirin makarantar Hanafi ta shari'ar Musulunci ta hanyar rubuce-rubucensa da mukaman gwamnati da ya rike.[1]

Ya yi aiki a matsayin babban alkali (qadi al-qudat) lokacin mulkin Haruna al-Rashid. Littafin Kitab al-Kharaj, littafin da ya shafi haraji da batutuwan da suka shafi kasafin kudi da gwamnati ke fuskanta, ita ce littafin da ya fi shahara.[2]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Abu Yusuf ya rayu a Kufa da Baghdad, a cikin ƙasar Iraki a yanzu, a cikin ƙarni na 8. Asalinsa an samo asali ne daga Sa’ad bn Habta, matashi a Madina a zama}nin Annabi, kuma an kiyasta maulidinsa a bisa ranar wafatinsa kusan shekara ta 113/729 CE.[3]

Bisa lafazin tatsuniyoyi, Abu Yusuf ya taso cikin talauci amma yana da tsananin sha'awar ilimi. Mahaifiyarsa ta ki yarda da sha'awar karatunsa, inda ta dage cewa ya mallaki wasu sana'o'i (sana'ar dinki, kamar yadda wata majiya ta ruwaito) don taimakawa wajen biyan bukatun. Duk da cewa ba za a iya tantancewa sosai ba, labaran sun nuna cewa ya cika burin mahaifiyarsa, amma kuma ya ci gaba da karatunsa na ilimi.[4] Abu Hanifa ya fahimci hazakarsa da jajircewarsa daga ƙarshe wanda ya zama jagoransa tare da Abu Yusuf a matsayin ɗalibin tauraro. An bayyana shi a matsayin mutum mai ban mamaki wanda ya jajirce wajen neman ilimi da fahimtar shari'a. Yayin da mafi yawan abin da aka sani na kuruciyarsa ya dogara ne a kan wasu hujoji masu karo da juna a wasu lokuta, an tabbatar da cewa ya karanci shari’a da hadisai a Kufa da Madina a karkashin wasu malamai da suka hada da Abu Hanifa, Malik b. Anas, al-Laith b. Sa'ad da sauransu. A karkashin jagorancin Abu Hanifa, Abu Yusuf ya samu nasara mai ban mamaki kuma ya taimaka wajen bunkasa da yada tasirin makarantar Hanafi ta shari'ar Musulunci.[5]

Abu Yusuf ya zauna a Kufa har sai da aka nada shi Qadi a Bagadaza. Babu tabbas ko Mahdi, al-Hadi, ko Haruna al-Rashid ne ya nada shi. Kamar yadda wani labari ya nuna, Abu Yusuf ya iya ba da nasiha mai kyau da ya shafi shari’ar addini ga wani jami’in gwamnati da ya ba shi kyauta mai yawa kuma ya ba shi shawara ga halifa Haruna Al-Rashid. Ya ci gaba da ba da gamsassun ra'ayoyin shari'a ga khalifa wanda ya jawo shi a cikin da'irarsa kuma ya nada shi Qadi. Yayin da wannan sigar abubuwan ta faru mai yiwuwa ne, ba lallai ba ne ingantacce kuma ba za a iya tantance shi da kansa ba. Abin da aka sani shi ne, Abu Yusuf ya zama wani na kusa da Abbasiyawa khalifa, Haruna al-Rashid, wanda a karshe ya ba shi lakabin Grand Qadi, ko Qadi 'l-qudat; karon farko da aka baiwa wani irin wannan lakabi a tarihin Musulunci.[6] Duk da yake a lokacin ana nufin matsayin daraja, halifa ya yawaita tuntubar Abu Yusuf kan al'amuran shari'a da manufofin kudi har ma ya ba shi ikon nada wasu Qadisai a daular. Wannan ya sanya matsayin Grand Qadi ya yi kama da babban adalci na zamani. Abu Yusuf ya rike mukamin Grand Qadi har zuwa rasuwarsa a shekara ta 182/798.[7]

Ayyukan Adabi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A lokacin rayuwarsa, Abu Yusuf ya kirkiri litattafai da dama kan batutuwa da suka hada da fikihun Musulunci, dokokin kasa da kasa, ruwayoyin hadisai da aka tattara (hadisi), da sauransu. Kitab al-Fihrist, tarin littafai da Ibn al-Nadim ya rubuta a karni na 10, ya ambaci lakabi da yawa da Abu Yusuf ya rubuta. Banda ɗaya, babu ɗayan waɗannan ayyukan da aka jera a cikin Fihrist da ya tsira. Banda littafinsa mai suna 'Kitāb al-Kharāj, kitashi kan batun haraji da kudi da ke fuskantar daular da aka rubuta bisa bukatar halifa, Harun al-Rashid. Daular Musulunci tana kan kololuwar karfinta ne a lokacin rubuta shi kuma a cikin littafinsa ya nemi shawarar halifa kan yadda za a gudanar da manufofin kudi yadda ya kamata daidai da dokokin addini. Yayin da halifa ya dauki wasu shawarwari ya yi watsi da wasu, illar gaba daya ita ce ta takaita wa mai mulki a kan tsarin haraji. Zaɓin wasu ayyukan da aka ba shi waɗanda ba su bayyana a cikin Fihrist ba su ma sun tsira. Littafin Kitab al-Athar tarin hadisai ne na Kufaye (hadisi) wanda ya ruwaito. Kitab Ikhtilaf Abi Hanifa wa Ibn Abi Layla kwatankwacin ra'ayoyin da ke tsakanin hukumomin shari'a, Abu Hanifa da Abu Layla. Kitab al-Radd ‘Ala Siyar al-Awza’i “karya ce ta dalili tare da ci gaba mai fa’ida,” na ra’ayoyin game da ka’idojin yaki na shahararren malamin Syria, al-Awza’i. Wasu sassa daga cikin ayyukansa dabam-dabam waɗanda ba su wanzu ba duka an haɗa su cikin nassosin da almajiransa suka rubuta kuma an ba su ta cikin tsararraki masu zuwa. Misali, an shigar da wasu sassa daga littafin Abu Yusuf, Kitabal-Hiyal (Littafin na'urorin shari'a) a cikin littafin, Kitabal-Makharidj fi 'l-Hiyal wanda almajirinsa, Muhammad al-Shaybani ya rubuta.

Hanyar Koyarwar sa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A matsayinsa na almajirin Abu Hanifa, koyarwar Abu Yusuf ta fi ɗaukan na mai ba shi shawara. Rubuce-rubucensa da fitattun mukaman siyasa sun taimaka wajen ciyar da makarantar Hanafi ta shari'ar Musulunci gaba dayan daular Musulunci. Yayin da mafi yawan ra'ayoyinsa na shari'a (fatawa) sun kafu a cikin rukunan da tsarin da tsohon malaminsa ya yi, akwai wasu batutuwa da ya sabawa kansu ya bayyana nasa tunanin na shari'a. Babban abin da ya gada daga Abu Yusuf shi ne tabbatarwa da ciyar da mazhabar Hanafiyya gaba a matsayin madogaran tunani na shari'a a daular Musulunci da samar da tsarin shari'a na ayyana da tauye ikon halifanci dangane da manufofin kudi.

Jerin Rubuce-rubucen sa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Kitab al-Kharaj, aikin da ya fi shahara, labari ne kan haraji da matsalolin kasafin kuɗi na jihar da aka shirya wa halifa.
  • Usul al-fiqh - sanannen aikin farko na ka'idojin fikihu na Musulunci. Wani yanki na ayyukansa ya keɓe ga dokokin ƙasa da ƙasa.
  • Kitab al-Aathar, tarin hadisai (hadisi) ya ruwaito.
  • Kitab Ikhtilaf Abi Hanifa wa Ibn Abi Layla, daya daga cikin ayyukan farko akan fiqhu.
  • Kitab al-Radd ‘Ala Siyar al-Awza’i, karyata shahararriyar fikihu da al’adar Sham, al-Awza’i kan dokar yaki.

➡️ Al Ihya Al Ma'arif an N'omaniya ne ya buga wadannan littafai karkashin jagorancin Abul Wafa Al Afghani.

Duba da Karin bayani[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

- https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Islamic_scholars_described_as_father_or_founder_of_a_field

- https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_al-Shaybani

- https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_scholars

- https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sharia

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abu_Yusuf
  2. http://www.inter-islam.org/Biographies/imamaabuyusf.html#Imam%20Abu%20Yusuf%20(rahmatullahi%20alaihi)
  3. https://web.archive.org/web/20201208223436/http://www.sunnah.org/history/Scholars/twin_pillars.htm
  4. https://whatisquran.com/894-biography-of-muslim-scholar-al-qadhi-abu-yusuf-died-y-181-h.html798
  5. https://archive.org/details/misquotingmuhamm0000brow/page/35
  6. https://referenceworks.brillonline.com/search?s.q=Ab%C5%AB+Y%C5%ABsuf&s.f.s2_parent=s.f.book.encyclopaedia-of-islam-2&search-go=Search
  7. https://web.archive.org/web/20201208223436/http://www.sunnah.org/history/Scholars/twin_pillars.htm