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Al'adun shayi na kasar Sin

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Al'adun shayi na kasar Sin
tea culture of an area (en) Fassara da tradition (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na tea culture (en) Fassara da Chinese culture (en) Fassara
Bangare na tea culture of East Asian cultural sphere (en) Fassara
Facet of (en) Fassara Sin
Ƙasa da aka fara Sin
Intangible cultural heritage status (en) Fassara Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity (en) Fassara
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Al'adun shayi na kasar Sin, yana nufin yadda ake shirya shayi da kuma lokutan da mutanen da ke shan shayi a China. Al'adar shayi a China ta bambanta da ta ƙasashen Turai kamar Biritaniya da sauran ƙasashen Gabas da Kudu maso Gabashin Asiya,kamar Japan, Koriya, Vietnam a cikin shiri, ɗanɗano, da kuma lokacin da ake shan sa. Har yanzu ana shan shayi a kai a kai, a lokuta na yau da kullun. Ban da kasancewar shahararren abin sha, ana amfani da shi a cikin magungunan gargajiya na ƙasar Sin har ma a cikin abincin ƙasar ta Sin.[1][2]

An shirya bikin shayi na gongfu na kasar Sin

Asalin kalma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gidan shayi a Shanghai, China
Gidan shayi a Lambun Fadar Shugaban Ƙasa a Nanjing, China

Ana kiran manufar al'adun shayi a cikin Sinanci chayi ("fasahar shan shayi"), ko cha wenhua ("al'adun shayi"). Kalmar cha (荼) tana kuma nufin abin sha wanda aka samo daga Camellia sinensis, shuka shayi. Kafin ƙarni na 8 KZ, an san shayi tare a ƙarƙashin kalmar 荼(pinyin: tú) tare da adadi mai yawa na sauran tsirrai masu ɗaci. Waɗannan haruffan Sinanci guda biyu iri ɗaya ne, in banda ƙarin bugun a tsaye a cikin harafin 荼 na Sin, wanda ke fassara zuwa shayi. Tsohuwar halayyar ta ƙunshi m pin (pinyin: cǎo) a cikin raguwar nau'inda halin (pinyin: yú), wanda ke ba da alamar sautin.[3]

Al'adar shan shayi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Saitin kayan aiki don shan shayi
Wata mai masaukin baki tana ba da shayi a gidan shayi na gargajiya na ƙasar Sin.

Akwai yanayi na musamman da yawa waɗanda ake shirya sha da ci a cikin al'adun Sinawa, kuma ana kiyaye shi gaba ɗaya a Babban yankin China da Taiwan.

Alamar girmamawa
Bisa al'adar ƙasar Sin, yakamata membobin samari su nuna girmamawa ga membobin tsofaffi ta hanyar ba da shayi. Gayyatar dattawansu zuwa gidajen cin abinci don shayi wani aiki ne na biki na gargajiya. Sabbin ma'aurata suna ba da shayi ga danginsu tsofaffi. A da, mutanen ƙanƙanta masu zaman kansu suna ba da shayi ga manyan mutane a cikin al'umma. A yau, tare da ƙaruwar walwalar jama'ar kasar Sin, wannan doka da abubuwan da ta kunsa sun zama ba su da kyau.
Don neman afuwa
A al'adun ƙasar Sin, ana iya bayar da shayi a matsayin wani bangare na neman afuwa. Misali, yaran da ba su da hali na iya ba iyayensu shayi a matsayin alamar nadama da biyayya.
Don nuna godiya da yin bukukuwan aure
A bikin auren gargajiya na ƙasar Sin, ango da amarya suna durƙusa a gaban iyayensu, da kuma tsoffin dangi irin su manyan iyaye sannan su ba su shayi, sannan su gode musu, tare wanda ke nuna nuna godiya da girmamawa. Bisa ga al'adar, amarya da ango suna hidima ga iyalai biyu. Wannan tsari yana nuna alamar haɗin kai tsakanin iyalai biyun.

Taɓa yatsa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Taɓa yatsa hanya ce ta yau da kullun don gode wa maigidan shayi ko sabar shayi don shayi. Yayin ko bayan an cika ƙoƙon mutum, mai karɓar shayi na iya danna manuniya da yatsun tsakiya (ɗaya ko fiye a haɗe) don nuna godiya ga mutumin da ya ba da shayi. Wannan al'ada ta zama ruwan dare a kudancin Sin, inda galibi abincinsu ke hade da shayi da yawa.

An ce wannan al'ada ta samo asali ne daga daular Qing lokacin da Sarkin Qianlong ya yi balaguro a cikin daular kuma an umurci bayinsa da ke tare da su kada su bayyana ainihin maigidan nasu. Wata rana a wani gidan cin abinci a Kudancin China, Sarki ya zuba wa bawansa shayi. Ga wannan bawan babban abin alfahari ne Sarki ya zuba masa shayi. Ba bisa al'ada ba, yana so ya durƙusa ya rusuna ya nuna godiyarsa ga Sarki, duk da haka ba zai iya yin hakan ba tunda hakan zai bayyana asalin Sarkin. Maimakon haka, ya buga teburin da yatsun lanƙwasa don wakiltar durƙusawa ga Sarkin sarakuna da nuna godiya da girmamawa. A wannan ma'anar, yatsun da aka lanƙwasa da alama suna nuna bawa mai ruku'u.

A cikin shagulgulan shayi ana karkada kai ko faɗi "na gode" ya fi dacewa.

Shan shayi na ƙasar Sin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kofunan shayi guda huɗu

Hanyoyi daban-daban na dafa shayi a ƙasar Sin sun dogara ne kan masu canji kamar tsarin bikin, hanyoyin mutanen da ke shirya shi, da kuma irin shayin da ake dafawa. Misali, koren shayi ya fi taushi shayi ko baƙar fata sha ; saboda haka, yakamata a shayar da shayi da ruwa mai sanyaya. Hanyar da ba ta dace ba ta shayi ita ce kawai a ƙara ganyen a cikin tukunyar da ke ɗauke da ruwan zafi. Ana samun wannan hanyar galibi a cikin gidaje da gidajen abinci, alal misali, a cikin mahallin dim sum ko yum cha a cikin gidajen cin abinci na Cantonese. Wata hanyar bautar shayi ita ce amfani da ƙaramin kwano mai rufi wanda ake kira gaiwan. Sarkin Hongwu na daular Ming ya ba da gudummawa ga haɓaka ɓoyayyen shayi ta hanyar hana keɓaɓɓen shayi .

Gongfu cha (Kung fu shayi)[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A Yixing yumbu teapot

Gongfu cha, ma'ana "yin shayi da gwaninta", sanannen hanyar shayi ne a China . Yanayin amfani da ƙananan tef ɗin Yixing wanda ke riƙe da kusan 100-150 ml (4 ko 5 oz.), girman da ake tsammanin zai haɓaka kayan adon kayan ado da kuma "zagaye" ɗanɗanon shayi da ake dafa. Ana amfani da ƙananan kofuna waɗanda ake amfani da su tare da ruwan sha na Yixing. An fi shan shayi na Gongfu bayan cin abinci don taimaka wa narkewarsa. Ana iya yin shayi a cikin shayi na Yixing don jin daɗin zaman kansa tare da maraba da baƙi. Dangane da yankin China, za a iya samun banbanci a matakai na yin giya da kuma kayan aikin da ake amfani da su a cikin aikin. Misali, gongfu-style na Taiwanese yana amfani da ƙarin kayan kida da suka haɗa da tweezers da mai shayi. Hanyar galibi ana amfani da ita ga teas ɗin oolong, amma wasu ana amfani da su don yin pu'er da sauran teas masu ƙamshi.

Tasiri kan al'adun ƙasar Sin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tea ya yi babban tasiri wajen raya al'adun ƙasar Sin, kuma al'adun gargajiyar ƙasar Sin na da alaka da shayi na kasar Sin sosai. Sau da yawa ana danganta shayi da adabi, zane -zane, da falsafa kuma yana da alaƙa da Taoism, Buddha da Confucianism. Kusan tun lokacin daular Tang, shan shayi ya kasance wani muhimmin bangare na noman kai. Chan Chan na China (kwatankwacin na Zen na Japan) falsafar kuma tana da alaƙa da shan shayi.

Teaware[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A al'ada, ana ɗaukar masu shan shayi a matsayin 'masu ilimi' da 'fitattun al'adu' na al'umma. An dauki al'adar shan shayi a matsayin nuna halin ɗabi'a, ilimi, ƙa'idodin zamantakewa, da matsayi. Farashin kayan shayi ya bambanta dangane da kayan da aka hada shi da kuma ingancin sa. Saitin kayan shayi na jidda na iya kashe ɗaruruwan dubban daloli yayinda saitin kayan shayi mara inganci na iya yin ƙasa da dala ɗari. Ƙarfafa sha’awar shan shayi ya haifar da samar da kayan shayi mafi girma, wanda ya shahara ainun ainun na ƙasar Sin.

Gidan shayi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Manyan gidajen shayi ana iya sanye su da matakai na yin fasahar gargajiya

Malaman tsohuwar ƙasar Sin sun yi amfani da gidan shayi a matsayin wurin musayar ra'ayoyi. Gidan shan shayi wuri ne da aka ce an dakatar da mubaya'a ta siyasa da matsayin zamantakewa na ɗan lokaci don fifita magana ta gaskiya da ma'ana. Amfani da shayi cikin annashuwa ya inganta kwarjini da wayewa tsakanin mahalarta. Gidan shayi ba kawai ƙaramin samfuri ne na al'adun shayi na China ba; yana bayar da shaidar tarihi na tarihin shayi na ƙasar Sin. A yau, mutane kuma na iya jin wani irin yanayi na ɗan'adam a cikin Lao She Teahouse na Beijing da sauran gidajen shayi a biranen Gabashin China kamar Hangzhou, Suzhou, Yangzhou, Nanjing, Wuxi, Shaoxing, Shanghai, da sauran wurare. Yanayin gidan shayi har yanzu yana da ƙarfi da ƙarfi.

Al'adun zamani[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin kasar Sin ta zamani, kusan kowane mazaunin gida - har zuwa gidan burodi mafi sauƙi - yana da kayan aikin shayi don dafa kofi na shayi mai zafi. Alamu ne na maraba da baƙi ko maƙwabta. Bisa al’ada, ana sa ran mai ziyara a gidan China zai zauna ya sha shayi yayin magana; ziyartar yayinda aka tsaya ana ɗauka rashin gaskiya ne. Nade tawul ɗin a cikin bukukuwan shayi wani aiki ne na gargajiya a China akan yi don nisantar mugun ƙimar ƙima. A Taiwan, ana gudanar da bukukuwan shayi ba a cikin rayuwar yau da kullum ba har ma a lokuta masu mahimmanci.

An ɗauki Tea a matsayin ɗaya daga cikin abubuwa na yau da kullun, sauran su ne ita ce, shinkafa, mai, gishiri, soya miya, da vinegar . Akwai nau'ikan shayi daban -daban kamar: koren shayi, shayi mai shayi, jan shayi, baƙar fata, fararen shayi, shayi mai ruwan hoda, shayi na puerh da shayi na fure. A al’adance, ana juye sabbin ganyen shayi akai -akai a cikin kwano mai zurfi. Wannan tsari yana ba da damar ganyayyaki su bushe ta yadda za su adana cikakken ɗaɗano, a shirye don amfani.

Nassoshi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 

  1. "Chinese Tea Culture: Tea Ceremony, Custom & Facts". www.topchinatravel.com. Retrieved 2021-08-04.
  2. "Chinese Tea, Discover Chinese Tea Culture and History". www.chinahighlights.com (in Turanci). Retrieved 2021-08-04.
  3. https://studycli.org/chinese-culture/tea/