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Ayyukan kare dussar ƙanƙara

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Ayyukan kare dussar ƙanƙara
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Gadar dusar ƙanƙara da ke kusa da wurin shakatawa a Vorarlberg .

Kula da dusar ƙanƙara ko ayyukan kare kankara na rage haɗarin bala'in da ke haifar da rayuwar ɗan adam, ayyuka, da dukiyoyi. Kula da dusar ƙanƙara yana farawa ne da kimanta haɗarin da aka gudanar ta hanyar bincike don yuwuwar balaguron balaguro ta hanyar gano fasalin yanayin ƙasa kamar yanayin ciyayi, magudanar ruwa, da rarraba dusar ƙanƙara na yanayi na yanayi waɗanda ke nuni da ƙazamar ruwa. Daga abubuwan da aka gano kan dusar ƙanƙara, ana tantance haɗarin ta hanyar gano yanayin yanayin ɗan adam da ke barazana kamar hanyoyi, tudun kankara, da gine-gine. Shirye-shiryen sarrafa kankara suna magance haɗarin dusar ƙanƙara ta hanyar tsara tsare-tsare na rigakafi da ragewa, waɗanda ake aiwatar da su a lokacin hunturu. Tsare-tsare na rigakafi da ragewa sun haɗu da babban fakitin dusar ƙanƙara tare da manyan ƙungiyoyi uku na shiga tsakani: aiki, m da zamantakewa - wani lokacin ma an fi bayyana shi a matsayin "fashewa", "tsari", da "fadakarwa" bisa ga mafi yawan fasahar da aka yi amfani da su a kowane. [1] Dabarun sarrafa dusar ƙanƙara ko dai suna shiga tsakani kai tsaye a cikin juyin halittar fakitin dusar ƙanƙara, ko kuma rage tasirin dusar ƙanƙara da zarar ta faru. Don abin da ya faru na sa hannun ɗan adam, ƙungiyoyin kula da balaguron balaguro suna haɓakawa da horar da cikakken martani da tsare-tsare na farfadowa da kuma ingantawa.

Ƙimar haɗari da haɗari[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Rigakafi da ragewa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Rigakafi da raguwa yana farawa tare da lura da fakitin dusar ƙanƙara don yin hasashen haɗarin afkuwar ƙazamar ruwa. Haɗarin hasashen sai ya ƙayyade matakan da suka wajaba don rage haɗarin da ke a tattare da dusar ƙanƙara.

Kulawa da hasashen[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Duban fakitin dusar ƙanƙara suna nazarin shimfidawa da rarraba dusar ƙanƙara don ƙididdige rashin kwanciyar hankali na fakitin dusar ƙanƙara don haka haɗarin ƙazamar ƙazamar ruwa ta afku a wani yanayi na musamman. A wuraren da ɗan adam ke amfani da dusar ƙanƙara ana sa ido a duk lokacin hunturu don tantance juyin halittar sa a ƙarƙashin yanayin yanayin yanayi. Ya bambanta da yanayin dusar ƙanƙara da aka yi amfani da shi sosai inda yin hasashe shine manufar kallon dusar ƙanƙara, a cikin ƙasa mai nisa, ko kuma filin da ba a yawan ziyarta ba, lura da fakitin dusar ƙanƙara yana bayyana rashin kwanciyar hankali na fakitin dusar ƙanƙara.

Shisshigi masu aiki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Guguwar iska ta barke a wurin shakatawar ski na Tignes na Faransa (m3,600)
Gazex shigarwa

Dabaru masu aiki suna rage haɗarin bala'in girgizar ƙasa ta hanyar haɓaka kwanciyar hankali da dai-daita fakitin dusar ƙanƙara ta nau'ikan sa baki guda uku: tarwatsa raƙuman yadudduka a cikin fakitin dusar ƙanƙara, haɓaka daidaituwar fakitin dusar ƙanƙara, da rage yawan dusar ƙanƙara da ake samu a cikin dusar ƙanƙara. shirya don entrainment a cikin dusar ƙanƙara; Ana iya cimma wannan ko dai ta hanyar haifar da ƙananan ƙazamar ƙazamar ruwa, ko kuma ta hanyar yin tasiri kai tsaye ga tsarin shimfidar dusar ƙanƙara. Ana iya rarraba sarrafa ƙanƙara mai ƙarfi zuwa ko dai na inji ko hanyoyin fashewa. Ana amfani da hanyoyin injina galibi a cikin ƙasa mai nisa, ƙarami, ko ƙasa mai haɗari; yayin da ake amfani da hanyoyin fashewa a cikin babban filin haɗari mai girma, ko ƙasa tare da masana'antu, nishaɗin kasuwanci, birni, da amfani da sufuri.

A cikin ƙasa mafi ƙanƙanta yana da mafi sauƙin hanyar sarrafa dusar ƙanƙara wanda ke tarwatsa raƙuman dusar ƙanƙara ta hanyar tafiya kai tsaye ta hanyar su, dabarar da ake magana da ita azaman tattara kaya. Don manyan fasaloli wannan hanyar za a iya tsawaita ta hanyar sake rarraba dusar ƙanƙara ta injina ta amfani da manyan motocin da aka sa ido da ake kira masu yin dusar ƙanƙara . Wadannan hanyoyin sadarwa guda biyu za a iya yin su cikin aminci yayin da dusar ƙanƙara ke ajiyewa kuma kafin ta haifar da rashin kwanciyar hankali. A cikin filin da ba za a iya shiga ba kawai, ko kuma a cikin fakitin dusar ƙanƙara mai ɓullo da yawa wanda ke da zurfi don ɗaukar kaya, ana amfani da dabarun kwantar da kankara. Dabarar farko ta daidaitawar kankara hanya ce ta shiga wani gangare mai suna yankan kankara. A cikin wannan hanya wani skier yayi ƙoƙari ya haifar da ƙanƙarar ƙanƙara ta hanyar karya goyan bayan fakitin dusar ƙanƙara ta sama da sauri ta hanyar tafiya da sauri tare da saman gangaren, za a iya karkatar da skier akan igiya don ƙara kare su daga kama su a cikin dusar ƙanƙara. . Za a iya ƙara daidaita fakitin dusar ƙanƙara, ko daidaitawa, ta hanyar ci gaba da zirga-zirgar kankara ta ƙasa. A ƙarshe Kuma za a iya amfani da igiyar ƙulli don gani ta cikin tushen cornices, yana haifar da cornice zuwa fakitin dusar ƙanƙara na gangaren ƙasa. Wannan yana da tasirin haɗin gwiwa na rage haƙiƙanin haɗarin da cornice ke haifarwa, da kuma samar da babban tasiri akan fakitin dusar ƙanƙara.

Tawagar ma'aikatan gandun daji na Amurka suna amfani da bindigar da ba ta da ƙarfi 106mm don magance dusar ƙanƙara a Dutsen Mammoth a cikin dajin Inyo na ƙasa .

Dabarun fashewa sun haɗa da haifar da ƙananan ruɓar ruwa mai lalacewa, ta hanyar tayar da caji ko dai a sama ko a saman dusar ƙanƙara. Ana iya tura abubuwan fashewar ta hanyar jefawa da runtse hannu da hannu, Kuma ta hanyar jefa bam daga jirgi mai saukar ungulu, ko kuma ta harsashi da karamar bindiga, bindiga mara karko, ko bindigar iska . A daidaita haɗari ga ma'aikata tare da tasirin hanyar turawa wajen samun dama da haifar da bala'in bala'i, kowace hanya tana da illa da fa'idodi. Daga cikin sabbin hanyoyin, dabarun sanya na'urori masu sarrafa nesa waɗanda ke haifar da fashewar iska ta hanyar tayar da fashewar iska mai fashewa a saman fakitin dusar ƙanƙara a cikin yankin farawa da bala'in bala'i, yana ba da amsa cikin sauri da inganci ga yanke shawara kan kawar da dusar ƙanƙara yayin da rage haɗarin ma'aikatan sarrafa kankara; wani siffa mai mahimmanci musamman don sarrafa kankara a cikin hanyoyin sufuri. Misali, Hasumiyar Avalanche (Sprengmast) Ostiriya, da Norway suna amfani da na'urori masu amfani da hasken rana don tura caji daga mujallu mai ɗauke da cajin rediyo kusan guda 12. Ana iya jigilar mujallu, lodawa, da cire su daga hasumiya ta jirgi mai saukar ungulu, ba tare da buƙatar mataimaki na jirgin ba, ko ma’aikatan wurin.

Sarrafa abubuwan fashewa ya tabbatar da yin tasiri a wuraren da ke da sauƙin shiga wuraren fara balaguron balaguro da kuma inda za a iya jure ƙananan ƙazamar ruwa. Yawancin abu ne wanda ba za a yarda da shi ba, duk da haka, a cikin yankunan da ke da mazaunin mutane da kuma inda akwai ma ƙananan yuwuwar bala'in ne mai girma.

Matsalolin dindindin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Daji da tsarin kariya daga kankara.

Dabarun dindindin suna jinkiri, tsayawa, karkatar da su, ko hana dusar ƙanƙara daga motsi; ko dai gaba daya ko kuma isa ga yadda dakarun da ke lalata suka ragu sosai. Dabaru na dindindin sun haɗa da gina gine- gine da gyaggyarawa ƙasa don dalilai da aka ƙirƙira kamar haka:

  • Tsarin riƙe dusar ƙanƙara (turunan dusar ƙanƙara, gadoji na dusar ƙanƙara, ragar dusar ƙanƙara), ana amfani da su a cikin babbar hanyar yuwuwar balaguron balaguro.
  • Barasa ƙanƙara: Babban ɓangaren shingen dusar ƙanƙara yana dogara ne akan doguwar igiyar ƙarfe mai ƙarfi mai ƙarfi, wanda ke shimfiɗa gangaren gangaren kuma ya isa saman dusar ƙanƙara. Tasirin goyan bayan da saman riƙon ya haifar yana hana yuwuwar raƙuma a cikin murfin dusar ƙanƙara da zamewar murfin dusar ƙanƙara a saman ƙasa. Don haka ana hana wargajewar dusar ƙanƙara a yankin farawa, yayin da motsin dusar ƙanƙara ya keɓe har ya zama mara lahani. Sojojin da ke haifar da matsin dusar ƙanƙara tarun dusar ƙanƙara suna ɗaukar su a kan ginshiƙan jujjuyawar da igiyoyin anga su cikin wuraren anka.
  • Na'urorin tsaro na dusar ƙanƙara (an yi amfani da su don ƙara riƙe dusar ƙanƙara a kan rufin).
  • Tsarin sake rarraba dusar ƙanƙara (gurgin iska, shingen dusar ƙanƙara)
  • Tsarin karkatar da dusar ƙanƙara da aka yi amfani da shi don karkata da kuma tsare dusar ƙanƙara mai motsi a cikin hanyar dusar ƙanƙara. Kada su karkatar da dusar ƙanƙara da ƙarfi, domin a cikin yanayi na ƙarshe, dusar ƙanƙara za ta iya mamaye su cikin sauƙi.
  • Tsarin ja da baya na dusar ƙanƙara (misali masu fasa dusar ƙanƙara), galibi ana amfani da su a cikin ƙananan sassa na gangaren dutsen, don haɓaka jinkirin yanayi.
  • Tsarin kama dusar ƙanƙara
  • Kariyar kai tsaye ga abubuwa masu mahimmanci da sifofi, misali, ta hanyar zubar da dusar ƙanƙara ( zubar dusar ƙanƙara) ko schneekragens (a wuraren hakar ma'adinai).

Sashi ɗaya ɗaya na iya biyan buƙatun nau'o'in manufa da yawa, alal misali, madatsun ruwa, ramuka, tudun ƙasa, da terraces ana amfani da su don karkata, jinkirtawa, da kamawa. Sauran hanyoyin ma sun haɗa da:

  • reforestation, sama da na halitta itace line — gandun daji bauta wa dukan ayyuka na wucin gadi avalanche kariya: riƙewa, sake rarrabawa, retardation da kama.
  • Ana amfani da kogon dusar ƙanƙara, da kuma wuraren da aka haƙa, da aka tona, da katangar dusar ƙanƙara da matsugunan bivouac don ɗan lokaci don kare masu hawan dutse da masu ski ta hanyar samar musu da sararin numfashi a yayin da bala'in girgizar ƙasa ke binnewa.
  • Gine-ginen gyare-gyaren gine-gine da gyaran gyare-gyare, kamar waɗanda aka samu a ƙauyukan tsaunuka masu tsayi na tarihi na Alps. .

Zubar da dusar ƙanƙara[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Jiragen kasa da ke wucewa a cikin wani hoton dusar ƙanƙara a kan Wengernalpbahn a Switzerland.

Wurin zubar da dusar ƙanƙara ko ƙwanƙwasa ƙanƙara nau'in tsari ne na tsayayyen tsarin dusar ƙanƙara don sarrafa dusar ƙanƙara ko don kiyaye wucewa a wuraren da kawar da dusar ƙanƙara ta zama kusan ba zai yiwu ba. Ana iya yin su da ƙarfe, firam ɗin siminti da aka riga aka ɗora, ko katako . [2] Ana iya rufe waɗannan sifofin gaba ɗaya, kamar rami na wucin gadi, ko sun ƙunshi abubuwa masu kama da lattice. Yawancin gine-gine ne masu ƙarfi idan aka yi la'akari da yanayin da dole ne su rayu a ciki.

Kariyar dusar ƙanƙara tana da mahimmanci musamman lokacin da hanyoyi ke ƙetare ƙeƙasasshiyar “gurguwa”, waɗanda raƙuman ruwa ne na halitta ko wasu sifofi waɗanda ke jagorantar ko mai da hankali kan balaguro Ko tagiyar ruwa.

Wuraren zubar da dusar ƙanƙara ko wuraren kallon dusar ƙanƙara abu ne da aka saba gani akan hanyoyin jirgin ƙasa a yankunan tsaunuka, irin su Marias Pass da Donner Pass a ƙasar Amurka, ko kuma da yawa daga cikin layin dogo na tsaunukan Switzerland, inda waƙoƙi ke rufe da mil mil. Ko da yake ba a amfani da shi a yau, Babban Titin Jirgin ƙasa na Pacific yana da cikakken filin jirgin ƙasa a ƙarƙashin rufin Donner Pass. Ana kuma samun su a kan tsaunin tituna na musamman ma. Babban titin Trans-Canada tsakanin Revelstoke da Golden a British Columbia yana da wuraren zubar dusar ƙanƙara da yawa da ke rufe dukkan bangarorin tafiye-tafiye don tinkarar dusar ƙanƙara.

Gabashin Snoqualmie Pass a Washington a arewa maso yammacin Amurka, Interstate 90 mai iyakar yamma yana da dusar ƙanƙara ta zubar a tsakiyar hanya a gefen gabas na tafkin Keechelus (47°21′18″N 121°21′57″W / 47.355°N 121.3658°W / 47.355; -121.3658, mizani 57.7); an cire shi a cikin shekarata 2014 a shirye-shiryen gina gadoji don maye gurbinsa. 500 feet (150 m) Tsarin kankare ya rufe hanyoyi guda biyu akan lanƙwasa kuma an gina shi a cikin shekarata 1950 don Hanyar Amurka ta 10, sannan layi ɗaya a kowace hanya; ya kasance karo na farko da aka yi amfani da ginin da aka riga aka gina don tsarin babbar hanya a wani yanki mai tsaunuka kuma shine dusar ƙanƙara ta ƙarshe da ta saura akan babbar hanyar Interstate .

Dusar ƙanƙara gada[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dusar ƙanƙara gadoji a Switzerland .

Gadar dusar ƙanƙara, shingen ƙanƙara, ko shingen ƙanƙara, yayi kama da shingen dusar ƙanƙara, amma suna aiki daban. Ana gina shingen dusar ƙanƙara a tsaye kuma suna tara dusar ƙanƙara a gefensu na ƙasa, yayin da gadoji na dusar ƙanƙara ke kwance ko a kwance kuma suna riƙe dusar ƙanƙara a gefensu.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Ana haɗa gadoji na dusar ƙanƙara zuwa gangaren da ke gefen sama ta hanyar anguwar tashin hankali da kuma kan gangaren ƙasa ta hanyar matsawa. [3]

Avalanche dam[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Dusar ƙanƙara madatsun ruwa ( dams na hana dusar ƙanƙara, madatsun ruwan ƙanƙara ) wani nau'in tsarin kula da ƙazamar ruwa ne da ake amfani da shi don kare wuraren da jama'a ke zaune, hanyoyi, layukan wutar lantarki da sauransu, daga ƙazamar ruwa . Manyan nau'ikan nau'ikan guda biyu (2) sune karkatar da madatsun ruwa . [4]

Dukkan nau'ikan madatsun ruwa guda biyu ana sanya su ne a cikin yankin da ba a gama gujewa ba na kankara da kuma cikin sassan da ke kan hanyar. A wasu sassa na dusar ƙanƙara ba su da tasiri saboda ana iya cika su cikin sauƙi ko kuma a cika su. [4]

Avalanche net[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Rukunin dusar ƙanƙara ( ragar dusar ƙanƙara, ragar dusar ƙanƙara ) sassa ne masu sassaucin ra'ayi na dusar ƙanƙara don sarrafa dusar ƙanƙara, an gina su da ƙarfe ko igiyoyin nailan ko madauri waɗanda ke riƙe da sandunan ƙarfe, zaɓin ana ba da su tare da anka matsawa ƙasa. Ana shigar da su a cikin manyan sassa na yuwuwar balaguron balaguro don hana dusar ƙanƙara ta fara zamewa cikin dusar ƙanƙara, ko don jinkirta faifan.

Rukunin dusar ƙanƙara yana da fa'idodi masu zuwa idan aka kwatanta da tsayayyen tsarin tallafi wato(shinge na dusar ƙanƙara, tudun dusar ƙanƙara, zubar dusar ƙanƙara):

  • ƙananan farashi
  • mafi kyau gauraye a cikin yanayi
  • sauki shigarwa
  • tsayayyen tsari sun fi saurin lalacewa a cikin wuraren da ba su da kwanciyar hankali (tare da girgizar ƙasa, zabtarewar ƙasa, faɗuwar ƙasa, [5] ƙasa mai ratsawa ta permafrost [6] ) kuma cikin yanayin ruwan sama mai ƙarfi da malalar laka .

Rukunin dusar ƙanƙara yana da wasu kura-kurai, saboda sun fi wahalar dagewa a ƙasa mara kyau.  ]

Harkokin zamantakewa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Don rage haɗarin bala'in dusar ƙanƙara, sa kaimi ga zamantakewa yana rage aukuwar bala'in bala'in bala'in ɗan adam ta hanyar gyara ɗabi'un mutane, ta yadda amfanin da suke yi na ƙazamar ƙazamar ƙasa ya dace don hana shigarsu cikin ƙazamar ruwa. Ƙungiyoyin irin na kula da dusar ƙanƙara suna cim ma hakan ta hanyar niyya wayar da kan jama'a da shirye-shiryen ilimi a al'ummomin da ke yawan balaguron balaguro. Binciken da aka yi na hadurran dusar ƙanƙara ya nuna cewa mafi yawan ƙazamar da ta shafi mutane mutane ne ke haddasa su, kuma daga cikin waɗanda abin ya shafa da yawa ba su da masaniya game da haɗarin afkuwar ƙazamar. Don magance wannan abin lura, shirye-shiryen wayar da kan jama'a da ilimi na gabatarwa suna ba da koyarwa game da guje wa haɗarin balaguron balaguron balaguron balaguron balaguron balaguro ta hanyar sanin ƙazamar ƙazamar ƙazamar ƙasa, lura da rashin kwanciyar hankali na dusar ƙanƙara, da gano ayyukan ɗan adam da ke haifar da bala'i. Ƙungiyoyin kula da dusar ƙanƙara kuma suna yada jita-jita, taswirori, gargaɗi, da rahotannin ayyukan dusar ƙanƙara don taimakawa al'ummomin masu amfani da ƙasa.

Amsa da farfadowa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ƙungiyoyin kula da dusar ƙanƙara suna tsara, da kuma mayar da martani, ga bala'in balaguro Ko yawo. Amsoshi na yau da kullun sun taso daga share hanyoyin sufuri na tarkacen dusar ƙanƙara, zuwa gyara masana'antu da wuraren nishaɗi, don nema, ceto, da murmurewa. Don inganta sakamakon shigar ɗan adam ƙungiyoyin sarrafa dusar ƙanƙara suna ba da horo da ilimi ga ƙwararrun ƙwararru da masu sha'awar nishaɗi a cikin shirye-shiryen ƙazamar ƙazamar ruwa.

Shirye-shiryen sana'a[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Martanin ƙwararru game da balaguron balaguron balaguro ana niyya ne a kan bala'in da ya shafi jama'a da ba su shirya ba. Lokacin da aka yi hasashen za a yi balaguron balaguron balaguro, za a rufe wuraren da jama'a da ba su shirya ba, sannan bayan an yi bala'in za a kwashe tarkace, sannan a gyara. Lokacin da bala'in bala'in da ba zato ba tsammani ya faru wanda ya haɗa da jama'a da ba su shirya ba, ƙungiyoyin kula da balaguron balaguro suna amsawa tare da manyan ƙungiyoyin bincike ƙwararru waɗanda suka haɗa da layin bincike, da horar da karnuka bincike da ceto.

Shiri mai son[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Amsar nishaɗi ga balaguron balaguro ya haɗa da saurin samar da ƙungiyar bincike da ceto. Ƙungiyoyin bincike da ceto na ad hoc sun dogara ga dukan mahalarta da suka shirya don yuwuwar bala'i ta hanyar ɗaukar ingantattun kayan bincike da ceto, da kuma samun horon da ya dace fa shi.

Duba wasu abubuwan[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Daurewar salula
  • Rage zabtarewar ƙasa, sarrafa irin wannan nau'in bala'i

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named colorado
  2. Photographs of avalanche defences, FAO corporate document repository
  3. "Steel snow bridges"
  4. 4.0 4.1 "The design of avalanche protection dams. Recent practical and theoretical developments" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2022-03-10.
  5. Nets are less damaged by rocks because their flexible structure dissipates the kinetic energy of falling rocks, see "Protective barrier, in particular for mountainous places", patent description
  6. "Snow-supporting structures in permafrost"[dead link]
  • Jaedicke, Kirista; Naaim-Bouvet, Florence; Granig, Matthias (2004) "Binciken ramukan iska na dusar ƙanƙara a kusa da tsarin tsaro na kankara", Abubuwan Glaciology, vol. 38, shafi na 325-330
  • Michael Falser: Historische Lawinenschutzlandschaften: eine Aufgabe für die Kulturlandschafts- und Denkmalpflege A: kunsttexte 3/2010, unter: http://edoc.hu-berlin.de/kunsttexte/2010-3/falser-michael-1/PDF/falser .pdf

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]