Jump to content

Biochemistry

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Biochemistry
interdisciplinary science (en) Fassara, branch of chemistry (en) Fassara, branch of biology (en) Fassara da academic discipline (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na biology da Organic chemistry
Bangare na kimiya da biology
Tarihin maudu'i history of biochemistry (en) Fassara
Gudanarwan biochemist (en) Fassara

Biochemistry ko ilmin sunadarai na halitta shine nazarin hanyoyin sinadarai a ciki da kuma alaƙa da rayayyun halittu. Karamin horo na duka biyun sunadarai da ilmin halitta, biochemistry na iya kasuwa kashi uku: ilmin halitta tsarin, enzymology da metabolism. A cikin shekarun da suka gabata na karni na 20, ilimin kimiyyar halittu ya sami nasara wajen bayyana tsarin rayuwa ta waɗannan fannoni uku. Kusan dukkan fannonin kimiyyar rayuwa ana buɗe su kuma ana haɓaka su ta hanyar hanyoyin nazarin halittu da bincike. [1] Biochemistry yana mai da hankali kan fahimtar tushen sinadarai wanda ke ba da damar kwayoyin halitta damar haifar da hanyoyin da ke faruwa a cikin sel masu rai da tsakanin sel, [2] bi da bi yana da alaƙa sosai ga fahimtar kyallen takarda da gabobin jiki, da tsarin kwayoyin halitta da aiki. [3] Biochemistry yana da alaƙa ta kud da kud da ilmin halitta, wanda shine nazarin hanyoyin kwayoyin halitta na abubuwan mamaki. [4]

Yawancin kwayoyin halitta suna hulɗar da tsarin, haɗin kai, ayyuka, da hulɗar macromolecules na halitta, irin su sunadarai, acid nucleic, carbohydrates, da lipids. Suna samar da tsarin sel kuma suna yin yawancin ayyukan da ke da alaƙa da rayuwa. [5] Har ila yau, sunadarai na tantanin halitta ya dogara da halayen ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta da ions. Wadannan na iya zama inorganic (misali, ruwa da ions karfe) ko kwayoyin halitta (misali, amino acid, waɗanda ake amfani da su don haɗa sunadarai). [6] Hanyoyin da sel ke amfani da su don amfani da makamashi daga muhallinsu ta hanyar halayen sinadarai an san su da metabolism. Ana amfani da sakamakon binciken kimiyyar halittu da farko a cikin magunguna, abinci mai gina jiki da aikin gona. A cikin magani, masana kimiyyar halittu suna bincika musabbabi da kuma maganin cututtuka. [7] Abincin abinci yana nazarin yadda ake kula da lafiya da lafiya da kuma illolin rashin abinci mai gina jiki. [8] A aikin gona, masana kimiyyar halittu suna binciken ƙasa da takin zamani. Haɓaka noman amfanin gona, adana amfanin gona, da magance kwari suma burinsu ne. Biochemistry yana da matukar mahimmanci tunda yana taimaka wa mutane su koyi game da batutuwa masu rikitarwa kamar prions.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gerty Cori da Carl Cori tare sun sami lambar yabo ta Nobel a 1947 don gano zagayowar Cori a RPMI.

A ma'anarsa mafi mahimmanci, ana iya kallon biochemistry a matsayin nazarin sassa da tsarin halittu da yadda suke haduwa su zama rayuwa. A wannan ma'anar, tarihin ilimin kimiyyar halittu na iya komawa baya har zuwa tsohuwar Helenawa. [9] Koyaya, ilimin kimiyyar halittu a matsayin takamaiman horo na kimiyya ya fara wani lokaci a cikin karni na 19, ko kuma a baya, ya danganta da wane fanni na ilimin halittu ake mai da hankali akai. Wasu sun yi iƙirarin cewa farkon biochemistry na iya kasancewa gano farkon enzyme, diastase (yanzu ana kiransa amylase), a cikin shekarar 1833 na Anselme Payen, [10] yayin da wasu suka yi la'akari da nunin farko na Eduard Buchner na wani hadadden tsarin biochemical na barasa. abubuwan da ba su da tantanin halitta a cikin shekarar 1897 don zama haihuwar biochemistry. [11] [12] [13] Wasu kuma na iya nunawa a matsayin farkon aikin 1842 mai tasiri na Justus von Liebig, Kimiyyar Dabbobin Dabbobi, ko, Kimiyyar Halittu a cikin aikace-aikacensa ga ilimin lissafi da ilimin cututtuka, wanda ya gabatar da ka'idar sinadarai na metabolism, [9] ko ma a baya zuwa karni na 18. Nazarin kan fermentation da numfashi na Antoine Lavoisier. [14] [15] Wasu majagaba da yawa a wannan fanni waɗanda suka taimaka wajen gano sarƙaƙƙiyar ilimin halittu an shelanta su waɗanda suka kafa ilimin kimiyyar halittu na zamani. Emil Fischer, wanda ya yi nazarin ilmin sunadarai na sunadaran, [16] da F. Gowland Hopkins, wanda ya yi nazarin enzymes da kuma yanayin yanayi mai mahimmanci na biochemistry, wakiltar misalai biyu na masana kimiyya na farko. [17]

Kalmar "biochemistry" ita kanta ta samo asali ne daga haɗin ilimin halitta da kuma ilmin sunadarai. A cikin shekarar 1877, Felix Hoppe-Seyler ya yi amfani da kalmar (biochemie a Jamusanci) a matsayin ma'anar ilmin sunadarai a cikin jigon farko na Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie (Journal of Physiological Chemistry) inda ya yi jayayya da kafa cibiyoyin da aka sadaukar don su. wannan fanni na karatu. [18] [19] Masanin ilmin sinadarai na Jamus Carl Neuberg duk da haka ana yawan ambaton cewa ya ƙirƙiri kalmar a cikin shekarar 1903, [20] [21] [22] yayin da wasu ke jingina ta ga Franz Hofmeister. [23]

Tsarin DNA ( 1D65 [24]

An taba yin imani da cewa rayuwa da kayanta suna da wasu muhimman dukiya ko wani abu (wanda galibi ake kira "mahimman ka'ida") wanda ya bambanta da duk wani abu da aka samu a cikin al'amuran da ba su da rai, kuma an yi tunanin cewa halittu ne kawai za su iya samar da kwayoyin halitta. rayuwa. [25] A cikin shekarar 1828, Friedrich Wöhler ya buga takarda a kan haɗin urea mai banƙyama daga potassium cyanate da ammonium sulfate; wasu sun dauki hakan a matsayin rugujewar rayuwa kai tsaye da kafa kimiyyar sinadarai. [26] [27] Duk da haka, haɗin Wöhler ya haifar da cece-kuce yayin da wasu suka ƙi mutuwar rayuwa a hannunsa. [28] Tun daga wannan lokacin, ilimin kimiyyar halittu ya ci gaba, musamman tun tsakiyar karni na 20, tare da ci gaba da sababbin fasahohi irin su chromatography, X-ray diffraction, dual polarization interferometry, NMR spectroscopy, lakabin rediyoisotopic, microscopy na lantarki da simulations na kwayoyin halitta. Wadannan fasahohin sun ba da izini don ganowa da cikakkun bayanai game da yawancin kwayoyin halitta da hanyoyin rayuwa na tantanin halitta, irin su glycolysis da tsarin Krebs (citric acid cycle), kuma ya haifar da fahimtar kwayoyin halitta akan matakin kwayoyin.

Biochemistry

Wani muhimmin al'amari na tarihi a cikin ilimin kimiyyar halittu shine gano kwayar halitta, da rawar da take takawa wajen isar da bayanai a cikin tantanin halitta. A cikin shekarar 1950s, James D. Watson, Francis Crick, Rosalind Franklin da Maurice Wilkins sun taimaka wajen magance tsarin DNA kuma suna ba da shawara game da dangantakarta tare da canja wurin bayanai. [29] A cikin shekarar 1958, George Beadle da Edward Tatum sun sami lambar yabo ta Nobel don aiki a cikin fungi wanda ke nuna cewa kwayar halitta guda ɗaya tana samar da enzyme guda ɗaya. [30] A cikin shekarar 1988, Colin Pitchfork shine mutum na farko da aka yanke masa hukuncin kisa tare da shaidar DNA, wanda ya haifar da haɓakar kimiyyar bincike. [31] Kwanan nan, Andrew Z. Fire da Craig C. Mello sun sami lambar yabo ta Nobel ta 2006 don gano rawar da ke tattare da tsoma baki na RNA (RNAi), a cikin shiru na maganganun kwayoyin halitta. [32]




Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Voet (2005), p. 3.
  2. Karp (2009), p. 2.
  3. Miller (2012). p. 62.
  4. Astbury (1961), p. 1124.
  5. Eldra (2007), p. 45.
  6. Marks (2012), Chapter 14.
  7. Finkel (2009), pp. 1–4.
  8. UNICEF (2010), pp. 61, 75.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Helvoort (2000), p. 81.
  10. Hunter (2000), p. 75.
  11. Empty citation (help)
  12. Hamblin (2005), p. 26.
  13. Hunter (2000), pp. 96–98.
  14. Berg (1980), pp. 1–2.
  15. Holmes (1987), p. xv.
  16. Feldman (2001), p. 206.
  17. Rayner-Canham (2005), p. 136.
  18. Ziesak (1999), p. 169.
  19. Kleinkauf (1988), p. 116.
  20. Ben-Menahem (2009), p. 2982.
  21. Amsler (1986), p. 55.
  22. Horton (2013), p. 36.
  23. Kleinkauf (1988), p. 43.
  24. Edwards (1992), pp. 1161–1173.
  25. Fiske (1890), pp. 419–20.
  26. Empty citation (help)
  27. Kauffman (2001), pp. 121–133.
  28. Empty citation (help)
  29. Tropp (2012), pp. 19–20.
  30. Krebs (2012), p. 32.
  31. Butler (2009), p. 5.
  32. Chandan (2007), pp. 193–194.