Dokar Ƙasa

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Wikidata.svgland law
area of law (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na law (en) Fassara
Muhimmin darasi land law (en) Fassara

Dokokin ƙasa nau'i ne na doka da ke magana game da haƙƙin amfani, ƙetare, ko keɓe wasu daga ƙasa . A cikin hukunce-hukuncen da yawa, ana kiran waɗannan nau'ikan kadarorin a matsayin dukiya ko arziƙi, kamar yadda suka bambanta da na mutum . Yarjejeniyar amfani da ƙasa, gami da hayarta, muhimmin haɗin gwiwa ne na kadarori da dokar kwangila ta Ƙaddamar da haƙƙin ƙasa na ɗaya, kamar sauƙi, na iya zama haƙƙin ƙasa na wani. Haƙƙin ma'adinai da haƙƙin ruwa suna da alaƙa ta ƙud da ƙud, kuma galibi ra'ayoyi masu alaƙa da juna.

Haƙƙin filaye irin waɗannan dokoki ne na asali waɗanda suke haɓaka ko da babu wata ƙasa da za ta tilasta su; alal misali, kulab ɗin da'awa na Yammacin Amurka, cibiyoyi ne waɗanda suka taso a zahiri don aiwatar da tsarin ƙa'idojin da suka shafi hakar ma'adinai. matsuguni, mallakar ƙasa ba tare da mallaka ba, al'amari ne na ko'ina a duniya.

Mulkin Ƙasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mulki, a cikin hukunce-hukuncen doka na gama-gari, galibi ana kiransa da cikakken ta ke, ko ta ken ma mallaki. Kusan duk waɗannan hukunce-hukuncen suna da tsarin rajistar ƙasa, don yin rikodin biyan buƙatu masu sauƙi, da tsarin neman ƙasa, don warware husuma.

Haƙƙin ƙasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Asalin haƙƙin ƙasa sun shaida da haƙƙoƙin ƴan asalin ƙasa , da kuma tsarin dokokin ƙasa na dokokin gama gari da ƙasashen na farar hula . A cikin hukunce-hukuncen shari'a na gama-gari, ana kiran haƙƙin filaye na ƴan asali a matsayin ta ke na asali . A cikin hukunce-hukuncen dokokin al'ada, ƙasar al'ada ita ce mafi girman nau'in mallakar filaye.

Gyaran ƙasa yana nufin manufofin gwamnati da ke ɗauke da/ko sake rarraba ƙasa, kamar:- kyautar ƙasa .

Haƙƙoƙin filaye na nuni ne ga yadda mutane ba za su iya karewa ba na samun damar yin amfani da su da kuma mallaki fili bisa ga ra’ayinsu, matukar dai ayyukan da suke yi a wannan kasa ba su tauye hakkin wasu ba. [1] Wannan ba za a ruɗe shi da samun fili ba, wanda ke ba wa ɗaiɗai damar amfani da fili ta fuskar tattalin arziki (watau noma). Maimakon haka, haƙƙoƙin ƙasa suna magana game da ikon mallakar ƙasa wanda ke ba da tsaro kuma yana ƙara ƙarfin ɗan adam . Lokacin da mutum yake da damar yin amfani da ƙasa, suna cikin barazanar kora akai-akai dangane da zaɓin mai mallakar ƙasar, wanda ke iyakance kwanciyar hankali na kuɗi. [1]

Haƙƙoƙin ƙasa wani muhimmin sashi ne na Dokokin Ƙasa, yayin da suke aiwatar da ƙungiyoyin ƴancin jama'a na haƙƙin mallakar filaye daidai da dokokin ƙasa da ƙasa. Dokar filaye ta yi magana game da hurumin shari'a da wata ƙasa ta gindaya dangane da mallakar filaye, yayin da haƙƙoƙin ƙasa ke nuni ga yarda da zamantakewar mallakar ƙasa. Ƙungiyar Landesa ta ɗauki matsayin cewa duk da cewa doka na iya ba da shawarar samun daidaiton damar mallakar filaye, haƙƙin ƙasa a wasu ƙasashe da al'adu na iya hana ƴan ƙungiya mallakar fili. [2] Dokoki suna da mahimmanci, amma dole ne a goyi bayansu ta hanyar al'adar al'adu da yarda da zamantakewa. Don haka, dokokin da suka shafi mallakar filaye da haƙƙin ƙasa dole ne su kasance cikin yarjejeniya.

A duk duniya, an ƙara mai da hankali kan haƙƙin ƙasa, saboda suna da alaƙa da fannoni daban-daban na ci gaba. A cewar Wickeri da Kalhan, mallakar ƙasa na iya zama tushen babban jari, tsaro na kuɗi, abinci, ruwa, matsuguni, da albarkatu. Majalisar Dinkin Duniya Global Land Tool kungiyar ta gano cewa rashin ƙasa a karkara shine babban hasashen talauci da yunwa, [3] kuma yana tasiri mara kyau ga Ƙarfafawa da kuma tabbatar da 'yancin ɗan adam . Domin ganin an shawo kan wannan matsala mai mahimmanci na rashin isassun haƙƙin ƙasa, Manufar Ci gaban Ƙarni 7D na ƙoƙarin inganta rayuwar mazauna ƙauye miliyan 100. [4] Wannan ya haɗa da ƙarin haƙƙin ƙasa ga talakawa, wanda a ƙarshe zai haifar da ingantaccen rayuwa. [5]

Ko da yake haƙƙin ƙasa na da mahimmanci wajen samun ingantacciyar rayuwa, wasu ƙungiyoyin daidaikun mutane a koyaushe ana barin su daga tanadin mallakar ƙasa. Doka na iya ba da damar samun fili, duk da haka, shingen al'adu da tarkon talauci suna iyakance ikon ƙungiyoyin tsiraru na mallakar filaye. [6] Don cimma daidaito, dole ne waɗannan ƙungiyoyi su sami isassun haƙƙoƙin ƙasa waɗanda aka yarda da su a cikin al'umma da ta doka.

Iyaka na hukunce-hukuncen kasa da ikon mallakar Ƙasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Iyaka na hukunce-hukuncen kasa da ikon mallakar ƙasa
Sararin samaniya (ciki har da kewayawar duniya, wata da sauran jikunan sama, da kewayensu)
sararin samaniyar kasa sararin samaniyar yankin ruwa Mahaɗar Sashi na sararin samaniya sararin samaniyar duniya
farfajiyar ƙasa saman ruwa na ciki farfajiyar ruwan ƙasa Mahaɗar sashi na Saman ƙasa Keɓaɓɓen Yankin Tattalin Arziƙi saman ruwa na duniya
ruwa na ciki yankunan ruwayen Yankin Tattalin Arziki Na Musamman ruwan kasa da kasa
Yankin Ƙarƙashin ƙasa Nahiyar shiryayyar Saman ƙasa Miƙa nahiyar

Shiryayar Saman ƙasa

Saman bakin teku na ƙasa da ƙasa
Nahiyar shiryayyar ƙasan ƙasa mika nahiyar shiryayye karkashin kasa Ƙasan teku na ƙasa da ƙasa

Cikakkun ikon ƙasa da ikon mallakar ƙasaƘuntatawa kan hukunce-hukuncen ƙasa da ikon mallakar ƙasa Hukuncin ƙasa da ƙasa bisa ga gadon kowa na ɗan Adam

Haƙƙoƙin ƙasa da mata[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Malamai da yawa suna jayayya cewa rashin isassun ‘yancin mata na ƙasa yana shafar danginsu na kusa da sauran al’umma, haka nan. [6] [7] [8] Tare da mallakar filaye, mata za su iya haɓaka kuɗin shiga kuma su ware wannan kuɗin shiga cikin adalci a cikin gida. [9] [10] malam Tim Hanstad ya yi iƙirarin cewa samar da isassun haƙƙoƙin ƙasa ga mata yana da fa'ida saboda, da zarar mata sun sami damar yin amfani da waɗannan haƙƙoƙin za a inganta su: [11]

  • Mata za su rage kamuwa da cutar HIV/AIDS saboda ba sai sun yi karuwanci ba
  • Mata ba za su kasance masu fama da tashin hankalin cikin gida ba
  • Yaransu za su fi samun ilimi kuma su daɗe a makaranta
  • Mata za su kasance mafi kyawun matsayi, don samun matsakaicin rance

A ƙasashen duniya da dama, mata na samun fili don yin noma; duk da haka, akwai al'adu da suka hana mata cin gado ko sayen fili. [6] [10] Wannan yana sanya mata a wurin dogara ga mazajensu, ’yan’uwansu, ko iyayensu don rayuwa da matsuguni. [8] Idan akwai rashin lafiya, tashin hankalin gida, ko mutuwa a cikin iyali, mata za su zama marasa ƙasa kuma ba za su iya yin noma don abinci ba, ko hayar ƙasa don riba. Mallakar filaye ga mata wani muhimmin tsari ne na tsaro da samun kudin shiga, da kara Karfafawa da rage Talauci .

Ƙasar Indiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Malam Kanakalatha Mukund ya ba da muhimmin batu cewa duk da cewa mata a Indiya suna da haƙƙin mallaka na shari'a, amma kaɗan ne kawai suke yin hakan a sakamakon ayyukan magabata da suka mamaye al'ummar ƙasar. [12] Har zuwa kwanan nan, matan Indiya sun kasance ba su da dokoki game da rabon filayen jama'a kuma an tilasta musu dogaro da ƙaramin yuwuwar samun fili mai zaman kansa daga danginsu. [8] Dokokin gado waɗanda ke kula da maza suna ɗaya daga cikin mahimman abubuwan da ke haifar da rashin daidaito a cikin haƙƙin ƙasa. A cewar Bina Agarwal, mallakar ƙasa yana bayyana matsayin zamantakewa da ikon siyasa a cikin gida da ƙauyen, tsara dangantaka da samar da yanayin iyali. [8] Don haka gadon fili yana fifita maza sama da mata a cikin gida, da kuma a cikin al'umma. Ba tare da ja-gorancin siyasa a ƙauyen ba, kuma tare da iyakacin ikon yin ciniki a cikin gida, mata ba su da murya don neman haƙƙinsu. [8]

Wani batu da ya shafi hakkin filaye a Indiya shi ne yadda suke barin mata kwata-kwata a kan rayuwar mazajensu. Wani bincike da malama Bina Agarwal ya yi ya gano cewa a Yammacin Bengal, iyalai masu wadata sun zama marasa galihu idan shugaban gidan na miji ya mutu, saboda ba a yarda mata su mallaki gonar mijinta. [8] Haka kuma, saboda al'ada su, girman matsayi na mace, ba zai yiwu ba ta sami wata fasaha ta ci gaba da za ta yi amfani da ita wajen neman aiki. [8] Su wadannan matan ana tilasta musu yin bara da abinci da matsuguni da zarar mazajensu ya mutu saboda ba a basu damar samun gogewar aiki ba. [8]

Malama Bina Agarwal ta bayar da hujjar cewa mallakar filaye na matukar rage yiwuwar cin zarafin mata a Indiya. [9] Mallakar dukiya yana ɗaukaka mata zuwa matsayi mafi girma a cikin gida, yana ba da damar ƙarin daidaito da ikon yin ciniki. Ƙari ga haka, mallakar dukiya dabam da mazajensu ya ba wa mata damar kuɓuta daga mu’amalar da ba ta dace ba . [9] Agarwal ta ƙarasa da cewa begen samun mafaka mai aminci a wajen gidan babban gida yana rage tsawon lokacin tashin hankalin gida. [9]

Haƙƙin ƙasa yana da mahimmanci ga mata a Indiya saboda yawan al'ummar ubangida da suke rayuwa a ciki. Ra'ayoyin al'adu suna taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen yarda da daidaito tsakanin mallakar ƙasa. Mallakar kasa a karshe mata suna amfanar gida da al'umma gaba daya. [7]

Ci gaba na baya-bayan nan game da daidaito a haƙƙin ƙasa a Indiya shine Dokar Nasara ta Hindu ta 2005 . Wannan aikin ya yi niyya don kawar da nuna bambanci tsakanin jinsi wanda ke cikin Dokar Nasara ta Hindu, 1956 . A cikin sabon gyaran, 'ya'ya mata da maza suna da haƙƙin daidaitawa don samun fili daga iyayensu. Wannan matakin ya kasance duka biyun muhimmin mataki na doka da zamantakewa don yancin mata na filaye. Ba wai kawai dokar ta ba da umarnin daidaito a maye gurbin ƙasa ba, har ma ta tabbatar da matsayin mata a matsayin daidaito a cikin al'umma.

Ƙasar Uganda[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kundin tsarin mulkin Uganda na 1995 ya tabbatar da daidaito tsakanin maza da mata, gami da mallaka da mallakar filaye. [13] Duk da haka, bincike daga ƙungiyar Women's Land Link Africa (yankin mata na Afirka) ya nuna cewa ba a ware mata daga mallakar filaye saboda al'adu da kuma tushen al'adu masu zurfi. [14] Ko da mata suka tara isassun kudade don siyan fili, ana sanya hannu a kan filin da sunan mijinsu, yayin da mata suka sa hannu a matsayin shaida. [14] Ayyukan gado wani cikas ne na musamman wanda ke rage ƙarfafa mata, haka nan. Ana rarraba ƙasa ta hanyar zuriyar maza wanda ke ƙarfafa keɓancewar mata daga mallakar filaye. Wani abin da ke haifar da daidaito, kamar yadda kungiyar Women's Land Link Africa (yankin mata na Afirka) ta yi nuni da cewa, mata ba su da cikakkiyar masaniya game da hakkokin da suke da shi a karkashin dokar mallakar filaye. [14] Matan karkara, da jahilai ma ba su da damar yin amfani da sabon kundin tsarin mulkin da ya ba su damar mallakar filaye.

Duk da cewa kundin tsarin mulkin kasar na 1995 ya tanadi daidaito tsakanin maza da mata, amma har yanzu akwai gibi a cikin dokar da ke shafar ‘yancin mata na mallakar filaye. Doka ta kare hakkin mata a cikin aure; duk da haka, bai magance bukatun matan da mazansu suka mutu ba ko kuma wadanda aka kashe. Sakamakon haka, an bar waɗannan matan ba su da ƙasa kuma ba tare da bayar da kariya ta filayen ba. Har ila yau, mata na da wuya a kai kara kotu saboda cin hanci da rashawa da tsadar shari’a. [14] Gwaje-gwajen da suka shafi filaye suna ɗaukar lokaci mai tsawo ana aiwatar da su ta yadda mata da yawa ba sa yin ƙoƙarin neman taimakon doka.

Ƙungiyar Women's Land Link Africa (yankin mata na Afurka) ita ba da shawarwari don rage rashin daidaito a cikin mallakar filaye. Ana iya ilmantar da matan karkara game da hakkokinsu ta hanyar yakin rediyo, tattaunawar al'umma, shirye-shiryen wayar da kan jama'a, da tarukan jama'a. [14] Dole ne a magance matsalolin al'adu a cikin manufofi kuma ana iya ilimantar da shugabannin al'umma game da haɗa ƙungiyoyin tsiraru. [14] Har ila yau, dokar da kanta za ta iya magance hakkokin zawarawa da wadanda aka kashe baya ga hakkokin matan aure. [14]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Dokokin ƙasar Ingila
  • Raba ƙasa
  • Kasa tamu ce
  • Ƙungiyar Ƙasa ta Duniya
  • Gwagwarmayar Kasa

Shaidoji[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Adi, D.N. (2009). Critical Mass Representation in Uganda. 1-38.
  2. Hanstad, T. (2010). Secure Land Rights. Landesa.
  3. Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions (2009), Housing and Property Restitution for Refugees and Displaced Persons, 3-5.
  4. Millennium Development Goal Monitor: Tracking the Mellennium Development Goals. (2010) http://www.mdgmonitor.org/goal7.cfm
  5. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Wickeri-Kalhan
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Hanstad, T. (2010). Secure Land Rights. Rural Development Institute.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Agarwal, B. (1988). “Who Sows? Who Reaps? Women and Land Rights in India” Journal of Peasant Studies. 531-581.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 Agarwal, B. (1994). “A Field of One’s Own: Gender and Land Rights in South Asia”. Cambridge University Press.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Agarwal, B. (2005). “Marital Violence, Human Development, and Women’s Property Status in India” World Development. 823-850.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Deere, C.D., & Doss, C. R. (2006). “Gender and the Distribution of Wealth in Developing Countries. World Institute for Development Economics Research, 1-27.
  11. Hanstad, T. (2010). Secure Land Rights. Rural Development Institute
  12. Mukund, K. (1999). “Women's Property Rights in South India: A Review”. Economic and Political Weekly.
  13. Constitution of Uganda. (1995). http://www.ugandaonlinelawlibrary.com/files/constitution/constitution_1995.pdf