Jump to content

Fascist

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Fascist
political identity (en) Fassara da sifa
Bayanai
Facet of (en) Fassara Fascism
Mamba na fascist party (en) Fassara
Political ideology (en) Fassara Fascism
Official symbol (en) Fassara fasces (en) Fassara
Yadda ake kira namiji fascista, fascistas da fašistas
Hannun riga da anti-fascist (en) Fassara

Mulkin Kama-Karya mulki ne na masu tsattsauran ra'ayi, mai mulki, matsananciyar aƙidar son ƙasa siyasa da motsi, halin da shugaban kama-karya, tsakiya mulkin kama karya, aƙidar soji, tilasta kashe 'yan adawa, imani da wani halitta zamantakewa matsayi, ƙarfa-ƙarfa. na ɗaiɗaikun buƙatun jama'a don fahimtar al'umma da ƙabilanci, da kuma tsarin mulki mai ƙarfi na al'umma da tattalin arziki.[1]

Fascism

Mulkin Kama-Karya ya yi fice a farkon ƙarni na 20 a Turai. [2] Ƙungiya ta farkisanci ta farko ta samo asali a Italiya a lokacin yakin duniya na daya, kafin ya bazu zuwa wasu kasashen Turai, musamman Jamus. [3] Fascist kuma yana da mabiya a wajen Turai. Masu adawa da mulkin kama karya, dimokuradiyya, jam'i, sassaucin ra'ayi, gurguzu da kuma Marxism, [2] ana sanya farkisanci a gefen dama na dama a cikin al'adar hagu-dama na gargajiya.[4]

'Yan Fascist suna ganin Yaƙin Duniya na ɗaya juyin juya hali ne wanda ya kawo sauye-sauye ga yanayin yaƙi, al'umma, ƙasa, da fasaha. Zuwan yakin gaba daya da tara jama'a ya kawar da banbance tsakanin fararen hula da mayaka. Wani dan kasa na soja ya taso wanda duk 'yan kasar suka shiga cikin soja ta wata hanya. Yaƙin ya haifar da haɓakar ƙasa mai ƙarfi da ke da ikon tattara miliyoyin mutane don yin hidima a fagen daga da samar da kayan aiki don tallafa musu, da kuma samun ikon da ba a taɓa yin irinsa ba na shiga cikin rayuwar 'yan ƙasa.

Fascism ya ki amincewa da ikirari cewa tashin hankali ba shi da kyau kuma yana kallon mulkin mallaka, tashe-tashen hankula na siyasa da yaki a matsayin hanyar sake farfado da ƙasa. Fascists sau da yawa suna ba da shawarar kafa wata jam'iyya mai cikakken iko, da kuma tattalin arziki dirgiste, tare da babban burin cimma autarky (wadatar tattalin arzikin kasa) ta hanyar. manufofin karewa da shiga tsakani na tattalin arziki.[5] Tsananin mulkin Fascist da kishin ƙasa sau da yawa yana bayyana a matsayin imani da tsaftar launin fata ko kuma babban kabila, yawanci yana haɗuwa da wasu bambance-bambancen wariyar launin fata ko nuna son kai ga aljanu "Wasu", kamar Yahudawa. Wadannan ra'ayoyin sun sa gwamnatocin farkisanci yin kisan gilla, kisan kiyashi, tilasta musu haifuwa, kashe-kashen jama'a, da kuma korar da ake yi.

Tun bayan kawo karshen yakin duniya na biyu a shekara ta 1945, jam’iyyu kadan ne suka bayyana kansu a matsayin ‘yan fascist; 'yan adawar siyasa sun fi amfani da kalmar a fili. A wasu lokuta ana amfani da kwatancin sabon fascist ko bayan fascist don bayyana jam’iyyun zamani masu akidu irinsu, ko tushensu, ƙungiyoyin fascist na ƙarni na 20. [6] Wasu kungiyoyin adawa sun dauki lakabin anti-fascist ko antifa don nuna matsayinsu.

Etymology[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A Kalmar Italiyanci fascismo An samo shi daga fascio, ma'ana 'gunkin sanduna', daga ƙarshe daga kalmar Latin fasces. Wannan shine sunan da aka bai wa ƙungiyoyin siyasa a Italiya da aka fi sani da fasci, ƙungiyoyi masu kama da guild ko ƙungiyoyi. A cewar tsohon dan fasist na Italiya Benito Mussolini, an kafa Fasces of Revolutionary Action a Italiya a cikin 1915.[7] A cikin 1919, Mussolini ya kafa Fasces na Fasces na Italiya a Milan, wanda ya zama Jam'iyyar Fascist ta kasa shekaru biyu bayan haka. Fascist sun zo ne don danganta kalmar da tsohuwar fasces na Romawa ko fascio littorio, daurin sanduna da aka ɗaure a kusa da gatari, tsohuwar alama ta Romawa ta ikon alƙali wanda masu shari'a ke ɗauka, wanda za a iya amfani da shi don yanke hukunci na jiki da na kisa bisa umarninsa.

Alamar fasces ta nuna ƙarfi ta hanyar haɗin kai: sanda guda ɗaya yana da sauƙin karye, yayin da tarin yana da wuya a karya. [page needed] An haɓaka alamomi iri ɗaya ta ƙungiyoyin fascist daban-daban: alal misali, alamar Falange kibiyoyi biyar ne da aka haɗa da karkiya.[8]

Ma'anoni[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

fafutukar tabbatar da siyasa wanda masana ke gudanarwa

Masana tarihi, masana kimiyyar siyasa, da sauran masana sun daɗe suna muhawara game da ainihin yanayin fascism.  Masanin tarihi Ian Kershaw ya taba rubuta cewa "kokarin ma'anar 'fascism' yana kama da ƙoƙarin ƙusa jelly a bango." Kowane rukuni daban-daban da aka kwatanta a matsayin farkisanci yana da aƙalla wasu abubuwa na musamman, kuma yawancin ma'anoni na farkisanci an soki su a matsayin mai fadi ko kunkuntar.[9] A cewar masana da yawa, farkisanci musamman sau ɗaya a kan mulki a tarihi ya kai hari ga gurguzu, ra'ayin mazan jiya, da 'yanci na majalisar dokoki, yana jawo goyon baya da farko daga hannun dama. An ambata akai-akai a matsayin ma'anar ta sanannun masana, irin su Roger Griffin, Federico Finchelstein, da Stephen D. Shenfield, shine wannan. na masanin tarihi Stanley G. Payne.




Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Turner (1975) , p. 162: "... goals of radical and authoritarian nationalism."; Larsen, Hagtvet & Myklebust (1984) , p. 424: "... organized form of integrative radical nationalist authoritarianism."; Paxton (2004) , pp. 32, 45, 173: (32) "...antiliberal values, more aggressive nationalism and racism, and a new aesthetic of instinct and violence", (173) "...overtly violent racism and nationalism. [...] its defining elements—unlimited particular sovereignty, a relish for war, and a society based on violent exclusion"; Nolte (1965) , p. 300: "National fascism, as we have shown, is distinguished from nationalism by, among other things, the fact it demands the destruction of a neighbouring state whose very existence appears to threaten its own position of power and the historic remains of its past dominant status in the area."
  2. 2.0 2.1 International Encyclopedia of Political Science.
  3. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named RoutledgeCompanion
  4. Encyclopedia Britannica Fascism: "extreme militaristic nationalism, contempt for electoral democracy and political and cultural liberalism, a belief in natural social hierarchy and the rule of elites, and the desire to create a Volksgemeinschaft (German: “people’s community”), in which individual interests would be subordinated to the good of the nation"
  5. "fascism" . Merriam-Webster Online . Archived from the original on 22 August 2017. Retrieved 22 August 2017.
  6. Enciclopedia Italiana Neofascismo.
  7. International Encyclopedia of Political Science , p. 887–888, Fascism.
  8. International Encyclopedia of Political Science , p. 889, Fascism.
  9. "Works citing Stanley Payne's Fascism: Comparison and Definition" . Archived from the original on 2 August 2022 – via Google Scholar .