Feminism

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Wikidata.svgFeminism
reform movement (en) Fassara, political ideology (en) Fassara, artistic theme (en) Fassara, matter (en) Fassara da harkar zamantakewa
Feminist Suffrage Parade in New York City, 1912.jpeg
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na Haƙƙoƙin Mata
Karatun ta women's studies (en) Fassara, gender studies (en) Fassara da feminist theory (en) Fassara
Hashtag (en) Fassara feminism
Hannun riga da antifeminism (en) Fassara, masculism (en) Fassara, Wariyar Jinsi da patriarchy (en) Fassara
Gudanarwan feminist (en) Fassara
WordLift URL (en) Fassara http://data.thenextweb.com/tnw/entity/feminism

Feminism wani nau'i ne na ƙungiyoyin zamantakewa da siyasa da akidu waɗanda ke da nufin ayyana da tabbatar da daidaiton siyasa, tattalin arziki, sirri da zamantakewa na jinsi. [lower-alpha 1] [2] Feminism yana riƙe da matsayin da al'ummomi ke ba da fifiko ga ra'ayi na maza da kuma cewa ana cin zarafin mata a cikin waɗannan al'ummomin. Ƙoƙarin canza wannan ya haɗa da yaƙi da ra'ayoyin jinsi da haɓaka damar ilimi, ƙwararru, da haɗin kai ga mata.

Kungiyoyin mata sun yi kamfen kuma suna ci gaba da fafutukar kwato 'yancin mata da suka hada da 'yancin kada kuri'a, tsayawa takara, aiki, samun daidaiton albashi, mallakar dukiya, samun ilimi, shiga kwangiloli, samun daidaiton 'yancin a cikin aure da hutun haihuwa. Masu fafutukar mata sun kuma yi aiki don tabbatar da samun damar hana haihuwa, zubar da ciki a shari'a, da haɗin kai da kuma kare mata da 'yan mata daga fyade, cin zarafi, da tashin hankali a cikin gida. [3] Canje-canje a matsayin suturar mata da ayyukan jiki mai karbuwa ga mata sun kasance wani ɓangare na ƙungiyoyin mata. [4]

Masana da yawa sun ɗauki kamfen na mata a matsayin babban ƙarfin baya ga manyan sauye-sauyen tarihi na al'umma don yancin mata, musamman a yammacin duniya, inda suke kusa da duniya baki ɗaya don cimma nasarar zaɓen mata, yare tsakanin jinsi, haƙƙin haifuwa ga mata (ciki har da samun damar hana haihuwa). da zubar da ciki), da haƙƙin kulla kwangiloli da mallakar dukiya. Ko da yake ba da shawara na mata ya fi mayar da hankali kan yancin mata, wasu masu ra'ayin mata suna jayayya da shigar da 'yantar da maza a cikin manufofinsa, saboda sun yi imanin cewa maza ma suna cutar da matsayin jinsin gargajiya. [5] Ka'idar ta mata, wadda ta fito daga ƙungiyoyin mata, na nufin fahimtar yanayin rashin daidaiton jinsi ta hanyar nazarin matsayin zamantakewar mata da kuma rayuwa ta rayuwa; Masana ilimin mata sun haɓaka ka'idoji a fannoni daban-daban don amsa batutuwan da suka shafi jinsi. [6]

Ƙungiyoyi da akidu da dama na mata sun bunƙasa tsawon shekaru, suna wakiltar ra'ayoyi daban-daban da manufofin siyasa. A al'adance, tun daga karni na 19, mata masu sassaucin ra'ayi na farko wadanda suka nemi daidaiton siyasa da na shari'a ta hanyar gyare-gyare a cikin tsarin dimokuradiyya mai sassaucin ra'ayi an bambanta da ƙungiyoyin mata masu fafutuka na ƙwadago waɗanda bayan lokaci suka haɓaka zuwa gurguzanci da mata na Marxist bisa ka'idar gwagwarmayar aji. Tun daga 1960s, duka waɗannan al'adun kuma an bambanta su da tsattsauran ra'ayi na mata wanda ya taso daga reshe mai tsattsauran ra'ayi na mata na biyu kuma yana kira ga sake fasalin al'umma don kawar da ikon maza; tare da masu sassaucin ra'ayi, masu ra'ayin gurguzu da masu tsattsauran ra'ayi wani lokaci ana kiransu da "Big Three" makarantu na tunanin mata. [7]

Tun daga ƙarshen karni na 20, yawancin sababbin nau'o'in mata sun fito. An soki wasu nau'ikan a matsayin yin la'akari kawai farare, matsakaici, masu ilimin koleji, jinsi, ko ra'ayoyin cisgender. Waɗannan sukar sun haifar da ƙirƙirar ƙayyadaddun ƙabilanci ko nau'ikan al'adu daban-daban na mata, kamar baƙar fata da mata masu tsaka-tsaki. Wasu masu rajin kare hakkin mata sun yi iƙirarin cewa, yawan mace-macen mata na haɓaka rashin son zuciya da ɗaukaka muradun mata sama da na maza, kuma suna sukar matsayin mata masu tsattsauran ra'ayi da cutarwa ga maza da mata. [8]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kalmomi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mutane da yawa suna ganin Mary Wollstonecraft a matsayin wacce ta kafa feminism saboda littafinta na 1792 mai suna A Vindication of the Rights of Woman inda ta yi jayayya game da ilimin mata. Charles Fourier, ɗan gurguzu na utopian kuma masanin falsafar Faransa, an lasafta shi da ƙirƙirar kalmar "féminisme" a cikin shekarar 1837. [9] Kalmomin "féminisme" ("feminism") da "féministe" ("mace") sun fara bayyana a Faransa da Netherlands a cikin shekarar 1872, Birtaniya a cikin shekarar 1890s, da kuma Amurka a 1910. [10] [11] ] [11] Kamus na Turanci na Oxford ya yi kwanan watan bayyanar farko a cikin Ingilishi a cikin wannan ma'anar tun daga 1895. Dangane da lokacin tarihi, al'adu da ƙasa, 'yan mata a duniya suna da dalilai da manufofi daban-daban. Yawancin masana tarihi na mata na yammacin duniya sun yi iƙirarin cewa duk ƙungiyoyin da ke aiki don samun 'yancin mata ya kamata a yi la'akari da ƙungiyoyin mata, ko da ba (ko ba) sun yi amfani da kalmar ga kansu ba. [12] Wasu masana tarihi sun tabbatar da cewa kalmar ya kamata a iyakance ga ƙungiyar mata ta zamani da zuriyarta. Wadancan masana tarihi suna amfani da lakabin "protofeminist" don kwatanta ƙungiyoyin farko. [13]


Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Brunell, Laura; Burkett, Elinor. "Feminism". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  2. Brunell, Laura; Burkett, Elinor. "Feminism". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  3. Lengermann, Patricia; Niebrugge, Gillian (2010). "Feminism". In Ritzer, G.; Ryan, J.M. (eds.). The Concise Encyclopedia of Sociology. John Wiley &Sons. p. 223. ISBN 978-1-40-518353-6.
  4. Mendus, Susan (2005) [1995]. "Feminism". In Honderich, Ted (ed.). The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 291–294. ISBN 978-0-19-926479-7.
  5. Hawkesworth, Mary E. (2006). Globalization and Feminist Activism. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 25–27. ISBN 978-0-7425-3783-5.
  6. Beasley, Chris (1999). What is Feminism?. New York: Sage. pp. 3–11. ISBN 978-0-7619-6335-6.
  7. Gamble, Sarah (2001) [1998]. "Introduction". The Routledge Companion to Feminism and Postfeminism. Routledge. pp. VII. ISBN 978-0-415-24310-0.
  8. Echols, Alice (1989). Daring to Be Bad: Radical Feminism in America, 1967–1975. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-1787-6.
  9. Empty citation (help)
  10. Grever, Maria (1994). "Dutch feminist pioneer Mina Kruseman in a letter to Alexandre Dumas". Strijd tegen de stilte. Johanna Naber (1859–1941) en de vrouwenstem in geschiedenis (in Dutch). Hilversum Verloren. p. 31. ISBN 90-6550-395-1Empty citation (help)
  11. 11.0 11.1 Offen, Karen (1987). "Sur l'origine des mots 'féminisme' et 'féministe' ". Revue d'histoire moderne et contemporaine . 34 (3): 492–96. doi :10.3406/ rhmc.1987.1421 . JSTOR 20529317 .Empty citation (help) Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "cott" defined multiple times with different content
  12. Witt, Charlotte (2006). "Feminist History of Philosophy" . Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy . Retrieved 23 January 2012.Empty citation (help)
  13. Allen, Ann Taylor (1999). "Feminism, Social Science, and the Meanings of Modernity: The Debate on the Origin of the Family in Europe and the United States, 1860–1914". The American Historical Review. 104 (4): 1085–113. doi :10.1086/ahr/104.4.1085 . JSTOR 2649562 . PMID 19291893 .Empty citation (help)


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