Haƙƙoƙin Mata

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Wikidata.svgHaƙƙoƙin Mata
ƙunshiya da Hakkokin Yan-adam
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Ƙaramin ɓangare na right (en) Fassara da Hakkokin Yan-adam
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Gudanarwan Mai kare hakkin mata
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Annie Kenney da Christabel Pankhurst suna yakin neman zaben mata

Hakkin mata, hakkokin da suke dashi a cikin al'umma mata da kuma 'yan mata a dukan nin duniya. Sun kafa ginshikin yunƙurin yancin mata a ƙarni na 19 da ƙungiyoyin mata a ƙarni na 20 da 21. A wasu ƙasashe, waɗannan haƙƙoƙin ana kafa su ne ko kuma suna goyon bayan doka, al'adar gida, da ɗabi'a, yayin da a wasu, ake watsi da su kuma ana danne su. Sun bambanta da manyan ra'ayoyi game da haƙƙin ɗan adam ta hanyar iƙirarin nuna kyama na tarihi da na al'ada game da aiwatar da haƙƙin mata da 'yan mata, don goyon bayan maza da maza. [1]

Batutuwa fiye hade da notions na mata hakkin sun hada da 'yancin jiki mutunci da 'yancin kai, ya zama free daga jima'i cin zarafi, zuwa zabe, ya rike jama'a ofishin, shiga cikin shari'a kwangila, don samun daidai yancin a cikin dokar iyali, aiki, to daidaiton albashi ko daidaiton albashi, samun haƙƙin haifuwa, mallakar dukiya, da ilimi.[2]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsohon tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mesopotamiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hoton bas-relief na tsohuwar Sumerian da ke nuna mawaƙin Enheduanna

Mata a zamanin Sumer za su iya saya, mallaka, sayarwa, da gadon dukiya.[3] Suna iya shiga cikin kasuwanci[3] kuma su ba da shaida a kotu a matsayin shaidu.[3] Duk da haka, mazajensu za su iya sake su don rashin kuskure,[3] kuma mijin da ya sake aure zai iya sake auren wata mace cikin sauƙi, muddin matarsa ta farko ba ta haifa masa zuriya ba. [3] Abubuwan bautar mata, irin su Inanna, sun kasance suna bauta wa ko'ina.[4] :182Mawaƙin Akkadian Enheduanna, firist ɗin Inanna kuma 'yar Sargon, ita ce fitacciyar mawaƙi wanda aka rubuta sunansa.[5] Tsohuwar dokokin Babila sun yarda miji ya saki matarsa a kowane hali,[4] :140amma yin hakan yana bukatar ya mayar mata da dukiyoyinta, wani lokacin kuma ya biya ta tara.[4] :140Yawancin dokoki sun hana mace ta nemi mijinta ya sake ta kuma sun tilasta wa macen da ta nemi saki kamar yadda aka kama ta tana zina .[4] :140Wasu dokokin Babila da na Assuriya, sun ba wa mata ’yancin kashe aure da maza, kuma suna bukatar su biya tarar daidai gwargwado. [4] :140Yawancin alloli na Gabas Semitic maza ne. [4] :179

Masar[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mutum-mutumin fir'auna Hatshepsut na mace da aka nuno a Gidan Tarihi na Fasaha na Metropolitan

A zamanin d Misira, mata suna jin daɗin haƙƙoƙi ɗaya a ƙarƙashin doka kamar na namiji, duk da haka haƙƙin haƙƙin ya dogara da tsarin zamantakewa . Dukiyoyin ƙasa sun gangaro ne a cikin layin mata daga uwa zuwa diya, kuma mata suna da damar gudanar da nasu dukiyar. Mata a Misira ta d ¯ a za su iya saya, sayarwa, zama abokin tarayya a kwangilar doka, zama masu zartarwa a cikin wasiyya da shaida ga takardun shari'a, kawo karar kotu, da kuma renon yara.[6]

Indiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mata a lokacin farkon zamanin Vedic [7] jin daɗin matsayi daidai da maza a kowane fanni na rayuwa.[8] Ayyuka na tsohuwar nahawu na Indiya irin su Patanjali da Katyayana sun nuna cewa mata sun sami ilimi a farkon zamanin Vedic. [9] [10] Ayoyi masu tsattsauran ra'ayi sun nuna cewa mata sun yi aure tun balagagge kuma suna da 'yancin zabar mazajen nasu a wata al'ada da ake kira swayamvar ko kuma dangantaka ta rayuwa mai suna Gandharva aure .[11]

Girka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ana tsammanin matan Athens masu daraja su sa kansu cikin ayyukan gida kamar wanke tufafi (hagu); a gaskiya, da yawa sun yi aiki (dama).

Ko da yake yawancin mata ba su da 'yancin siyasa da daidaito a cikin biranen ƙasar Girka ta dā, sun sami 'yancin yin motsi har zuwa zamanin Archaic . [12] Har ila yau, bayanan sun kasance na mata a zamanin d Delphi, Gortyn, Thessaly, Megara, da Sparta mallakar ƙasar, mafi girman nau'i na dukiya mai zaman kansa a lokacin.[13] Duk da haka, bayan zamanin Archaic, 'yan majalisa sun fara kafa dokoki masu tilasta wariyar jinsi, wanda ya haifar da raguwar haƙƙin mata.[13]

Mata a Athens na gargajiya ba su da mutuniyar doka kuma an ɗauka su zama wani ɓangare na oikos wanda kyrios namiji ke jagoranta. Har zuwa aure, mata suna ƙarƙashin kulawar mahaifinsu ko wani ɗan'uwan namiji. Da zarar ya yi aure, mijin ya zama kyrios mace . Kamar yadda aka hana mata gudanar da shari'a, kyrios za su yi hakan a madadinsu.[14] Matan Atinewa ba za su iya samun haƙƙoƙin dukiya ba ta hanyar kyauta, sadaki, da gado, kodayake kyrios ɗinta na da hakkin zubar da dukiyar mace.[15] Matan Atinewa kawai za su iya shiga kwangilar da bai kai darajar “ ma’auni na sha’ir” (ma’auni na hatsi), ba da damar mata su shiga ƙananan ciniki. [14] An cire mata daga tsohuwar dimokuradiyya ta Athens, a bisa manufa da kuma a aikace. Bayi za su iya zama ƴan ƙasar Atina bayan an 'yanta su, amma babu wata mace da ta taɓa samun zama ɗan ƙasa a tsohuwar Athens.[16]

A Athens na gargajiya kuma an hana mata zama mawaƙa, masana, 'yan siyasa, ko masu fasaha.[17] A lokacin Hellenistic a Athens, masanin falsafa Aristotle yana tunanin cewa mata za su kawo rikici da mugunta, don haka yana da kyau a ware mata daga sauran al'umma. Wannan rabuwa zai ƙunshi zama a cikin daki da ake kira gynaikeion, yayin da yake kula da ayyuka a cikin gida kuma yana da ɗan ƙaramin haske tare da duniyar namiji. Hakan kuma ya kasance don tabbatar da cewa mata sun sami halaltattun ‘ya’ya daga mazajensu. Matan Atinewa ba su sami ilimi kaɗan ba, in ban da koyar da gida don ƙwarewa na yau da kullun kamar su dunƙule, saƙa, girki, da wasu ilimin kuɗi.[17]

Ko da yake an cire matan Spartan a hukumance daga aikin soja da na siyasa, sun sami babban matsayi na uwayen jaruman Spartan. Yayin da maza ke yin aikin soja, mata sun ɗauki nauyin tafiyar da gidaje. Bayan yaƙe-yaƙe da aka daɗe a ƙarni na huɗu BC, matan Spartan sun mallaki kusan kashi 35% zuwa 40% na duk filaye da kadarori na Spartan. [18][19] A lokacin Hellenistic, wasu daga cikin mafi arziƙin Spartans mata ne. [20] Matan Spartan sun mallaki dukiyoyin nasu, da kuma dukiyoyin dangin maza da ba su da sojoji. [18] 'Yan mata, da maza, sun sami ilimi. [18] [21] Amma duk da ƴancin yancin motsi ga matan Spartan, rawar da suke takawa a fagen siyasa iri ɗaya ce da matan Athenia.[17]

Plato ya yarda cewa ba wa mata yancin farar hula da na siyasa zai canza yanayin gida da na jihar sosai.[22] Aristotle, wanda Plato ya koyar, ya musanta cewa mata bayi ne ko kuma suna ƙarƙashin dukiya, yana mai cewa "dabi'a ta bambanta tsakanin mace da bawa", amma ya ɗauki mata a matsayin "sayi". Ya kara da cewa babban abin da mata ke yi a fannin tattalin arziki shi ne na kiyaye dukiyoyin gida da maza suka kirkira. A cewar Aristotle, aikin da mata ke yi bai ƙara wani amfani ba saboda "fasahar sarrafa gida ba ta kama da fasahar samun arziki ba, domin ɗayan yana amfani da kayan da ɗayan ke bayarwa".[23]

Sabanin ra'ayin Plato, masana falsafa na Stoic sunyi jayayya akan daidaiton jinsi, rashin daidaiton jima'i yana cikin ra'ayinsu ya saba wa dokokin yanayi.[24] A yin haka, sun bi ’yan Cynics, waɗanda suka yi jayayya cewa maza da mata su sanya tufafi iri ɗaya kuma su sami ilimi iri ɗaya. Har ila yau, suna ganin aure a matsayin abokantaka na ɗabi'a a tsakanin daidaikun mutane maimakon larura ta halitta ko zamantakewa kuma suna aiwatar da waɗannan ra'ayoyin a rayuwarsu da kuma koyarwarsu. Stoics sun karɓi ra'ayoyin Cynics kuma sun ƙara su cikin ra'ayoyinsu na dabi'ar ɗan adam, don haka sanya daidaiton jima'i akan tushen falsafanci mai ƙarfi.[24]

Roma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mata da ke aiki tare da wani mutum a wani kantin rini ( fullonica ), a kan wani zanen bango daga Pompeii

Dokokin Romawa, kwatankwacin dokar Atheniya, maza ne suka ƙirƙira su don goyon bayan maza.[25] Mata ba su da muryar jama'a kuma ba su da wani matsayi na jama'a, wanda ya inganta bayan karni na farko zuwa karni na 6 KZ. [26] Matan da aka haifa a Roma ta dā ’yan ƙasa ne da suke more hakki na doka da kuma kāre da ba su kai ga waɗanda ba ’yan ƙasa ba ko kuma bayi . Al'ummar Romawa, duk da haka, ta kasance ta ubangida, kuma mata ba za su iya yin zabe ba, ba za su iya rike mukaman gwamnati, ko kuma su yi aikin soja ba. [27] Matan manyan mutane sun yi tasiri a siyasance ta hanyar aure da uwa. A lokacin Jamhuriyar Roma, an lura da iyayen ’yan’uwan Gracchus da na Julius Kaisar a matsayin mata masu kyau da suka ci gaba da aikin ’ya’yansu. A lokacin daular mulkin mallaka, matan dangin sarki na iya samun iko na siyasa da yawa kuma ana nuna su akai-akai a cikin fasahar hukuma da kuma tsabar kuɗi. [28]

Babban jigon al’ummar Romawa shi ne ’yan uwa uba ko kuma shugaban gidan da yake ba da ikonsa bisa dukan ’ya’yansa, bayinsa, da matarsa.[25] 'Yan mata suna da hakkin gado daidai da maza idan mahaifinsu ya mutu ba tare da barin wasiyya ba. [29] Hakazalika da matan Athenia, matan Romawa suna da mai kula da su ko kuma kamar yadda ake kira "masu koyarwa" wanda ke kula da duk ayyukanta.[25] Wannan horon yana da iyakacin ayyukan mata amma a ƙarni na farko zuwa karni na shida KZ, koyarwa ya zama mai annashuwa sosai kuma an karɓi mata don shiga ƙarin ayyukan jama'a kamar mallaka ko sarrafa dukiya ko kuma yin aiki a matsayin masu kula da birni don wasannin gladiator da sauran ayyukan nishaɗi [25] Jiha ta samu kwarin gwiwar haihuwa. A shekara ta 27-14 KZ, ius tritium liberorum ("haƙƙin doka na 'ya'ya uku") ya ba da daraja ta alama da gata na shari'a ga macen da ta haifi 'ya'ya uku kuma ta 'yantar da ita daga kowane matsayi na namiji. [30]

A farkon lokacin Jamhuriyar Romawa, amarya ta wuce daga ikon mahaifinta zuwa "hannu" (manus) na mijinta. Daga nan sai ta zama mai biyayya ga potestas mijinta, ko da yake zuwa wani karami mataki fiye da 'ya'yansu. [31] An yi watsi da wannan babban nau'i na auren manus a zamanin Julius Kaisar, lokacin da mace ta kasance ƙarƙashin ikon mahaifinta ta doka ko da ta koma gidan mijinta. Wannan tsarin yana ɗaya daga cikin abubuwan da suka sa matan Romawa suka sami ’yancin kai. [32]

Duk da cewa mata sai sun amsa wa ubanninsu a cikin al’amuran shari’a, amma ba su da cikakken bincikensa a rayuwarsu ta yau da kullum, [33] kuma mazajensu ba su da ikon shari’a a kansu. [34] Lokacin da mahaifin mace ya rasu, sai ta sami 'yanci a shari'a ( sui iuris ) . Matar aure tana riƙe da mallakar duk wata dukiya da ta kawo cikin auren. [35] 'Yan mata suna da hakkin gado daidai da maza idan mahaifinsu ya mutu ba tare da barin wasiyya ba. [29] A karkashin dokar Romawa na gargajiya, miji ba shi da ikon cin zarafin matarsa ta jiki ko tilasta mata ta yi jima'i. [36] Dukan matar ya isa dalilin rabuwar aure ko wani hukunci na shari'a akan mijin. [37]

Domin matsayinsu na doka na ’yan ƙasa da kuma matakin da za su iya ’yantar da su, mata a Roma ta dā za su iya mallakar dukiya, su shiga kwangila, da kuma yin kasuwanci. [38] Wasu sun samu kuma sun zubar da dukiya mai yawa, kuma an rubuta su cikin rubuce-rubuce a matsayin masu amfana wajen ba da gudummawar manyan ayyukan jama'a. [39] Matan Romawa suna iya zuwa kotu kuma su yi gardama, ko da yake al’ada ce mutum ya wakilce su. [40] A lokaci guda kuma an yi watsi da su a matsayin jahilci da raunan hankali don aiwatar da doka, kuma masu aiki da tasiri a cikin al'amuran shari'a - wanda ya haifar da wata doka da ta iyakance mata zuwa gudanar da shari'o'i a madadin kansu maimakon wasu'. [41] Amma ko da bayan an sanya wannan takunkumin, akwai misalai da yawa na mata suna ɗaukar matakai na sanin yakamata a cikin lamuran shari'a, gami da faɗar dabarun shari'a ga mazajensu. [42]

Dokar Roma ta amince da fyade a matsayin laifi wanda wanda aka azabtar ba shi da wani laifi [43] da kuma babban laifi. [44] An dauki fyaden da aka yi wa wata mata a matsayin hari ga danginta da mutuncin mahaifinta, kuma an kunyata wadanda aka yi wa fyade saboda sun bar sunan mahaifinta. [25] A matsayin doka, za a iya yin fyade ga ɗan ƙasa kawai. Za a iya gurfanar da fyaden da aka yi wa bawa ne kawai a matsayin lalacewa ga dukiyar mai ita. [45]

Hoton tagulla na wata budurwa tana karatu (karni na farko)

Sarkin Roma na farko, Augustus, ya tsara hawansa zuwa ikonsa kawai a matsayin komawa ga ɗabi'a na al'ada, kuma ya yi ƙoƙari ya daidaita halin mata ta hanyar dokokin ɗabi'a . Zina, wanda ya kasance al'amarin iyali mai zaman kansa a ƙarƙashin jamhuriyar, an yi masa laifi, [46] kuma an bayyana shi a matsayin haramtacciyar jima'i ( stuprum ) wanda ya faru tsakanin ɗan ƙasa da matar aure, ko tsakanin matar aure da kowane namiji. fiye da mijinta. Saboda haka, mace mai aure za ta iya yin jima'i da mijinta kawai, amma mai aure bai yi zina ba sa'ad da ya yi jima'i da karuwa, bawa, ko wani mutum mai daraja ( infamis ) . [47] Yawancin karuwai a Romawa ta dā bayi ne, ko da yake wasu bayi an kare su daga tilasta yin karuwanci ta hanyar wani sashe na kwangilar tallace-tallace. [48] Mace mai 'yanci da ta yi aiki a matsayin karuwa ko mai shayarwa ta rasa matsayinta na zamantakewa kuma ta zama maras kyau, "marasa mutunci"; ta hanyar ba da gawarta a bainar jama'a, ta yadda ta mika hakkinta na kare ta daga cin zarafi ko cin zarafi ta jiki. [49]

Falsafar Stoic ta rinjayi ci gaban dokar Romawa. Stoics na zamanin Imperial kamar Seneca da Musonius Rufus sun haɓaka ka'idodin alaƙa kawai . Duk da yake ba suna ba da shawarar daidaito a cikin al'umma ko a ƙarƙashin doka ba, sun ɗauka cewa yanayi yana ba wa maza da mata daidaitattun iyawa ga nagarta da kuma daidaitattun wajibai don yin aiki nagari, don haka maza da mata suna da bukata daidai ga ilimin falsafa.[24] Ana ganin wadannan dabi’un falsafa a tsakanin masu mulki sun taimaka wajen inganta matsayin mata a karkashin Daular.[50] Roma ba ta da tsarin makarantun da gwamnati ke tallafawa, kuma ilimi yana samuwa ga waɗanda za su iya biya kawai. Da alama 'ya'yan ' yan majalisar dattawa da na dattawa sun sami ilimin firamare akai-akai (shekaru 7 zuwa 12). [51] Ba tare da la'akari da jinsi ba, mutane kaɗan ne suka sami ilimi fiye da wannan matakin. Ana iya koyar da ’yan mata da ba su da tawali’u don su taimaka da sana’ar iyali ko kuma su koyi karatu da zai taimaka musu su yi aiki a matsayin marubuta da sakatarori. [52] Matar da ta samu matsayi mafi girma a zamanin d ¯ a don koyonta ita ce Hypatia 'yar Iskandariya, wacce ta koyar da samari darussa da suka ci gaba da kuma ba da shawara ga sarakunan Romawa na Masar kan harkokin siyasa. Tasirinta ya sa ta yi rikici da bishop na Iskandariya, Cyril, wanda wataƙila ya kasance yana da hannu wajen mutuwarta ta tashin hankali a shekara ta 415 a hannun ’yan gungun Kiristoci. [53]

Ma'aurata suna haɗa hannu cikin aure, waɗanda Romawa suka tsara a matsayin tubalin ginin al'umma kuma a matsayin haɗin gwiwar abokan hulɗar da suke aiki tare don haifa da renon yara, gudanar da al'amuran yau da kullum, gudanar da rayuwa mai kyau, da jin daɗin soyayya [54]

Daular Byzantine[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tun da ainihin dokar Byzantine ta dogara ne akan dokar Romawa, matsayin shari'a na mata bai canza sosai ba daga ayyukan ƙarni na 6. Amma har yanzu ana ci gaba da takura wa mata a rayuwar jama'a da kuma kiyayya ga mata masu zaman kansu.[55] Babban tasiri na al'adun Girkanci ya ba da gudummawa ga tsauraran halaye game da matsayin mata na cikin gida maimakon zama na jama'a.[55] Haka kuma an samu karuwar mata wadanda ba karuwai ba, bayi ko masu nishadantarwa da ake lullube su gaba daya.[55] Kamar dokar Roman da ta gabata, mata ba za su iya zama shaidu na doka ba, gudanar da mulki ko gudanar da aikin banki amma har yanzu suna iya gadon kadarori da mallakar filaye. [55]

A matsayinka na mai mulki, an yi amfani da tasirin ikkilisiya don goyon bayan kawar da nakasa da tsohuwar doka ta gindaya game da rashin aure da rashin haihuwa, na ƙarin wurare don shiga rayuwar addini, da kuma tanadin da ya dace ga matar. Ikklisiya ta kuma tallafa wa ikon siyasa na waɗanda suke abokantaka da limaman coci. Justinian ya ba da izini nadin iyaye mata da kakanni a matsayin masu koyarwa.

Constantine ya tsawaita dokar hana auren 'yan majalisar dattawa da wasu mazan da ke da mata masu karamin karfi amma Justinian ya cire shi gaba daya . An hana aure na biyu, musamman ta hanyar sanya doka ta sanya sharadin cewa hakkin gwauruwa na mallakar dukiya ya daina yin aure, kuma kundin tsarin mulkin Leonine a karshen karni na 9 ya sanya hukuncin auren uku. Haka tsarin mulki ya sa kyautar firist ya zama abin da ya dace na bikin aure.[56]

China[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Daure kafa, al'adar da aka saba yi wa matan kasar Sin a tsakanin karni na 10 zuwa farkon karni na 20. Hoton yana nuna X-ray mai ƙafa biyu masu ɗaure.

Mata a cikin tarihi da tsohuwar kasar Sin ana daukar su a matsayin kasa kuma suna da matsayi na doka bisa ka'idar Confucian.[57] A cikin Imperial China, " Biyayya ta Uku " ta ciyar da 'ya'ya mata su yi biyayya ga ubanninsu, mata su yi biyayya ga mazajensu, da gwauraye su yi biyayya ga 'ya'yansu. Mata ba za su iya gadon kasuwanci ko dukiya ba [57] kuma dole ne maza su ɗauki ɗa don irin waɗannan dalilai na kuɗi. [57] Marigayi dokar daular ta kuma ƙunshi nau'ikan saki bakwai daban-daban. Ana iya korar mace idan ta kasa haifi ɗa, ta yi zina, ta yi rashin biyayya ga surukanta, ta yi magana fiye da kima, ta yi sata, ta yi kishi mai yawa, ko kuma ta yi fama da wata cuta da ba za ta warke ba ko kuma ta sha wahala. [57] Amma kuma akwai iyakoki ga miji – misali, ba zai iya saki ba idan ta lura da wuraren makokin surukanta, idan ba ta da iyali da za ta koma, ko kuma dangin miji sun kasance matalauta kuma tun daga lokacin sun zama matalauta. mai arziki.[57]

Matsayin mata a kasar Sin ma ya yi kadan, saboda al'adar daure kafa .[ana buƙatar hujja] Game da 45% na kasar Sin da mata ya daure ƙafãfunsu a cikin karni na 19th. Ga manyan azuzuwan, kusan 100%. A shekara ta 1912, gwamnatin kasar Sin ta ba da umarnin dakatar da daurin kafa. Haɗin ƙafa ya haɗa da canza tsarin kashi ta yadda ƙafafu suka kasance kusan inci huɗu kawai. Ƙafafun da aka ɗaure sun haifar da wahalar motsi, don haka ya iyakance ayyukan mata sosai.

Saboda al'adar zamantakewar jama'a cewa maza da mata kada su kasance kusa da juna, matan kasar Sin sun ƙi yarda da jinya daga likitocin likitocin Yammacin Turai. Wannan ya haifar da babbar buƙata ga likitocin mata na likitancin Yammacin Turai a China. Don haka, mace mai wa'azin likitanci Dr. Mary H. Fulton (1854-1927)[58] ta aiko da Hukumar Ofishin Jakadancin Kasashen Waje na Cocin Presbyterian (Amurka) don samo kwalejin likitanci na farko ga mata a China. An san shi da Kwalejin Kiwon Lafiya ta Hackett na Mata (夏葛女子醫學院), [59][60] an ba da kwalejin a Guangzhou, China, ta babban gudummawa daga Edward AK Hackett (1851-1916) na Indiana, Amurka. Makasudin kwalejin an yi shi ne don yada addinin Kiristanci da likitancin zamani da daukaka martabar matan Sinawa a cikin al'umma. [61][62]

A zamanin jamhuriyar Sin (1912-49) da kuma gwamnatocin kasar Sin da suka gabata, an sayo mata da sayar da su bauta bisa ka'ida ta hanyar bautar gida. Waɗannan matan an san su da Mui Tsai . Wata 'yar kasar Amurka Agnes Smedley ce ta rubuta rayuwar Mui Tsai a cikin littafinta na Hotunan Matan Sinawa a cikin juyin juya hali . [63]

Duk da haka, a shekarar 1949 da kasar Sin da aka kifar da kwaminisanci guerillas jagorancin Mao Zedong, da kuma Jamhuriyar Jama'ar kasar Sin da aka kafa a wannan shekara. A watan Mayu na shekarar 1950, Jamhuriyar Jama'ar Sin ta kafa sabuwar dokar aure don magance sayar da mata cikin bauta. Wannan ya haramta auren ta hanyar wakili kuma ya sanya auren ya zama halal muddin ma'auratan biyu sun yarda. Sabuwar dokar aure ta ɗaga shekarun aure zuwa 20 ga maza da 18 na mata. Wannan wani muhimmin bangare ne na sake fasalin filaye na karkara domin ba za a iya sayar da mata bisa doka ba ga masu gidaje. Taken a hukumance shi ne "Maza da mata daidai suke; kowa ya cancanci gishirin sa".[64]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]


 

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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