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Harshen Herero

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Harshen Herero
Otsiherero
'Yan asalin magana
237,000
Baƙaƙen boko
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-1 hz
ISO 639-2 her
ISO 639-3 her
Glottolog here1253[1]
Mai magana da Herero, wanda aka rubuta a Namibia.

Herero (Otjiherero) yare ne na Bantu da mutanen Herero da Mbanderu ke magana a Namibia da Botswana, da kuma ƙananan al'ummomin mutane a kudu maso yammacin Angola. masu magana 250,000 a cikin waɗannan ƙasashe tsakanin 2015 da 2018.

Rarraba[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Rarraba harshensa ya rufe yankin da ake kira Hereroland, wanda ya ƙunshi yankin Omaheke tare da Yankunan Otjozondjupa da Kunene. Mutanen Himba, waɗanda ke da alaƙa da Herero da Mbanderu, suna magana da yaren da ke kusa da Otjiherero. Yawancin masu magana da Herero suna zaune a Windhoek, babban birnin Namibia.

Fasahar sauti[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sautin da aka yi amfani da shi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Labari Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Gishiri
Hanci m n ɲ
Plosive / Africate
Rashin lafiya
fili p t k
Domenal mb nd̪ nd ndʒ ŋɡ
Fricative ba tare da murya ba (f) θ (s) h
murya v ð
Trill r
Kusanci w (l) j

samun sautunan /f s l/ a cikin kalmomin aro.

Sautin sautin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A gaba Tsakiya Komawa
Kusa i iː  u uː 
Tsakanin ɛ ɛː  ɔː 
Bude An tabbatar da shi: An samo asali ne daga wannan

Rubutun[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Saboda fassarar mishan Gottlieb Viehe (1839-1901) na Littafi Mai-Tsarki zuwa Herero, a ƙarshen karni na 19, an rubuta harshen da ake magana zuwa haruffa bisa ga rubutun Latin. Uba Peter Heinrich Brincker (1836-1904) ya fassara ayyukan tauhidi da waƙoƙi da yawa.

Rubutun kalmomi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • a - [ɑ]
  • b - [b]
  • d - [d]
  • ḓ - [d̪]
  • e - [ɛ]
  • f - [f]
  • g - [g]
  • h - [h]
  • i - [i]
  • j - [j]
  • k - [k]
  • l - [l]
  • m - [m]
  • mb - [mb]
  • mw - [mw]
  • n - [n]
  • ndj - [ndʒ]
  • ng - [ŋɡ]
  • ngw - [ŋɡw]
  • nj - [ɲ]
  • Hukun - [n̪]
  • o - [yi]
  • p - [p]
  • r - [r]
  • s - [s]
  • t - [t]
  • tj - [t͡ʃ]
  • ṱ - [t̪]
  • u - [u/w]
  • v - [v]
  • w - [w]
  • y - [j]
  • z - [z]

Tsawon wasula sun ninka sau biyu.

Ana amfani da f da l ne kawai a cikin kalmomin aro.

Harshen harshe[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ilimi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana koyar da Otjiherero a makarantun Namibian a matsayin yaren asali da kuma a matsayin harshen sakandare. An haɗa shi a matsayin babban abu a Jami'ar Namibia . Otjiherero kuma yana daya daga cikin harsuna shida na 'yan tsiraru da Rediyon Jihar Namibiya (NBC) ke amfani da su. Gamsberg Macmillan, tun daga shekara ta 2008, ya buga ƙamus guda ɗaya a cikin Otjiherero.

Iri-iri[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana ɗaukar nau'ikan Hakaona a matsayin yare na Bantu daban, kamar yadda wani lokacin yake Zemba (Otjizemba). Maho (200) kuma ya cire Kuvale zuwa Yankin Bantu R.10, yayin da yake rarrabe Arewa maso Yammacin Herero (Kaokoland Herero, gami da Zemba da mai yiwuwa Himba da Hakaona), R.311, da Botswana Herero (gami da Mahalapye Herero), R.-312, kamar yadda ya bambanta da amma yana da alaƙa da Herero daidai. A cikin Herero daidai, ya gane yare biyu: Tsakiyar Herero da Mbandero (East Herero).

Ana samun Arewa maso Yamma / Zemba a kowane bangare na iyakar Namibia da Angola. Tsakiyar Herero ta rufe babban yanki a tsakiyar Namibia, tare da Gabashin Herero da wasu tsibirai zuwa gabas amma har yanzu a Namibia. Botswana Herero ƙunshi wasu tsibirai da aka warwatsa a Botswana, tare da kusan 15% na yawan mutanen Herero.

Ethnologue ya raba Zimba a matsayin yare daban amma ya riƙe Himba, East Herero, da Botswana Herero a cikin harshen Herero. , ba ta yarda da Kuvale a matsayin yare ba amma a matsayin yare daban.

Tushen[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • [Hasiya] Wörterbuch und kurzgefasste Grammatik des Otji-Herero. Leipzig (sake buga 1964 Ridgwood, NJ: The Gregg Press).
  • [Hotuna a shafi na 9] Grundzüge einer Grammatik des Hereró. Berlin: Verlag von Wilhelm Hertz.
  • [Inda Aka Ɗauko Hoto da ke shafi na 9] "Jirgin wuri a cikin Otjiherero: ƙarin akan bambancin morpho-syntactic a cikin Bantu. " A cikin: Laura Downing, Lutz Marten & Sabine Zerbian (eds.), Takardu a cikin Bantu Grammar, ZAS Takardu a Linguistics 43, 97 - 122.
  • Marten, Lutz & Nancy C. Kula (2007). "Bayanin Morphosyntactic a cikin Bantu: nazarin shari'a guda biyu". SOAS Takardun Aiki a cikin Harshe 15.227-238.
  • Möhlig, Wilhelm, Lutz Marten & Jekura U. Kavari (2002). A Grammatical Sketch of Herero (Otjiherero). Köln: Köppe (Grammatische Analysen afrikanischer Sprachen; v.19).

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Harshen Herero". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.