Houri

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Wikidata.svgHouri
Houris on Camelback - 15th century Persia.png
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na mythic humanoid (en) Fassara
Bangare na Musulunci
Genre (en) Fassara Kalmar Mace
Has quality (en) Fassara beauty (en) Fassara da Budurci
Houris a aljanna, hawa rakuma. Daga rubutun Farisa na ƙarni na 15.

A cikin addinin addinin Islama, houri mata ne da za su raka muminai musulmai masu aminci a cikin Aljanna.[1] Malaman Musulmai sun bambanta dangane da ko suna nufin matan muminai na wannan duniya ko wata halitta dabam, inda mafi rinjaye suka zaɓi na ƙarshen.[2]

Etymology[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin amfani da Larabci na gargajiya, kalmar ḥūr (Larabci: حُور) jam'in ʾaḥwar ne (Larabci: أحْوَر) (namiji) da ḥawrāʾ (Larabci: حَوْراء) (na mata)[3] wanda za a iya fassara shi da "samun idanu masu tsananin bambanci na fari da baki".[4]

Kalmar "houri" ta shiga yaruka da yawa na Turai daga kusan ƙarni na 17 da 18.

Siffantarwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An ambaci sa'o'i a wurare da dama na Al -Qur'ani, koyaushe cikin jam'i. Babu takamaiman lamba da aka taɓa bayarwa a cikin Alƙur'ani don adadin sa'o'i masu rakiyar kowane mai bi.

Bayanin Qur'ani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin tafsirai da tafsirin Alqur'ani, an siffanta Houris da:

Ma'anar kalmar kawa'ib[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masu fassara da yawa - kamar Arberry, Palmer, Rodwell da Sale - sun fassara sunan ka'ib a cikin Alƙur'ani 78:33 da "tare da kumburin ƙirji".[35] Ibn Kathir, a cikin tafsirinsa, ya rubuta cewa an fassara kalmar don nufin "cikakken ci gaba" ko "zagaye nono ... suna nufin da wannan cewa ƙirjin waɗannan 'yan mata za su kasance cikakke -zagaye ba za su ragu ba, saboda za su kasance budurwai."[36] Hakazalika, Lexicon na Ingilishi na Ingilishi na Edward William Lane ya fassara kalmar ka'ib a matsayin "Yarinyar da ƙirjinta ya fara kumbura, ko ya zama fitacce, ko mai yawan magana ko samun kumburi, shahararre, ko mai ƙyamar nono."[37]

Koyaya, M. A. S. Abdel Haleem da wasu sun nuna cewa bayanin anan yana nufin amfani da na gargajiya zuwa ƙuruciya maimakon jaddada fasalin zahiri na mata.[38][39]

Wasu, irin su Abdullah Yusuf Ali, suna fassara ka'ib a matsayin "sahabbai",[40] inda Muhammad Asad ya fassara kalmar da almara.[41]

Bayanin Hadisi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin Hadisi, an bayyana Houris a matsayin "bayyananne ga kasusuwan kasusuwansu",[42][43] "samari na har abada",[44] "marasa gashi sai gira da kai",[44] "tsarki"[43] da "kyakkyawa".[43] Malaman hadisi na Sunni kuma suna ba da labarai da yawa na Annabi Muhammad wanda aka ambaci sa'o'i a cikin su.

  • Ruwaya ta shafi Bukhari

    Kowa zai sami mata biyu daga sa'o'i, (waɗanda za su yi kyau sosai, tsarkakakku kuma za a iya ganin su) za a ga bargon ƙasusuwan ƙafafunsu ta cikin ƙasusuwa da nama.[45]

  • Wani, wanda Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Nishapuri ya ruwaito, ya ruwaito hakan

    Kungiya ta farko da za ta shiga Aljanna za ta kasance kamar cikakken wata a cikin dare, kuma wanda ke biye da wannan ƙungiya zai kasance kamar mafi haskaka taurarin taurarin sama masu haskaka taurari a sararin sama; kowane mutum daga cikinsu zai sami mata biyu, bargon da ƙusoshinsa za su haskaka daga ƙarƙashin nama - babu wanda zai kasance ba tare da mata a Aljanna.[46]

    Tirmizi ya ruwaito

    Al-Hasan al-Basri ya ce wata tsohuwa ta zo wurin manzon Allah ta tambaye ta, ya Manzon Allah ka yi addua cewa Allah ya ba ni shiga Aljanna. Manzon Allah ya amsa, "Ya Uwa, tsohuwa ba za ta iya shiga Aljanna ba." Wannan matar ta fara kuka ta fara tafiya. Manzon Allah ya ce, "Ka ce wa mace cewa mutum ba zai shiga cikin tsufa ba, amma Allah zai sanya dukkan matan Aljanna 'yan mata budurwai.) halitta kuma ya sanya su budurwai, masoya, daidai da shekaru.Template:'"[47]

Dangane da wani rahoto da Ibn Majah ya rawaito a cikin Sunansa:

Kungiya ta farko da za ta shiga Aljanna za ta kasance kamar cikakken wata a cikin dare, kuma wanda ke biye da wannan ƙungiya zai kasance kamar mafi haskaka taurarin taurarin sama masu haskaka taurari a sararin sama; kowane mutum daga cikinsu zai sami mata biyu, bargon da ƙusoshinsa za su haskaka daga ƙarƙashin jiki - babu wanda zai kasance ba tare da mata a Aljanna.[46]

  • Tirmizi ya ruwaito:

Al-Hasan Al-Basri yana cewa wata tsohuwa ta zo wurin manzon Allah ta tambaye ta, ya Manzon Allah ka yi addu’ar Allah ya ba ni shiga Aljanna. Manzon Allah ya amsa, "Ya Uwa, tsohuwa ba za ta iya shiga Aljanna ba." Wannan matar ta fara kuka ta fara tafiya. Manzon Allah ya ce, "Ka ce wa mace cewa mutum ba zai shiga cikin tsufa ba, amma Allah zai sanya dukkan matan Aljanna 'yan mata budurwai. ) halitta kuma ya sanya su budurwai, masoya, daidai da shekaru.' ''[48]

  • Dangane da rahoton da Ibnu Majah ya rawaito a cikin Sunan nasa:

Mace ba ta ɓata wa mijinta rai amma matarsa ​​daga cikin kuyangin da ke da manyan idanuwa masu tsananin fari da baƙar fata za su ce: “Kada ku ɓata masa rai, Allah Ya halakar da ku. Yana tare da ku a matsayin baƙo mai wucewa. rabu da ku ku zo mana."[49][50] [51]

Magana game da "budurwai 72"[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Malamin hadisi na Tirmizi ya nakalto annabi Muhammad yana cewa:

Mafi ƙanƙan lada ga mutanen Aljanna shine mazauni inda akwai bayi dubu tamanin da awa saba'in da biyu, a samansa akwai tsattsarkar rumfar da aka yi wa ado da lu'u-lu'u, Beryl Aquamarine da maxixe aquamarine, da ruby, gwargwadon nisa daga Damascus zuwa Sana 'a ba.[52][53]

Duk da haka, wasu suna ƙin yarda cewa riwayar da ke baiwa dukkan maza mata saba'in da biyu tana da raunin riwaya.[54]

Wani hadisi, kuma a cikin Jami`at-Tirmidhi kuma ana ɗaukarsa "mai kyau da sauti" (hasan sahih) yana ba da wannan ladan musamman ga shahidi:

Akwai abubuwa shida a wurin Allah ga shahidi. An gafarta masa da zubar jini na farko (yana shan wahala), an nuna masa matsayinsa a Aljanna, an kare shi daga azaba a cikin kabari, an amintar da shi daga mafi girman ta'addanci, an ɗora kambin mutunci a kansa - da duwatsu masu daraja. sun fi duniya da abin da ke cikinta — ya auri mata saba'in da biyu a cikin sa’oi masu fadi (Larabci. اثْنَتَيْنِ وَسَبْعِينَ زَوْجَةً مِنَ الْحُورِ الْعِينِ) na Aljanna, kuma yana iya yin ceton saba'in daga cikin danginsa na kusa.[55]

Jima'i a Aljanna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin Alqurani, babu inda aka ambaci jima'i a Aljanna.[38] Sai dai an samu wanzuwar sa a cikin hadisai, tafsirai[56][57] da tafsirin musulunci.[58][59][60][61]

Masu tafsirin Alqur'ani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Majiyoyin Sunni sun ambaci cewa kamar dukkan maza da mata na Aljanna, masu sa'a ba sa fuskantar fitsari, najasa ko haila.[62]

Ibn Kathir ya bayyana cewa aljanu za su sami sahabban aljannu mata a Aljanna.[63]

Al-Qurtubi ya sulhunta hadisin da ya bayyana cewa mafi yawan mazaunan wuta (Jahannama) za su kasance mata ta hanyar ba da shawarar cewa da yawa daga cikin matan da za su zama masu rinjaye a cikin Jahannama za su kasance cikin masu zunubi waɗanda za su zauna a can na ɗan lokaci sannan kuma a fitar da su daga wuta zuwa Aljanna; bayan haka mafi yawan mutanen Aljanna za su kasance mata.[64]

Jinsi da asali[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A al'adance an yi imani da cewa houris kyawawan mata ne waɗanda aka yi musu alƙawarin lada ga muminai maza,[65] tare da ɗimbin hadisi da tafsirin Alƙur'ani waɗanda ke kwatanta su haka.[66] A cikin 'yan shekarun nan, duk da haka, wasu sun yi iƙirarin cewa kalmar ḥūr tana nufin duka tsarkakakkun maza da tsarkakakkun mata (kasancewa kalmar jam’i ce ga duka nau'ikan maza da na mata waɗanda ke nufin fari) da imani cewa kalmar houris tana nufin mata kawai wadanda suke cikin aljanna kuskure ne.[65]

Alkur'ani ya yi amfani da sifofi na mata da na tsaka-tsakin jinsi don bayyana houri,[67][68][69][70] ta hanyar kwatanta su da adjective mara iyaka عِينٌ, wanda wasu suka ɗauka don nuna cewa wasu wurare suna nufin sahabban maza da mata.[71] Bugu da kari, amfani da karin magana na maza ga sahabban sa’a baya nuna cewa wannan kawancen ya takaita ne ga maza, kamar yadda tsarin maza ya kunshi mace a cikin Larabci na gargajiya da na Al-Qur’ani-don haka yana aiki azaman jinsi duka gami da tsari na asali-kuma yana da aka yi amfani da shi a cikin Alƙur'ani don yin magana ga dukkan bil'adama da duk masu bi gaba ɗaya.[72][73][74]

A cikin Sakon Alkur'ani, Muhammad Asad ya bayyana yadda ake amfani da kalmar inr a cikin ayoyin 44:54 & 56:22, yana mai jayayya da cewa "sunan ḥūr - wanda na sanya shi a matsayin 'sahabbai tsarkaka' - jam'i ne na duka biyun. aḥwār (namiji) da ḥawrā '(na mata) ... saboda haka, ma'anar mahaɗin hurʿīn tana nufin, kusan, 'tsarkakakku, mafi kyawun ido'."[75][76]

Dangantaka ga matan duniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dangane da matsayin tsinkaye na wannan mata ta duniya vis-a-vis houris, masu ilimin sun kiyaye cewa adalai na wannan rayuwar suna da matsayi mafi girma fiye da na houris.[2] Masanin tauhidi na sunna Aḥmad al-Ṣāwī (shekara ta 1825), a cikin tafsirinsa kan aikin Ahmad al-Dardir, ya ce, “Matsayin da ya dace shi ne cewa matan wannan duniya za su fi budurwowi masu duhu duhu sau dubu saba'in (ḥūr ʿīn)."[77] Muḥammad ibn ʿUmar Baḥraq (rasuwa 1524) ya ambaci a cikin littafin sa na farko ga yara cewa "Matan Adam sun fi 'yan mata masu duhu ido saboda addu'o'in su, azumin su, da ibadun su."[78]

Sauran hukumomi suna nuna suna nuna cewa houris da kansu sune matan wannan duniyar da aka tashe su a cikin sabon salo, tare da Razi yayi sharhi cewa a cikin houris da aka ambata a cikin Alƙur'ani suma za su kasance "[har ma] waɗancan tsoffin mata na ku waɗanda Allah zai tayar da su a matsayin sabbin halittu."[79][80] Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari ya ambaci cewa duk mata masu adalci, duk da tsufa da ruɓan da suka kasance a duniya, za a tashe su a matsayin budurwai kuma za su kasance, kamar takwarorinsu maza, su kasance matasa har abada a cikin aljanna.[81]

Mata daidai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wasu suna jayayya cewa yayin da kalmar "houri" na iya nufin abokai mata, "wannan ba lallai bane ya hana wanzuwar kyakkyawan sahabban maza ga muminai mata".[82]

An ambaci rashin ambaton wasu sahabbai na musamman ga mahallin zamantakewar Larabawa kafin Jahiliyya, inda aka ɗauki nassosin mata ba su dace ba.[83][84]

Alama[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Muhammad Asad ya yi imanin cewa ya kamata a ɗauki nassosin sa'oi da sauran hotunan aljanna a matsayin almara maimakon na zahiri, yana mai nuni da "rashin yiwuwar mutum ya yi tunanin 'aljanna' '. Don goyon bayan wannan ra'ayi ya kawo ayar Alkur'ani aya ta 32:17[85] da hadisin da aka samu a cikin Bukhari da Muslim.[86]

Masanin falsafar 'yan Shi'a Muhammad Husayn Tabatabai ya ambaci cewa mafi mahimmancin gaskiyar bayanin sa'ar shine cewa kyawawan ayyukan da muminai ke yi ana sake ramawa da sa'a, waɗanda su ne sifofin zahiri na sifofi masu kyau waɗanda ba za su shuɗe ba tsawon lokaci da wanda zai zama amintattun sahabbai ga waɗanda suke rakiya.[87]

Rigima[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Nerina Rustjomi ta bayar da hujjar cewa rashin amfani da kalmar ''houri'' da 'yan ta'adda na Islama ke yi ya sa Amurkawa suna da karkatacciyar fahimta game da kalmar tare da kwatanta Musulunci a matsayin "addini wanda yake da halin son zuciya, tashin hankali, da rashin hankali".[88]

A madadin haka, Annemarie Schimmel ta ce ya kamata a duba bayanin Al -Qur'ani na sa'o'i cikin yanayin soyayya; "duk mutumin kirki wanda yake rayuwa bisa tsarin Allah zai shiga Aljanna inda kogunan madara da zuma ke gudana cikin sanyi, lambuna masu kamshi da masoyan budurwa suna jiran gida".[89]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. "Houri". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Seyyed Hossein Nasr; Caner K. Dagli; Maria Massi Dakake; Joseph E.B. Lumbard; Mohammed Rustom, eds. (2015). The Study Quran: A New Translation and Commentary. New York, NY: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-112586-7.
  3. see Lane's Lexicon, p. 666 and Hans Wehr, p. 247
  4. Wehr's Arabic-English Dictionary, 1960.
  5. "Quran 36:55". Islam Awakened. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  6. al-Jalalayn. "Tafsir Yā Sīn". Tafsir al-Jalalayn. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  7. "Quran 37:48". Islam Awakened. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  8. al-Jalalayn. "Tafsir As-Saaffat". Tafsir al-Jalalayn. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  9. "Quran 38:52". Islam Awakened. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  10. al-Jalalayn. "Tafsir Saad". Tafsir al-Jalalayn. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  11. "Quran 44:54". Islam Awakened. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  12. al-Jalalayn. "Tafsir Ad-Dukhan". Tafsir al-Jalalayn. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  13. "Quran 52:20". Islam Awakened. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  14. al-Jalalayn. "Tafsir At-Tur". Tafsir al-Jalalayn. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  15. http://www.quran4u.com/Tafsir%20Ibn%20Kathir/055%20Rahman.htm
  16. "Quran 55:56". Islam Awakened. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  17. al-Jalalayn. "TafsirAr-Rahman". Tafsir al-Jalalayn. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  18. https://quran.com/55/56?translations=38,85,84,22,101,17,18,95
  19. https://www.islamawakened.com/quran/55/58/
  20. "Quran 55:72". Islam Awakened. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  21. al-Jalalayn. "Tafsir Ar-Rahman". Tafsir al-Jalalayn. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  22. "Quran 55:74". Islam Awakened. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  23. al-Jalalayn. "Tafsir Ar-Rahman". Tafsir al-Jalalayn. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  24. al-Jalalayn. "Tafsir Ar-Rahman". Tafsir al-Jalalayn. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  25. http://www.quran4u.com/Tafsir%20Ibn%20Kathir/056%20Waqiah.htm
  26. "Quran 56:8". Islam Awakened. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  27. al-Jalalayn. "Tafsir Ar-Al-Waqi'a". Tafsir al-Jalalayn. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  28. "Quran 56:22". Islam Awakened. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  29. al-Jalalayn. "Tafsir Al-Waqi'a". Tafsir al-Jalalayn. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  30. "Quran 56:35". Islam Awakened. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  31. al-Jalalayn. "Tafsir Al-Waqi'a". Tafsir al-Jalalayn. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  32. http://www.quran4u.com/Tafsir%20Ibn%20Kathir/078%20Naba.htm
  33. "Quran 78:31". Islam Awakened. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  34. al-Jalalayn. "Tafsir An-Naba'". Tafsir al-Jalalayn. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  35. Al Kur'ani 78:33
  36. Ibn Kathir. Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Abridged, Volume 10 Surat At-Tagabun to the end of the Qur'an. pp. 333–334.
  37. كعب in Lane's lexicon.
  38. 38.0 38.1 Haleem, M.A.S. Abdel (2011). "Paradise in the Qur'an". Understanding the Qur'an: Themes and Style. I.B Tauris. pp. 235. ISBN 9781845117894.
  39. "Do the words of Allah, 'And full-breasted maidens of equal age (wa kawaa'ib atraaban)' describe the breasts of al-hoor al-'iyn?". IslamQA. 29 April 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  40. Abdullah Yusuf Ali: The Meanings of the Illustrious Qur'an, Alminar Books, Houston, TX, 1997
  41. Asad, M. (2003). "(Surah) 56 Al-Waqiah, ayah 38". The Message of The Qur'an. "As regards my rendering of kawa’ib as 'splendid companions', it is to be remembered that the term ... from which it is derived has many meanings ... one of these meanings is 'prominence', 'eminence' or 'glory' (Lisan al-Arab) ... If we bear in mind that the Qur'anic descriptions of the blessings of paradise are always allegorical, we realize that in the above context the term kawa’ib can have no other meaning than 'glorious [or splendid] beings'."
  42. Abu `Isa Muhammad ibn `Isa at-Tirmidhi, Sunan al-Tirmidhi, Vol. 2.
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 Template:Hadith-usc
  44. 44.0 44.1 Abu `Isa Muhammad ibn `Isa at-Tirmidhi, Sunan al-Tirmidhi, hadith: 5638
  45. Template:Hadith-usc
  46. 46.0 46.1 Template:Hadith-usc Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Muslim 40 6793" defined multiple times with different content
  47. Shamaa-il Tirmidhi, Chapter 035, Hadith Number 006 (230)
  48. Shamaa-il Tirmidhi, Chapter 035, Hadith Number 006 (230)
  49. Volume IV, chapters on The Features of Heaven as described by the Messenger of Allah, chapter 21: About the Smallest Reward for the People of Heaven, hadith 2687
  50. "Various Questions Answered by Shaykh Gibril Haddad". Living Islam.
  51. Salahuddin Yusuf, Riyadhus Salihin, commentary on Nawawi, Chapter 372, Dar-us-Salam Publications (1999), 08033994793.ABA, 08033994793.ABA
  52. "Hadith – The Book on Virtues of Jihad - Jami'at-Tirmidhi". Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم).
  53. Ibn Kathir, Tafsir ibn Kathir (Quranic Commentary), "The Reward of Those on the Right After", [Chapter (Surah) Al-Waqiah (That Which Must Come To Pass)(56):35–36], Dar-us-Salam Publications, 2000, 08033994793.ABA
  54. "Will men in Paradise have intercourse with al-hoor aliyn?". IslamQA. 30 August 2000. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  55. Imam Muhammad Ibn Majah. "Volume 5:37 Book of Zuhd 4337". Muflihun.com. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  56. al-Jalalayn. "Tafsir Yā Sīn". Tafsir al-Jalalayn. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  57. Bouhdiba, Abdelwahab (2008). Sexuality in Islam. Routledge. pp. 75–76. ISBN 9780415426008.
  58. Abdul-Rahman, Muhammad Saed (2003). Islam: Questions and Answers: Basic Tenets of Faith: Belief (Part 2). MSA Publication Ltd. pp. 415–419. ISBN 1861790864.
  59. Al Ghazzali, Ihya ʿUlum al-Din (The Revival of the Religious Sciences) Vol. 4
  60. Ismail ibn Kathir (2000). "The Reward of Those on the Right After". Tafsir ibn Kathir.
  61. at-Tadhkirah, al-Qurtubî, p. 475
  62. 65.0 65.1 "Are all 'houris' female?". Dawn.com. 9 June 2011. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
  63. "Question 10053. Will men in Paradise have intercourse with al-hoor aliyn?". Islam Question and Answer. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  64. "Corpus Quran by the University of Leeds, Surah 56:22".
  65. "Ibid Surah 52:20".
  66. "Ibid Surah 55:72".
  67. "Ibid Surah 56:23".
  68. Asad, M. The Message of the Quran, Surah 56:22 [8]. The noun hur—rendered by me as companions pure—is a plural of both ahwar (masc.) and hawra' (fem.)
  69. "Ibid Surah 2:104".
  70. "Ibid Surah 2:93".
  71. "Surah 2:172".
  72. Ibid The Message of the Quran by M. Asad, Surah 56:22 note [8].
  73. Ibid The Message of the Quran by M. Asad, Surah 44:54 note [30]. For the rendering of hur 'in as 'companions pure, most beautiful of eye', see surah {56}, notes [8] and [13]. It is to be noted that the noun zawj (lit., 'a pair' or – according to the context – 'one of a pair') applies to either of the two sexes, as does the transitive verb zawaja, 'he paired' or 'joined', i.e., one person with another.
  74. al-Ṣāwī, Aḥmad (1947) [composed 1813]. Ḥashiyat ʿAlā Sharḥ al-Kharīdat al-Bahīyah [An Annotative Commentary Upon "The Resplendent Pearl"]. Cairo: Maṭbaʿat Muṣṭafā al-Bābī al-Ḥalabī wa Awlāduh. p. 67. والصحيح: أنّ نساء الدنيا يكنّ أفضل من الحور العين بسبعين ألف ضعف.
  75. Bahraq al-Yamanī, Muḥammad ibn ʿUmar (1996) [composed 15th-16th century]. Ḥilyat al-Banāt wa'l-Banīn wa Zīnat al-Dunyā wa'l-Dīn [The Splendour of Girls and Boys and the Adornment of This Life and the Next]. Dār al-Ḥāwī. p. 129. والنّساء الآدميّات أفضل من الحور العين بصلاتهنّ وصيامهنّ وعبادتهنّ.
  76. Asad, M. (2003). "(Surah) 56 Al-Waqiah, ayah 22". The Message of The Qur'an. Al-Hasan, quoted by Razi in his comments on 44:54.
  77. Ismail ibn Kathir (2000). "(Surah) 56 Al-Waqiah ayat 35–36". Tafsir ibn Kathir. The Reward of Those on the Right After.
  78. Asad, M. (2003). "(Surah) 56 Al-Waqiah, ayat 35–36". The Message of The Qur'an.
  79. Ansari, Zaynab (25 August 2011). "What Will Be the Reward of Women in Paradise?". SeekersGuidance. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  80. "Concerning The Hur al-'Ayn (Houris): Are the Hur al-'Ayn exclusively female?". Living Islam. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
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  82. Al Kur'ani 32:17
  83. https://archive.org/stream/TheMessageOfTheQuran_20140419/55877864-54484011-Message-of-Quran-Muhammad-Asad-Islam-Translation_djvu.txt ""what is kept hidden for them [by way] of a joy of the eyes", i.e., of blissful delights, irrespective of whether seen, heard or felt. The expression "what is kept hidden for them" clearly alludes to the unknowable - and, therefore, only allegorically describable - quality of life in the hereafter. The impossibility of man's really "imagining" paradise has been summed up by the Prophet in the well-authenticated hadith; "God says: 'I have readied for My righteous servants what no eye has ever seen, and no ear has ever heard, and no heart of man has ever conceived'" (Bukhari and Muslim, on the authority of Abu Hurayrah; also Tirmidhi). This hadith has always been regarded by the Companions as the Prophet's own comment on the above verse'(cf. Fath al-Bari VIII, 418 f.). "
  84. Muhammad Husayn Tabatabai, Tafsir al-Mizan
  85. Campbell, Robert A. (2010). Women, War, & Hypocrites: Studying the Qur'an. Cape Breton University Press. 08033994793.ABA (167–170)
  86. Annemarie Schimmel, Islam: An Introduction, p. 13, "Muhammad"