Ibn Kathir

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Ibn Kathir
ابن كثير.png
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Q6852615 Fassara, 1301
Harshen uwa Larabci
Mutuwa Damascus, 1 ga Faburairu, 1373
Makwanci Maqabir al-Sufiyyah (en) Fassara
Yan'uwa
Yan'uwa
Karatu
Harsuna Larabci
Malamai Ibn Taymiyyah
Al-Dhahabi (en) Fassara
Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya
Yusuf ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Mizzi (en) Fassara
al-Dimyāṭī (en) Fassara
Sana'a
Sana'a muhaddith (en) Fassara, Islamic jurist (en) Fassara, mufassir (en) Fassara da historian (en) Fassara
Muhimman ayyuka Tafsir Ibn Kathir (en) Fassara
Albidaya wan Nihaya
Q12184226 Fassara
Q12204248 Fassara
Q16123796 Fassara
Imani
Addini Musulunci

Abu al-Fiḍā 'Imād Ad-Din Ismā'īl ibn' Umar ibn Kathīr al-Qurashī Al-Damishqī (إسماعيل بن عمر بن كثير القرشي الدمشقي أبو الفداء عماد الدين; c. 1300- 1373), da aka sani da Ibn Kathir, ya kasance fitaccen masanin tarihin larabawa, masani kuma masani a zamanin Mamluk a Siriya. Masanin Tafsiri (Tafsirin Alkur'ani) da Fiqhu (fikihu), ya rubuta litattafai da dama, ciki har da tarihin duniya mai girma goma sha huɗu mai taken Al-Bidaya wa ' l-Nihaya.[1][2]

Tarihin Rayuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Cikakken sunansa shine Abul Fidāʾ Ismāʿīl ibn marmar ibn Kaṯīr (أبو الفداء إسماعيل بن عمر بن كثير) kuma yana da laqabin (epithet) na Imad ad-Dīn (عماد الدين "ginshiƙin imani"). Iyalinsa sun samo asali daga asalin kabilar Quraishawa. An haife shi a Mijdal, wani ƙauye da ke wajen birnin Busra, a gabashin Damascus, Siriya, wajen kimanin AH 701 (AD 1300/1).[3] Ibn Taymiyyah da Al-Dhahabi ne suka karantar da shi.

Bayan kammala karatunsa ya sami nadinsa na farko a hukumance a cikin 1341, lokacin da ya shiga kwamitin bincike da aka kafa don tantance wasu tambayoyi na bidi'a.

Ya auri 'yar Al-Mizzi, ɗaya daga cikin fitattun malaman Siriya na wannan lokacin, wanda ya ba shi damar shiga cikin fitattun malamai. A cikin 1345 an mai da shi mai wa'azi (khatib) a sabon masallacin da aka gina a Mizza, garin mahaifin surukinsa. A shekara ta 1366, ya hau matsayin masaniyar a Babban Masallacin Damascus.[4]

A rayuwa ta gaba, ya zama makaho.[2] Ya danganta makanta da yin aiki da daddare akan Musnad na Ahmad Ibn Hanbal a yunƙurin sake fasalin ta ta asali maimakon ta mai ba da labari. Ya rasu a watan Fabrairu 1373 (AH 774) a Damascus. An binne shi kusa da malaminsa Ibn Taimiyya.[5]

Akida[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Akidarsa a wannan zamani ta zama sabani tsakanin Ash'aris da Salafiyya.

Matsayin Ash'ari[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ash'aris suna da'awar cewa shi kansa ya ambata:

  • Ya kasance a makarantar Shafi'i na fikihu na Musulunci kuma farfesa ne na Hadisi a Gidan Hadisi da aka fi sani da "Dar al-Hadith al-Ashrafiyya" wanda aka kafa shi na musamman ga waɗanda suka yi daidai da mazhabar Ash'ariyya, kamar yadda Taj al-Din al-Subki (d. 771/1370) ya ambata a cikin Tabaqat al-Shafi`iyya al-Kubra (Ƙamus na Ƙamushin Tarihin Shafi'iyya) cewa sharadin koyarwa a al-Ashrafiyya shine Ash 'ari in' aqida.[6]
  • Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (d. 852/1449) ya ruwaito a cikin al-Durar al-Kaminah (Lu'u-lu'u Boye: akan Manyan Karni na takwas na Musulunci), cewa takaddama tsakanin Ibn Kathir da dan Ibn al- Qayyim al-Jawziyya ya barke saboda matsayin koyarwa. Da alama Ibn Kathir ya yi nuni da cewa rashin son sa ya samo asali ne daga tushen Ash'ari, kuma da zarar ɗan Ibn Qayyim ya tunkare shi game da wannan kuma ya ce ko da Ibn Kathir ya yi rantsuwa ga manyan sammai cewa baya kan aqidar. Ibn Taimiyya, mutane ba za su yarda da shi ba, domin shehinsa (malaminsa) Ibn Taimiyya ne.[7]

David L. Johnston ya bayyana shi a matsayin "mai ilimin al'ada kuma Ash'arite Ibn Kathir".[8]

Matsayin Salafi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ibn Kathir ya yi kamanceceniya da malaminsa Ibn Taimiyya, kamar bayar da shawarar jihadin gwagwarmaya da riko da sabunta al -ummar Musulunci guda daya.[9] Bugu da ƙari, kamar Ibn Taimiyya, yana ƙididdigewa a matsayin masani mai son tunani, gargajiya da hadisi.[10] Dangane da tafsirin, yana amfani da hanyoyin da suka saba da tsoffin malaman Sunnah, kuma ya bi mafi yawan hanyoyin bin Taimiyya.[11] 'Yan Salafiyya sun yi ikirarin cewa Ibn Kathir bai fassara ayoyin mutashabihat da hadisai ba, a'a ya yarda da ma'anonin ayoyin, amma ya dena tambayar "Yaya?" kuma bai kamanta shi da halitta ba kuma bai yi ta'wil akan ayoyin ba.

Yana cewa:


Mutane sun faɗi babban magana game da wannan batun kuma wannan ba shine wurin da za a yi bayanin abin da suka faɗa ba. A kan wannan, muna bin Musulman farko (salaf): Malik, Awza'i, Thawri, Layth ibn Sa'd, Shafi'i, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ishaq Ibn Rahwayh, da sauransu daga cikin Imaman Musulmai, dukkansu tsoffi. kuma na zamani wato barin (ayar da ake tambaya) ta wuce kamar yadda ta zo, ba tare da faɗin yadda ake nufi (min ghayr takyif), ba tare da kamanta ta da abubuwan da aka halitta (wa la tashbih), kuma ba tare da rushe ta ba (wa la ta'til): Ma'ana ta zahiri (zahir) da ke faruwa a zukatan masu ilimin halayyar ɗan adam (al-mushabbihin) Allah ya ɓata ta, domin babu wani abu daga halittarsa ​​da ya yi kama da shi: "Babu wani abu da yake kama da Shi, kuma Shi ne Duk -Mai ji, Mai gani "(Alkur'ani 42:11).[12]

Ayyuka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tafsiri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ibn Kathir ya rubuta shahararren tafsirin Alkur'ani mai suna Tafsir al-Qur'an al-'Azim wanda ya danganta wasu Hadisai, ko maganganun Muhammad, da maganganun sahaba zuwa ayoyin Alkur'ani, a cikin bayani da kaucewa amfani da Isra'i'iliyat. Yawancin Musulman Sunni suna ɗaukar sharhinsa a matsayin mafi kyau bayan Tafsirin al-Tabari da Tafsirin al-Kurtubi kuma ana girmama shi musamman tsakanin mazhabar Salafiyya.[13] Kodayake Ibn Kathir ya yi ikirarin dogaro da At-Tabari, ya gabatar da sabbin hanyoyi kuma ya bambanta da abun ciki, a ƙoƙarin share addinin Musulunci daga abin da ya kimanta a matsayin Isra’iliyyat. Tuhumar sa kan Isra’iliyyat mai yiwuwa ta samo asali ne daga tasirin Ibn Taimiyya, wanda ya rage ragin yawancin tafsirin tun daga lokacin.[14][15]

Tafsirinsa ya sami karbuwa sosai a wannan zamani, musamman a tsakanin Musulman Yammacin Turai, wataƙila saboda hanyar da ya bi, amma kuma saboda rashin fassarar tafsirin gargajiya.[16]

A cikin tattaunawar ilimi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tafsir al-Qur’an al-'Aẓīm yana da sabani a yankunan ilimi na yamma. Henri Laoust yana ɗauke da shi na farko azaman aikin ɗan adam da "na farko". Norman Calder ya bayyana shi a matsayin mai kunkuntar tunani, mai kaifin ra'ayi, da kuma shakku kan nasarorin ilimi na tsoffin masu tafsiri. Damuwarsa ta iyakance ne kawai don ƙididdige Alƙur'ani da gawar Hadisi kuma shi ne na farko, wanda ke ƙididdige asalin yahudawa daidai gwargwado, yayin da yake amfani da su lokaci guda, kamar hadisin annabci, zaɓi don tallafawa ra'ayin sa na farko. In ba haka ba, Jane Dammen McAuliffe tana ganin wannan tafsiri a matsayin, da gangan kuma aka zaɓa, wanda fassarar sa ta keɓe ga hukuncin kansa don kiyayewa, wanda yake ɗauka mafi kyau a cikin al'adun sa.[17]

Hadisi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Al-Jāmiʿ (الجامع) babban tarin matanin Hadisi ne wanda aka yi niyya don amfani da kundin sani. Jerin jerin haruffan Sahabban Annabi ne da zantukan da kowannensu ke watsawa, ta haka ne ke sake gina sarkar ikon kowane hadisi.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Norman Calder, 'Tafsir from Tabari to Ibn Kathir, Problems in the description of a genre, illustrated with reference to the story of Abraham', in: G. R. Hawting / Abdul-Kader A. Shareef (eds.): Approaches to the Qur'an, London 1993, pp. 101–140.
  • Jane Dammen-McAuliffe, 'Quranic Hermeneutics, The views of al-Tabari and Ibn Kathir', in: Andrew Rippin (ed.): Approaches to the history of the interpretation of the Qur'an, Oxford 1988, pp.& nbs al hafid ibn kathir is not ash,ai
  1. Mirza, Younus Y. (2014-02-01). "Was Ibn Kathīr the 'spokesperson' for Ibn Taymiyya? Jonah as a Prophet of Obedience". Journal of Qur'anic Studies. 16 (1): 1. doi:10.3366/jqs.2014.0130. ISSN 1465-3591.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Ludwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, p.138.
  3. Mirza, Younus Y. (2016-09-01). "Ibn Kathīr, ʿImād al-Dīn". Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE (in Turanci).
  4. Ibn Kathir I, Le Gassick T (translator), Fareed M (reviewer) (2000). The Life of the Prophet Muhammad : English translation of Ibn Kathir's Al Sira Al Nabawiyya. ISBN 9781859641422.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. Mirza, Younus Y. (2014-02-01). "Was Ibn Kathīr the 'Spokesperson' for Ibn Taymiyya? Jonah as a Prophet of Obedience". Journal of Qur'anic Studies. 16 (1): 2. doi:10.3366/jqs.2014.0130. ISSN 1465-3591. Ibn Qāḍī al-Shuhba concludes mentioning that Ibn Kathīr was buried ‘next to his teacher (shaykhihi) Ibn Taymiyya’.
  6. Fawzi al-'Anjari; Hamad al-Sinan. Forewords by Wahba al-Zuhayli; Muhammad Sa'id Ramadan al-Buti; Ali Gomaa; Ali al-Jifri; 'Abd al-Fattah al-Bazm (the Grand Mufti of Damascus); Muhammad Hasan Hitou (eds.). Ahl al-Sunnah al-Asha'irah: Shahadat 'Ulama' al-Ummah wa Adillatahum [Ahl al-Sunna: The Ash'aris - The Testimony and Proofs of the Scholars]. almostaneer.com (in Arabic). Sunni Publications. ISBN 9789079294220. Archived from the original on 12 May 2021. الإمام الحافظ المفسر أبو الفداء إسماعيل بن كثير رحمه الله تعالى، صاحب التفسير العظيم والبداية والنهاية وغيرها، فقد نُـقِـلَ عنه أنه صَـرَّحَ بأنه أشعري كما في الدرر الكامنة 1/58، والدارس في تاريخ المدارس للنعيمي 2/89، أضف إلى ذلك أنه ولي مشيخة دار الحديث الأشرفية التي كان شرط واقفها أن لا يلي مشيختها إلا أشعري، وزدْ عليه ما في تفسيره من التنزيه والتقديس والتشديد على من يقول بظواهر المتشابه كما مـرَّ من قوله عند تفسيره لقوله تعالى من سـورة الأعراف ( ثمّ استوي على العرش ) (تفسيره 2/220) إلى غير ذلك من الأمثلة الظاهرة الجلية في كونه من أهل السنة الأشاعـرة.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  7. The Hidden Pearls: concerning the Notables of the Eighth Islamic Century. Google Books. Dar al-Kutub al-'Ilmiyya (The House of Scientific Books). January 1997. ISBN 9782745126726. ومن نوادره أنه وقع بينه وبين عماد الدين بن كثير منازعة في تدريس الناس، فقال له ابن كثير: أنت تكرهني لأنني أشعري، فقال له: لو كان من رأسك إلى قدمك شعر ما صدقك الناس في قولك إنك أشعري، وشيخك ابن تيمية.
  8. David L. Johnston (2010). Earth, Empire, and Sacred Text: Muslims and Christians as Trustees of Creation. Equinox Publishing. p. 288. ISBN 9781845532253. The traditionist and Ash'arite Ibn Kathir...
  9. R. Hrair Dekmejian Islam in Revolution: Fundamentalism in the Arab World Syracuse University Press 1995 08033994793.ABA page 40
  10. Barbara Freyer Stowasser Women in the Qur'an, Traditions, and Interpretation Oxford University Press 1994 08033994793.ABA
  11. Karen Bauer Gender Hierarchy in the Qur'an: Medieval Interpretations, Modern Responses Cambridge University Press 2015 08033994793.ABA page 115
  12. Spevack, Aaron (2014-09-09). The Archetypal Sunni Scholar: Law, Theology, and Mysticism in the Synthesis of al-Bajuri (in Turanci). SUNY Press. pp. 129–130. ISBN 9781438453712.
  13. Oliver Leaman The Qur'an: An Encyclopedia Taylor & Francis 2006 08033994793.ABA page 632
  14. Karen Bauer Gender Hierarchy in the Qur'an: Medieval Interpretations, Modern Responses Cambridge University Press 2015 08033994793.ABA page 115
  15. Aysha A. Hidayatullah Feminist Edges of the Qur'an Oxford University Press 2014 08033994793.ABA page 25
  16. Andreas Görke and Johanna Pink Tafsir and Islamic Intellectual History Exploring the Boundaries of a Genre Oxford University Press in association with The Institute of Ismaili Studies London 08033994793.ABA p. 478
  17. Johanna Pink Sunnitischer Tafs? r in der modernen islamischen Welt: Akademische Traditionen, Popularisierung und nationalstaatliche Interessen BRILL, 11.11.2010 08033994793.ABA p. 40 (German)