Impuzamugambi

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Wikidata.svgImpuzamugambi

Impuzamugambi ƙungiyar mayaƙa ce a Rwanda a shekarar 1992 . "Impuzamugambi" na nufin "waɗanda suke da manufa ɗaya" a cikin Kinyarwanda , harshen hukuma na Rwanda.

Impuzamugambi an yi shi ne daga samari daga wata ƙabila da ake kira Hutus . Hakanan wani mayaƙan kamala, Interahamwe, shima samari ne na Hutus. Tare, waɗannan mayaƙan biyu sun kashe dubun dubatan Tutsi, membobin wata ƙabila, a cikin kisan kiyashin Rwandan . Sun kuma kashe wasu Hutu da ba su yarda da gwamnatin da ke goyon bayan Hutu Gwamnati .

Game da Impuzamugambi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 1992, jam’iyyun siyasa biyu da suka goyi bayan shugaban Hutu suka kirkiro Impuzamugambi da Interahamwe. Waɗannan ƙungiyoyin siyasa ƙungiyoyi ne masu goyon bayan Hutu.

A mayaƙan sun samu horo daga sojojin Rwanda . Wasu kungiyoyi da shaidu sun ce sojojin Faransa sun kuma horar da mayakan. [1] [2] Oneaya daga cikin kwamandojin mayaƙan ya yi alfaharin cewa mutanensa sun sami horo sosai don haka za su iya kashe Tutsi 1,000 a cikin minti 20.

Impuzamugambi yayin kisan kyare dangi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A ranar 6 ga Afrilu, 1994, Shugaban Rwanda, Juvénal Habyarimana, da Shugaban Burundi suna cikin jirgin sama wanda aka harbo shi. Dukansu mutanen Hutu ne . Kamar yadda Ma'aikatar Harkokin Wajen Amurka ta fada daga baya: [3]

Both presidents were killed. As though the shooting down was a signal, military and militia groups began rounding up and killing all Tutsis and political moderates [members of the government who were not extremists], regardless of their ethnic background.

Kulle hanyoyi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Cikin rabin sa'a da hatsarin jirgin ya faru, '' Impuzamugambi da Interahamwe "sun fara toshe hanyoyin a cikin Kigali, babban birnin Rwanda. Duk 'yan Rwanda sun dauki katin shaida da ke nuna kabilanci a kansu. Mayaƙan sun kashe duk ‘yan kabilar Tutsi da suka samu.

Mayaƙan sun ci gaba da amfani da shingayen kan hanya, wanda ya zama wani muhimmin ɓangare na dabarun kisan kiyashin Ruwanda:

  • Katunan shaida sun sauƙaƙa gaya wa wanene ɗan Tutsi
  • Shugabannin sun ba wa sojojin jerin sunayen mutanen da suke son a kashe; idan ɗayan waɗannan mutane suka tsaya a shingen hanya, sojojin za su kashe su
  • Toshe hanyoyin ya sanya 'yan Tutsi tsoro sosai don kokarin tserewa daga Ruwanda kan hanyoyin

Kisan gida-gida[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin ‘yan kwanakin farko na kisan kare dangin, Sojojin Ruwanda da masu tsaron Shugaban kasa sun dauki nauyin aiwatar da hukuncin kisa a Kigali. Koyaya, Impuzamugambi da Interahamwe suna tare dasu, kuma sojoji sun koya musu abin da zasu yi. Ba da daɗewa ba, suna aiki tare. Da farko sojoji za su yi amfani da gurneti, hayaki mai sa hawaye, da bindigogi a wuraren da 'yan Tutsi za su iya zama. Daga nan aka bar 'yan bindigar su shiga su kashe duk wadanda ke ciki. Sau da yawa, suna amfani da adduna ko kulake don kashe mutane. Daga nan sojoji da mayaka za su bincika, inci inci, don neman duk wanda har yanzu yana ɓoye.

Ta wannan hanyar, sojojin Rwandan da sojoji suka kashe mutane 20,000 a kwanaki biyar na farko na kisan kare dangin.

Yada kisan ƙare dangi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kwanyan mutanen da aka kashe a Makarantar Fasaha ta Murambi

A cewar kungiyar ta Human Rights Watch, kafin ranar 6 ga Afrilu, mayakan sun kasance mambobi kusan 2,000 ne kawai, galibi a Kigali. [1] Koyaya: "Da zarar kisan gillar ya fara kuma mambobin sa kai sun fara cin ribar tashin hankali, yawansu [ya karu da sauri] zuwa tsakanin dubu ashirin zuwa talatin ga ƙasar [duka] ] " Daga ƙarshe, Impuzamugambi da Interahamwe sun haɓaka sosai har suka haɗu suna da mambobi 50,000. Wannan ya kasance rabin adadin membobin kamar yadda Sojojin Ruwanda na yau da kullun suke da shi.

Wannan ya baiwa 'yan bindiga damar yada kisan kare dangi a kewayen Ruwanda. Akwai 'yan bindiga a duk fadin kasar. Koyaya, sojojin ba su yi duk kisan ba a kisan ƙare dangin. Sun karfafa, da kuma wani lokacin ya tilasta, na yau da kullum mutane su kashe 'yan Tutsi da makwabta, abokai, mãtan aure ba, ko mazansu. Idan ba su yi haka ba, da za a kashe kansu.

Mayakan sun yiwa kungiyoyin Tutsi kisan gilla wadanda ke kokarin buya a wurare kamar makarantu da coci-coci . Misali, a ranar 21 ga Afrilu, 1994, a kisan kiyashin Makarantar Koyon Fasaha, 'yan bindiga sun kashe' yan Tutsi kusan 65,000 a rana daya.

Mayaƙan sun kuma yi wa mata da 'yan mata fyade da lalata da su. Gabaɗaya, yayin kisan gillar, an yiwa mata da girlsan mata dubu ɗari da hamsin (150,000) fyaɗe (duk da cewa babu wata hanyar da za a san yawancin waɗannan laifuffuka da byan tawaye suka aikata, kuma nawa ne daga cikin sojojin sojoji).

Ƙarshen kisan kiyashi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sojojin Uganda sun shiga cikin rundunar ‘yan tawayen Tutsi wajen yakar Hutus mai tsattsauran ra’ayi. Da kaɗan kaɗan, sun karɓi ikon ƙarin sassan Ruwanda. A ƙarshe, a ranar 4 ga Yuli, 1994, suka karɓi ikon Kigali.

Bayan wannan, kusan Ƴan Hutu miliyan biyu suka gudu daga Ruwanda zuwa Zaire (da ake kira Jamhuriyar Demokiradiyyar Kongo a yanzu ). Da 'yan Tutsi ke iko, kisan ƙare dangi ya ƙare.

Gabatar da hukunci da hukunci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawancin Impuzamugambi suna cikin mutane miliyan biyu da suka gudu daga Rwanda zuwa gabashin Zaire. Sojojin Tutsi da na Uganda sun bi su. A cewar BBC, "Kungiyoyin kare hakkin dan adam sun ce [sojojin 'yan tawayen Tutsi] sun kashe dubunnan fararen hula ' yan Hutu yayin da suka karbi mulki – kuma fiye da bayan sun shiga [Zaire] don [bin] [sojojin]." Koyaya, babu wata hanyar da za a san iya yawan mambobi na Impuzamugambi da aka kashe.

Koyaya, kotun duniya ta sami damar hukunta biyu daga cikin kwamandojin na Impuzamugambi: Hassan Ngeze da Jean Bosco Barayagwiza. A shekarar 1995, Kwamitin Tsaro na Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya ya kafa Kotun hukunta masu manyan laifuka ta Ruwanda (ICTR). Manufarta ita ce a tuhumi mutanen da suka shiga cikin kisan kare dangi, laifukan yaƙi, ko laifukan cin zarafin bil'adama .

A 2003, ICTR ta sami Ngeze da Barayagwiza da laifin shiryawa da kuma jagorancin kisan kare dangi; ƙoƙarin neman wasu mutane suyi kisan kare dangi; da kuma laifukan cin zarafin bil'adama. Sun kasance biyu yanke hukuncin daurin rai da rai a kurkuku . Daga baya aka rage hukuncin da aka yanke akan Barayagwiza zuwa shekaru 35 saboda kuskuren doka. Zai zauna a kurkuku na aƙalla shekaru 27.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Braeckman, Collette (Human Rights Watch) (1994). Qui a armé la Rwanda? Chronique d'une tragédie announce (In French). Brussels: Group for Research and Information on Peace and Security. p. 41.
  2. McNulty, Mel (March 2000). French arms, war and genocide in Rwanda. Crime, Law and Social Change 33 (1): 105-129. doi:10.1023/A:1008394219703.
  3. Background Notes: Republic of Rwanda, March 1998. Office of Central African Affairs, Bureau of African Affairs. United States Department of State. March 1998. Retrieved April 13, 2016.