Journalism

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Journalism
industry (en) Fassara, academic discipline (en) Fassara, artistic creation (en) Fassara da genre (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na aiki
Product or material produced or service provided (en) Fassara information (en) Fassara da labari
Has quality (en) Fassara journalism genre (en) Fassara
Gudanarwan ɗan jarida, newsmaker (en) Fassara da fixer (en) Fassara
Tarihin maudu'i history of journalism (en) Fassara

Aikin jarida shine samarwa da rarraba rahotanni game da hulɗar abubuwan da suka faru, gaskiya, ra'ayoyi, da mutanen da suke " labaran ranar" da ke sanar da al'umma zuwa akalla wani mataki na daidaito. Kalmar, suna, ta shafi sana'a (Professional or not), hanyoyin tattara bayanai, da kuma tsara salon adabi. Kafofin watsa labaru sun haɗa da print, talabijin, rediyo, Intanet, da kuma, a baya, newsreels.

Matsayin da ya dace na aikin jarida ya bambanta daga ƙasa zuwa ƙasa, kamar yadda ma'anar sana'ar take, da matsayin da aka samu. A wasu ƙasashe, gwamnati ce ke kula da kafafen yada labarai kuma ba sa cin gashin kansu. [1] A wasu kuma, kafofin watsa labarai masu zaman kansu ne daga gwamnati kuma suna aiki azaman masana'antu masu zaman kansu. Bugu da kari, kasashe na iya aiwatar da dokoki daban-daban da suka shafi 'yancin fadin albarkacin baki, 'yancin 'yan jaridu da kuma maganganun batanci da libel cases.

Yaduwar Intanet da wayoyin hannu ya kawo gagarumin sauyi a fagen yada labarai tun farkon karni na 21. Wannan ya haifar da sauyi a cikin amfani da tashoshi na jaridu, yayin da mutane ke ƙara jin labarai ta hanyar masu karantawa ta e-reading, wayoyin hannu, da sauran na'urorin electronic device, sabanin yadda aka saba da tsarin jaridu, mujallu, ko tashoshi na talabijin. Ana ƙalubalantar ƙungiyoyin labarai da su sami cikakken kuɗin shiga reshe na dijital, da kuma inganta yanayin da suke bugawa a cikin bugawa. Jaridu sun ga kudaden shiga na bugawa suna nutsewa cikin sauri fiye da adadin girma na kudaden shiga na dijital.

Production[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yarjejeniyar aikin jarida ta bambanta da ƙasa. A ƙasar Amirka, ƙungiyoyin watsa labarai ne ko kuma daidaikun mutane ne ke yin aikin jarida. Ana ɗaukar masu rubutun ra'ayin yanar gizo a matsayin 'yan jarida. Hukumar Ciniki ta Tarayya tana buƙatar masu rubutun ra'ayin yanar gizo waɗanda suka rubuta game da samfuran da aka karɓa azaman kyaututtukan talla, su bayyana cewa sun karɓi samfuran kyauta. Ana nufin wannan don kawar da rikice-rikice na sha'awa da kare masu amfani.

Yan jarida

A cikin Amurka, yawancin ƙungiyoyin labarai masu sahihanci an haɗa su da ƙungiyoyi, suna da hukumar edita, kuma suna baje kolin sassan edita da talla. Yawancin ƙungiyoyin labarai masu sahihanci, ko ma'aikatansu, galibi suna cikin kuma suna bin ka'idodin ƙungiyoyin ƙwararru irin su Ƙungiyar Ma'aikatan Labarai ta Amirka, Ƙungiyar Ƙwararrun 'Yan Jarida, Masu Binciken Bincike da Editoci, Inc., ko Ƙungiyar Labarai ta Kan layi. Yawancin ƙungiyoyin labarai kuma suna da nasu ka'idojin ɗabi'a waɗanda ke jagorantar ƙwararrun wallafe-wallafen 'yan jarida. Misali, The New York Times code of standards and the ethics ana daukarsa mai tsauri musamman.  ]

Lokacin tsara labarun labarai, ba tare da la'akari da matsakaici ba, gaskiya da son zuciya batutuwa ne da ke damun 'yan jarida. Wasu labaran an yi nufin su wakilci ra’ayin marubucin; wasu sun fi tsaka tsaki ko fasalin madaidaicin ra'ayi. A cikin jarida na gargajiya da kuma sigar ta ta kan layi, an tsara bayanai zuwa sassa. Wannan yana bayyana banbance tsakanin abun ciki bisa gaskiya da ra'ayi. A wasu kafofin watsa labaru, yawancin waɗannan bambance-bambance sun rushe. Masu karatu su na mai da hankali sosai kan kanun labarai da sauran abubuwan ƙira don tabbatar da sun fahimci manufar ɗan jarida. Rubutun ra'ayi gabaɗaya masu rubutun ra'ayin yanar gizo na yau da kullun ne ke rubuta su ko kuma suna bayyana a cikin sashe mai taken "Op-ed", waɗannan suna nuna ra'ayi da akidar ɗan jarida. Yayin da ke nuna labarun, labarai masu tada hankali, da labarun labarai masu wuyar gaske suna yin ƙoƙari don cire ra'ayi daga kwafin.

A cewar Robert McChesney, aikin jarida mai kyau a cikin ƙasa mai mulkin demokraɗiyya dole ne ya ba da ra'ayi na mutanen da ke mulki da kuma waɗanda suke son zama a kan mulki, dole ne su haɗa da ra'ayoyin ra'ayi kuma dole ne su kula da bukatun bayanai na dukan mutane. [2]

Muhawarori da yawa sun ta'allaka ne kan ko 'yan jarida ana tsammanin "su kasance masu "manufa" da "neutral"; hujjojin sun haɗa da gaskiyar cewa 'yan jarida suna fitar da labarai daga cikin wani yanki na musamman na zamantakewa, da kuma cewa suna bin ka'idodin ƙwararrun ɗabi'a kuma suna yin iyakar ƙoƙarinsu don wakiltar duk halaltattun ra'ayi.[3] Bugu da ƙari, ikon iya ba da labari mai sarƙaƙƙiya da fluid zurfi tare da isasshiyar daidaito wani lokaci ana ƙalubalanci lokacin da ake da shi don ciyarwa tare da batutuwa, wadata ko ƙuntatawa na kafofin watsa labarai da aka yi amfani da su don ba da labari, da haɓakar yanayin halayen mutane. [4]


Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Masu daukar hoto suna daukar hoton shugaban Amurka Barack Obama a watan Nuwamba 2013.
'Yan jarida masu daukar hoto da watsa shirye-shirye suna hira da wani jami'in gwamnati bayan rushewar gini a Dar es Salaam, Tanzania . Maris 2013.
  1. "10 Most Censored Countries," Committee to Protect Journalists, 2 May 2012, page retrieved 23 May 2013.
  2. "Circulation, revenue fall for US newspapers overall despite gains for some"Empty citation (help)
  3. "Standards and Ethics". Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  4. Empty citation (help)"The FTC's Endorsement Guides: What People Are Asking". 7 September 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2018.